Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul


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Coral Reefs Pratik & Mayuresh & Rahul

  2. 3. Coral reefs <ul><li>Coral is an animal found in shallow tropical seas </li></ul><ul><li>structures made of calcium carbonate, built from calcium and carbonate ions in the ocean water </li></ul><ul><li>most productive and diverse ocean ecosystem </li></ul>
  3. 4. From Polyp to Reef <ul><li>Massive reef structures are formed when each stony coral polyp secretes a skeleton of CaCO3 </li></ul><ul><li>The skeletons of stony corals are secreted by the lower portion of the polyp. This process produces a cup, called the calyx, in which the polyp sits. </li></ul>
  4. 5. From Polyp to Reef <ul><li>Thin, calcareous septa which provide structural integrity, protection, and an increased surface area for the polyp’s soft tissues, extend upward from the basal plate and radiate outward from its center. </li></ul><ul><li>When polyps are physically stressed, they contract into the calyx so that virtually no part is exposed above the skeletal platform. </li></ul>
  5. 6. From Polyp to Reef <ul><li>Horizontal component, the polyps of colonial corals are connected laterally to their neighbors by a thin horizontal sheet of tissue called the coenosarc. </li></ul><ul><li>Together, polyps and coenosarc constitute a thin layer of living tissue over the block of limestone they have secreted. Thus, the living colony lies entirely above the skeleton. </li></ul>
  6. 7. From Polyp to Reef <ul><li>massive corals tend to grow slowly, increasing in size from 0.5 cm to 2 cm per year but some species can grow as much as 4.5 cm per year. </li></ul>From Polyp to Reef Coral core samples reveal horizontal growth lines.
  7. 8. The Structure of Coral Reefs <ul><li>1)Coral reefs begin to form when free-swimming coral larvae attach to the submerged edges of islands or continents </li></ul><ul><li>2)Reefs take on one of three major characteristic structures— </li></ul><ul><li>Fringing </li></ul><ul><li>Barrier </li></ul><ul><li>Atolls </li></ul>
  8. 9. Where Reefs Exist <ul><li>The formation of highly consolidated reefs only occur where the temperature does not fall below 18°C for extended periods of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Half of all coral species occur where the sea temperature regularly falls to 14°C an approximately 25% occur where it falls to 11°C. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Where Reefs Exist <ul><li>Many grow optimally in water temperatures between 23° and 29°C, but some can tolerate temperatures as high as 40°C for limited periods of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Most require very salty (saline) water ranging from 32 to 42 parts per thousand. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Where Reefs Exist The number of species of corals on a reef declines rapidly in deeper water. Generally, there are about twice as many coral species in Pacific Ocean reefs, such as this Fagatele Bay reef, as in Atlantic Ocean reefs.
  11. 12. Where Reefs Exist At least 500 reef-building species are known to exist in the waters of the Indo-Pacific region Atlantic Ocean contains approximately 62 known species
  12. 14. Uses <ul><li>Medical and Scientific Research: </li></ul><ul><li>Saprophytes A and B </li></ul><ul><li>Bone graft </li></ul><ul><li>Coral calcium </li></ul>
  13. 15. Uses <ul><li>Other uses: </li></ul><ul><li>Coral sand is used in cement manufacture </li></ul><ul><li>Coral trade, whole skeleton, jewellery </li></ul><ul><li>Aquarium trade, living corals and associated invertebrates. </li></ul><ul><li>Shell trade, whole shells, jewellery and household decorations </li></ul>
  14. 16. How this corals getting destroyed? <ul><li>Environmental effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution, and overuse by divers and jewelry producers has led to the destruction of many coral reefs around the world. </li></ul><ul><li>coral diseases </li></ul>
  15. 17. How this corals getting destroyed? <ul><li>corals loose their colors and die </li></ul><ul><li>changes in temperature cause bleaching </li></ul>
  16. 19. White Pox Disease
  17. 20. Blackband Disease
  18. 21. Yellowband or Yellow Blotch Disease
  19. 22. Sea Fan Browning & Fungus
  20. 23. How can we save corals ? <ul><li>Trade Regulation . </li></ul><ul><li>Stop Cyanide Fishing, dynamite fishing and scraping. </li></ul><ul><li>Building artificial reefs . </li></ul>
  21. 24. What happens if we not save these corals from destroying?
  22. 26. Designation of Ministry of Environment & Forests as National Focal Point <ul><ul><li>Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coral Reef Degradation in Indian Ocean (CORDIO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United Nations Environment Programme on Conservation, and Management of Coral Reefs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional Seas Programme. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SACEP </li></ul></ul>