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Social Protection and Social Exclusion


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Social Protection and Social Exclusion

  1. 1. Social Protection and Social Exclusion in the context of Gender Mainstreaming
  2. 2. Education Religion, beliefs Ethnicity Gender Health condition Age Socio economic status
  3. 3. Gender Equality “Equality of treatment between women and men”
  4. 4. Freedom to Vote Freedom of Speech Freedom from Fear Freedom of Religion Freedom of Choice Freedom from Torture Freedom from enslavement
  5. 5. - All humans are born free and equal in dignity and rights - Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution. Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses. - Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others. - Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. - Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work. - Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection. - Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free; at least in the elementary and fundamental stages Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. - Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
  6. 6. Basic Questions..! What is Gender? What is Social Protection? What is Social Exclusion? Why Gender equilibrium is so important? What is Gender Mainstreaming?
  7. 7. Social Protection and Social Exclusion The set of policies and programs that protect people against risk and vulnerability is usually referred to as social protection. ILO: LO has placed Labour Market Policies (LMPs) at the core of their social protection strategies. ADB: ADB has expanded its scope of social protection intervention and LMPs to areas such as child labour, strengthening employment statistics, labour retrenchments and legislation. World Bank: World Bank strategy for social protection revolves around its concept of Social Risk Management.
  8. 8. Global Objective Protection of the Social The global objective of the social protection sector is to: build a social protection system that tackles poverty and inequality, enables the poor to move out of poverty, helps reduce vulnerability and protect people from shocks, helps improve health and education among the community and contributes to economic growth.
  9. 9. National Social Protection Strategy Pakistan National Social Protection Strategy aims to develop an integrated and comprehensive social protection system, covering all the population, especially the poorest and the most vulnerable. The goals of the Strategy are: • To support chronically poor households and protect them against destitution, food insecurity, exploitation, and social exclusion; • To protect poor and vulnerable households from the impact of adverse shocks to their consumption and wellbeing that, if not mitigated, would push non-poor households into poverty, and poor households into deeper poverty; and • To promote investment in human and physical assets, including health, nutrition, and education, by poor households capable of ensuring their resilience in the medium run and of interrupting the intergenerational cycle of poverty.
  10. 10. Steps in the Right Direction Equity on the basis of gender representation and participation in various governance institutions at all levels have received global attention: - CEDAW, 1979 - UN Decade for Women, 1976-1985 - DEVAW, 1993 - Vienna Declaration, 1993 - Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, 1995 - Millennium Development Declaration, 2000 - UN Gender Mainstreaming Policy & Strategy, 2006
  11. 11. Reform Initiatives, Really? Reform initiatives the world over call for greater citizen participation, involvement and inclusion. But is this possible without including half the world’s population?
  12. 12. Despite all Efforts… - Women hold only 17% of the world’s parliament seats - Only 12/180 heads of states are women - Merely 9% of top management jobs held by women - Pakistan ranked 132/134 countries (2009) on gender equality - Pakistani women bear 70% of poverty burden
  13. 13. What is Pakistan Doing? - Ministry of Women Development - National Commission on Status of Women - Gender Reform Action Plans (GRAPS) - Constitution of Pakistan - Ten Year Perspective Plan 2000-11 - National Protection Policy - National Policy for Development and Empowerment of Women - National Plan of Action - Affirmative Actions through reservation of seats and quotas
  14. 14. The Figures Speak! LITERACY RATE Females 36% Males 63% LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION Females 34% Males 86% INCOME (PPP US$) Females 977 Males 3402 LEGISLATORS, SENIOR OFFICIALS, MANAGERS Females 2% Males 98% PROFESSIONAL & TECHNICAL WORKERS Females 26% Males 74%
  15. 15. The Figures Speak! ENROLMENT IN PRIMARY EDUCATION Females 59% Males 77% ENROLMENT IN SECONDARY EDUCATION FEMALES 18% MALES 24% SEX RATIO AT BIRTH Females 49% Males 51% WOMEN IN MINISTERIAL POSITIONS Females 6% Males 94% Prof. Dr. Nasira Jabeen, Director Institute of Administrative Sciences, University of the Punjab
  16. 16. Conclusion We can not have gender equity and governance purely on the basis of borrowed models and ideas. Progress is possible with a two pronged strategy: 1. Developing both men and women 2. Creating an enabling environment at institutional & systemic levels
  17. 17. Thanks