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Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul
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Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul


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  • 2.  
  • 3. Coral reefs
    • Coral is an animal found in shallow tropical seas
    • structures made of calcium carbonate, built from calcium and carbonate ions in the ocean water
    • most productive and diverse ocean ecosystem
  • 4. From Polyp to Reef
    • Massive reef structures are formed when each stony coral polyp secretes a skeleton of CaCO3
    • The skeletons of stony corals are secreted by the lower portion of the polyp. This process produces a cup, called the calyx, in which the polyp sits.
  • 5. From Polyp to Reef
    • Thin, calcareous septa which provide structural integrity, protection, and an increased surface area for the polyp’s soft tissues, extend upward from the basal plate and radiate outward from its center.
    • When polyps are physically stressed, they contract into the calyx so that virtually no part is exposed above the skeletal platform.
  • 6. From Polyp to Reef
    • Horizontal component, the polyps of colonial corals are connected laterally to their neighbors by a thin horizontal sheet of tissue called the coenosarc.
    • Together, polyps and coenosarc constitute a thin layer of living tissue over the block of limestone they have secreted. Thus, the living colony lies entirely above the skeleton.
  • 7. From Polyp to Reef
    • massive corals tend to grow slowly, increasing in size from 0.5 cm to 2 cm per year but some species can grow as much as 4.5 cm per year.
    From Polyp to Reef Coral core samples reveal horizontal growth lines.
  • 8. The Structure of Coral Reefs
    • 1)Coral reefs begin to form when free-swimming coral larvae attach to the submerged edges of islands or continents
    • 2)Reefs take on one of three major characteristic structures—
    • Fringing
    • Barrier
    • Atolls
  • 9. Where Reefs Exist
    • The formation of highly consolidated reefs only occur where the temperature does not fall below 18°C for extended periods of time.
    • Half of all coral species occur where the sea temperature regularly falls to 14°C an approximately 25% occur where it falls to 11°C.
  • 10. Where Reefs Exist
    • Many grow optimally in water temperatures between 23° and 29°C, but some can tolerate temperatures as high as 40°C for limited periods of time.
    • Most require very salty (saline) water ranging from 32 to 42 parts per thousand.
  • 11. Where Reefs Exist The number of species of corals on a reef declines rapidly in deeper water. Generally, there are about twice as many coral species in Pacific Ocean reefs, such as this Fagatele Bay reef, as in Atlantic Ocean reefs.
  • 12. Where Reefs Exist At least 500 reef-building species are known to exist in the waters of the Indo-Pacific region Atlantic Ocean contains approximately 62 known species
  • 13.  
  • 14. Uses
    • Medical and Scientific Research:
    • Saprophytes A and B
    • Bone graft
    • Coral calcium
  • 15. Uses
    • Other uses:
    • Coral sand is used in cement manufacture
    • Coral trade, whole skeleton, jewellery
    • Aquarium trade, living corals and associated invertebrates.
    • Shell trade, whole shells, jewellery and household decorations
  • 16. How this corals getting destroyed?
    • Environmental effects.
    • Pollution, and overuse by divers and jewelry producers has led to the destruction of many coral reefs around the world.
    • coral diseases
  • 17. How this corals getting destroyed?
    • corals loose their colors and die
    • changes in temperature cause bleaching
  • 18.  
  • 19. White Pox Disease
  • 20. Blackband Disease
  • 21. Yellowband or Yellow Blotch Disease
  • 22. Sea Fan Browning & Fungus
  • 23. How can we save corals ?
    • Trade Regulation .
    • Stop Cyanide Fishing, dynamite fishing and scraping.
    • Building artificial reefs .
  • 24. What happens if we not save these corals from destroying?
  • 25.  
  • 26. Designation of Ministry of Environment & Forests as National Focal Point
      • Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN)
      • International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI)
      • Coral Reef Degradation in Indian Ocean (CORDIO)
      • United Nations Environment Programme on Conservation, and Management of Coral Reefs.
      • Regional Seas Programme.
      • SACEP