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Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul
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Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul






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    Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul Presentation Transcript

    • Coral reefs
      • Coral is an animal found in shallow tropical seas
      • structures made of calcium carbonate, built from calcium and carbonate ions in the ocean water
      • most productive and diverse ocean ecosystem
    • From Polyp to Reef
      • Massive reef structures are formed when each stony coral polyp secretes a skeleton of CaCO3
      • The skeletons of stony corals are secreted by the lower portion of the polyp. This process produces a cup, called the calyx, in which the polyp sits.
    • From Polyp to Reef
      • Thin, calcareous septa which provide structural integrity, protection, and an increased surface area for the polyp’s soft tissues, extend upward from the basal plate and radiate outward from its center.
      • When polyps are physically stressed, they contract into the calyx so that virtually no part is exposed above the skeletal platform.
    • From Polyp to Reef
      • Horizontal component, the polyps of colonial corals are connected laterally to their neighbors by a thin horizontal sheet of tissue called the coenosarc.
      • Together, polyps and coenosarc constitute a thin layer of living tissue over the block of limestone they have secreted. Thus, the living colony lies entirely above the skeleton.
    • From Polyp to Reef
      • massive corals tend to grow slowly, increasing in size from 0.5 cm to 2 cm per year but some species can grow as much as 4.5 cm per year.
      From Polyp to Reef Coral core samples reveal horizontal growth lines.
    • The Structure of Coral Reefs
      • 1)Coral reefs begin to form when free-swimming coral larvae attach to the submerged edges of islands or continents
      • 2)Reefs take on one of three major characteristic structures—
      • Fringing
      • Barrier
      • Atolls
    • Where Reefs Exist
      • The formation of highly consolidated reefs only occur where the temperature does not fall below 18°C for extended periods of time.
      • Half of all coral species occur where the sea temperature regularly falls to 14°C an approximately 25% occur where it falls to 11°C.
    • Where Reefs Exist
      • Many grow optimally in water temperatures between 23° and 29°C, but some can tolerate temperatures as high as 40°C for limited periods of time.
      • Most require very salty (saline) water ranging from 32 to 42 parts per thousand.
    • Where Reefs Exist The number of species of corals on a reef declines rapidly in deeper water. Generally, there are about twice as many coral species in Pacific Ocean reefs, such as this Fagatele Bay reef, as in Atlantic Ocean reefs.
    • Where Reefs Exist At least 500 reef-building species are known to exist in the waters of the Indo-Pacific region Atlantic Ocean contains approximately 62 known species
    • Uses
      • Medical and Scientific Research:
      • Saprophytes A and B
      • Bone graft
      • Coral calcium
    • Uses
      • Other uses:
      • Coral sand is used in cement manufacture
      • Coral trade, whole skeleton, jewellery
      • Aquarium trade, living corals and associated invertebrates.
      • Shell trade, whole shells, jewellery and household decorations
    • How this corals getting destroyed?
      • Environmental effects.
      • Pollution, and overuse by divers and jewelry producers has led to the destruction of many coral reefs around the world.
      • coral diseases
    • How this corals getting destroyed?
      • corals loose their colors and die
      • changes in temperature cause bleaching
    • White Pox Disease
    • Blackband Disease
    • Yellowband or Yellow Blotch Disease
    • Sea Fan Browning & Fungus
    • How can we save corals ?
      • Trade Regulation .
      • Stop Cyanide Fishing, dynamite fishing and scraping.
      • Building artificial reefs .
    • What happens if we not save these corals from destroying?
    • Designation of Ministry of Environment & Forests as National Focal Point
        • Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN)
        • International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI)
        • Coral Reef Degradation in Indian Ocean (CORDIO)
        • United Nations Environment Programme on Conservation, and Management of Coral Reefs.
        • Regional Seas Programme.
        • SACEP