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Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul
Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul
Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul
Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul
Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul
Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul
Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul
Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul
Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul
Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul
Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul
Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul
Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul
Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul
Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul
Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul
Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul
Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul
Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul
Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul
Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul
Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul
Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul
Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul
Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul
Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul
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Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul

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  • 1. CORAL REEFS
  • 2.  
  • 3. Coral reefs <ul><li>Coral is an animal found in shallow tropical seas </li></ul><ul><li>structures made of calcium carbonate, built from calcium and carbonate ions in the ocean water </li></ul><ul><li>most productive and diverse ocean ecosystem </li></ul>
  • 4. From Polyp to Reef <ul><li>Massive reef structures are formed when each stony coral polyp secretes a skeleton of CaCO3 </li></ul><ul><li>The skeletons of stony corals are secreted by the lower portion of the polyp. This process produces a cup, called the calyx, in which the polyp sits. </li></ul>
  • 5. From Polyp to Reef <ul><li>Thin, calcareous septa which provide structural integrity, protection, and an increased surface area for the polyp’s soft tissues, extend upward from the basal plate and radiate outward from its center. </li></ul><ul><li>When polyps are physically stressed, they contract into the calyx so that virtually no part is exposed above the skeletal platform. </li></ul>
  • 6. From Polyp to Reef <ul><li>Horizontal component, the polyps of colonial corals are connected laterally to their neighbors by a thin horizontal sheet of tissue called the coenosarc. </li></ul><ul><li>Together, polyps and coenosarc constitute a thin layer of living tissue over the block of limestone they have secreted. Thus, the living colony lies entirely above the skeleton. </li></ul>
  • 7. From Polyp to Reef <ul><li>massive corals tend to grow slowly, increasing in size from 0.5 cm to 2 cm per year but some species can grow as much as 4.5 cm per year. </li></ul>From Polyp to Reef Coral core samples reveal horizontal growth lines.
  • 8. The Structure of Coral Reefs <ul><li>1)Coral reefs begin to form when free-swimming coral larvae attach to the submerged edges of islands or continents </li></ul><ul><li>2)Reefs take on one of three major characteristic structures— </li></ul><ul><li>Fringing </li></ul><ul><li>Barrier </li></ul><ul><li>Atolls </li></ul>
  • 9. Where Reefs Exist <ul><li>The formation of highly consolidated reefs only occur where the temperature does not fall below 18°C for extended periods of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Half of all coral species occur where the sea temperature regularly falls to 14°C an approximately 25% occur where it falls to 11°C. </li></ul>
  • 10. Where Reefs Exist <ul><li>Many grow optimally in water temperatures between 23° and 29°C, but some can tolerate temperatures as high as 40°C for limited periods of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Most require very salty (saline) water ranging from 32 to 42 parts per thousand. </li></ul>
  • 11. Where Reefs Exist The number of species of corals on a reef declines rapidly in deeper water. Generally, there are about twice as many coral species in Pacific Ocean reefs, such as this Fagatele Bay reef, as in Atlantic Ocean reefs.
  • 12. Where Reefs Exist At least 500 reef-building species are known to exist in the waters of the Indo-Pacific region Atlantic Ocean contains approximately 62 known species
  • 13. &nbsp;
  • 14. Uses <ul><li>Medical and Scientific Research: </li></ul><ul><li>Saprophytes A and B </li></ul><ul><li>Bone graft </li></ul><ul><li>Coral calcium </li></ul>
  • 15. Uses <ul><li>Other uses: </li></ul><ul><li>Coral sand is used in cement manufacture </li></ul><ul><li>Coral trade, whole skeleton, jewellery </li></ul><ul><li>Aquarium trade, living corals and associated invertebrates. </li></ul><ul><li>Shell trade, whole shells, jewellery and household decorations </li></ul>
  • 16. How this corals getting destroyed? <ul><li>Environmental effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution, and overuse by divers and jewelry producers has led to the destruction of many coral reefs around the world. </li></ul><ul><li>coral diseases </li></ul>
  • 17. How this corals getting destroyed? <ul><li>corals loose their colors and die </li></ul><ul><li>changes in temperature cause bleaching </li></ul>
  • 18. &nbsp;
  • 19. White Pox Disease
  • 20. Blackband Disease
  • 21. Yellowband or Yellow Blotch Disease
  • 22. Sea Fan Browning &amp; Fungus
  • 23. How can we save corals ? <ul><li>Trade Regulation . </li></ul><ul><li>Stop Cyanide Fishing, dynamite fishing and scraping. </li></ul><ul><li>Building artificial reefs . </li></ul>
  • 24. What happens if we not save these corals from destroying?
  • 25. &nbsp;
  • 26. Designation of Ministry of Environment &amp; Forests as National Focal Point <ul><ul><li>Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coral Reef Degradation in Indian Ocean (CORDIO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United Nations Environment Programme on Conservation, and Management of Coral Reefs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional Seas Programme. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SACEP </li></ul></ul>

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