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Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing
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Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing

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This is my MA International Marketing Communications masters dissertation on brand design and how it affects consumer purchasing on an international perspective.

This is my MA International Marketing Communications masters dissertation on brand design and how it affects consumer purchasing on an international perspective.

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  • 1. January  2011                  Brand  Design  and  its  Effects  on    Consumer  Purchasing:      An  International  Study  of  Brands  in  the  UK  and  US  Markets                                Stephanie  Lynn  Webb    |    09022561  MA:    International  Marketing  Communications          
  • 2. January  2011                  Brand  Design  and  its  Effects  on    Consumer  Purchasing:      An  International  Study  of  Brands  in  the  UK  and  US  Markets                            Stephanie  Lynn  Webb    MA:    International  Marketing  Communications  London  Metropolitan  University          
  • 3. Acknowledgements    There  are  a  few  people  I  would  like  to  personally  thank  for  their  assistance  in  helping  to  compile  and  complete  the  dissertation  and  research  study.  Thank  you  …   • Sharmila  Brown  –  for  your  words  of  wisdom  and  guidance  during  our  meetings.   • Marwa  Gad  Mohsen  –  for  your  communication  assistance  during  the  dissertation   process.   • Riccardo   Benzo   –   for   your   careful   review   of   my   dissertation   proposal   and   guidance  throughout  the  initial  stages.   • Diana  Luck  –  for  help  in  understanding  the  marketing  research  process.   • Rachel   Fairgrieve   –   for   all   your   moral   support,   motivation,   and   putting   up   with   my  endless  ramblings  and  ideas  on  brand  design.   • Vanessa  Levrat  –  for  all  of  your  help  and  initiatives  for  motivation  on  using  new   technologies  and  approaches.   • Claire   English   –   for   your   guidance,   contribution,   and   motivation   for   the   completion  of  this  report.   • Laura  Perenz  –  for  proof  reading  and  editing  my  original  proposal.   • Gisele  Guarisco  &  Peter  Forte  –  for  spearheading  this  course  and  providing  the   entire   IMCo   2009/2010   cohort   with   motivation   and   assistance   whenever   needed.   • Facebook   Friends   &   Twitter   Followers   –   to   those   who   completed   and   actively   promoted  my  online  survey  through  social  media  tools  and  email.                     Page  i  
  • 4. Table  of  Contents    Abstract   1    Introduction   2   I. Background  Summary  and  Rationale   2   II. Purpose,  Aim,  and  Objectives   3    Literature  Review  I:  Sector  Overview     4   I. Branding  as  an  Industry    4   II. Revitalisation  of  Brands   9   i. Apple,  Inc.   10   ii. The  Coca-­‐Cola  Company   12   iii. Unilever,  Dove  Brand     13   iv. Comparisons  of  Cases     15    Literature  Review  II:  Marketing  Theory     16   I. Purchasing  Habits  in  the  UK  and  US     16   II. Consumer  Behaviour,  Patterns,  and  Trends     18   III. Design  Elements     24   i. Colour  Theory     26   ii. Logo  Development     30   iii. Packaging  and  Products     36    Research  Methodology   39   I. Rationale,  Approach,  and  Design   39   II. Target  Demographics     41   III. Data  Analysis   41   IV. Sampling    42   V. Ethical  Considerations  and  Sampling  Errors   42   VI. Transcript,  Measurements,  and  Mechanism     43    Empirical  Findings  and  Analysis     45   I. Findings  and  In-­‐depth  Analysis     45   i. Interviews     45   ii. Questionnaires     51                 Page  ii  
  • 5. Conclusions  /  Recommendations     65   I. Summary  and  Overview     65   II. Research  Limitations     65   III. Key  Points  of  Interest     67   IV. Relevant  Future  Research     68    References   69    Bibliography   74    Appendices   76   I. Appendix  A:  In-­‐depth  Interview  Semi-­‐structured  Questions   76   II. Appendix  B:  In-­‐depth  Interview  Transcripts   79   III. Appendix  C:  In-­‐depth  Interview  Framework  Analysis   90   IV. Appendix  D:  In-­‐depth  Interview  Demographic  Charts   94   V. Appendix  E:  Survey  Questions   97   VI. Appendix  F:  Survey  Results  Spreadsheet   105   VII. Appendix  G:  Survey  Objectives  Analysis  Sheet   136   VIII. Appendix  H:  Survey  Demographic  Charts   137   IX. Appendix  I:  Graphs  Mentioned  –  Quantitative  Analysis   140   a. Chart  1:     Design  of  brand  …  mood  I  am  in.   140   b. Chart  2:   Design  of  brand  …  colours  of  the  product.   140   c. Chart  3:   Design  of  brand  …  design  of  the  product.   141   d. Chart  4:   Design  of  brand  …  amount  the  product  costs.   141   e. Chart  5:   Design  of  brand  …  warranty  available  for  the  product   142   f. Chart  6:   Design  of  brand  …  reviews  from  other  sources.   142   g. Chart  7:   Design  of  brand  …  time  I  have  to  purchase  the  product     (time  allowed  to  spend  in  store)   143   h. Chart  8:   Design  of  brand  …  time  I  have  to  purchase  the  product     (limited  time  offer  items)   143   i. Chart  9:   Design  of  brand  …  colour  of  favourite  brand.   144   j. Chart  10:   Design  of  brand  …  colour  of  least  favourite  brand.   144   k. Chart  11:   Favourite  (and  Least)  Brand  Colours   145   l. Chart  12:   Whose  logo  am  I?  –  Bacardi   145   m. Chart  13:   Whose  logo  am  I?  –  Google  Chrome   146   n. Chart  14:   Whose  logo  am  I?  –  McDonalds   146   o. Chart  15:   Whose  logo  am  I?  –  Vodaphone   147   p. Chart  16:   Whose  logo  am  I?  –  Xerox   147               Page  iii  
  • 6. q. Chart  17:   Which  brand  am  I?  –  Hummer   148   r. Chart  18:   Which  brand  am  I?  –  Jean-­‐Paul  Gaultier   148   s. Chart  19:   Which  brand  am  I?  –  Converse   149   t. Chart  20:   Which  brand  am  I?  –  Apple   149   u. Chart  21:   Which  brand  am  I?  –  Louis  Vuitton   150   v. Chart  22:   Use  of  Additional  Resources   150   w. Chart  23:   Difficulty  Thinking  of  a  Colour   151   x. Chart  24:   Difficulty  Matching  Logo  with  Brand   151   y. Chart  25:   Difficulty  Matching  Packaging  with  Brand   152   z. Chart  26:   I  have  heard  of  this  brand  …  computer  systems.   152   aa. Chart  27:   I  have  purchased  this  brand  …  computer  systems.   153   bb. Chart  28:   I  have  heard  of  this  brand  …  soft  drinks.   153   cc. Chart  29:   I  have  purchased  this  brand  …  soft  drinks.   154   dd. Chart  30:   I  have  heard  of  this  brand  …  hygiene  products.   154   ee. Chart  31:   I  have  purchased  this  brand  …  hygiene  products.   155   ff. Chart  32:   Purchasing  Habits   155   gg. Chart  33:   Has  your  opinion  changed  on  a  product  or  brand?   156   hh. Chart  34:   Currently  living  …  mood  I  am  in.   156   ii. Chart  35:   Currently  living  …  colours  of  the  product.   157   jj. Chart  36:   Currently  living  …  design  of  the  product.   157   kk. Chart  37:   Currently  living  …  amount  the  product  costs.   158   ll. Chart  38:   Currently  living  …  warranty  available  for  the  product  158   mm. Chart  39:   Currently  living  …  reviews  from  other  sources.   159   nn. Chart  40:   Currently  living  …  time  I  have  to  purchase  the  product     (time  allowed  to  spend  in  store)   159   oo. Chart  41:   Currently  living  …  time  I  have  to  purchase  the  product     (limited  time  offer  items)   160                 Page  iv  
  • 7. Table  of  Figures    Figure  1:     Customer-­‐Based  Brand  Equity  Model   6  Figure  2:     Consumer  Decision-­‐Making  Process   19  Figure  3:     Marketer’s  Responses  to  Decision-­‐Making  Stages   21  Figure  4:     Influences  on  Consumer  Decision  Making   22  Figure  5:     Maslow’s  Hierarchy  of  Needs     24    Table  of  Tables    Table  1:     Brand  Equity  Components  and  Branding  Benefits   9  Table  2:     Case  Comparison  Study   15  Table  3:     Colour  Meaning  Comparisons   27  Table  4.1:     Wordmark  Examples   31  Table  4.2:   Lettermark  Examples   32  Table  4.3.1:   Symbol  Mark  (Pictorial)  Examples   33  Table  4.3.2:   Symbol  Mark  (Abstract)  Examples   34  Table  4.4:   Combination  Mark  Examples   35  Table  5:   Considerations  for  Package  Design   38  Table  6:   Top  5  Brand  and  Colour  Associations   55             Page  v  
  • 8. Abstract    Brand   design   is   important   when   trying   to   market   a   product   or   service   into   a   new   or  already   established   market.   This   study’s   focal   point   rests   on   the   ultimate   question:  “How   does   brand   design   affect   consumer   purchasing?”   The   process   involves   a  comprehensive   understanding   of   the   most   current   literature   on   marketing   and  marketing   theories,   as   well   as   a   thorough   review   of   three   company-­‐rebranding   case  studies   and   a   comparison   between   them   all,   and   an   in-­‐depth   look   at   the   design  elements   and   features   of   branding   and   the   branding   process.   Additionally,   interviews  were   undertaken,   as   well   as   compiling   survey   data   pertaining   to   each   of   the   four   pre-­‐determined   objectives   to   back   up   the   researched   literature.   This   research   determines  that  brand  design  has  a  significant  impact  on  consumer  purchasing.             Page  1  
  • 9. Introduction     I. Background  Summary  and  Rationale   With  the  variety  of  available  brands  on  store  shelves,  it  is  necessary  for  a  product   to  differentiate  itself  from  the  competition  (Recker  and  Kathman,  2001).  One  of   the   most   effective   tools   for   differentiation   is   within   the   nature   of   the   product   or   service’s  branding.  “Branding,  as  we  perceive  and  practice  it  today,  has  evolved   from   many   streams   of   thoughts,   ideas,   and   disciplines”   (Bevolo   and   Brand,   2003).   Essentially,   a   brand   should   embody   the   following   philosophy:   “I   am   not   what   I   think   I   am   and   I   am   not   what   you   think   I   am.   I   am   what   I   think   you   think   I   am”   (Jaffe   and   Nebenzahl,   2001:   11).   With   today’s   technological   advances,   “many   firms   are   tempted   to   globalize   their   own   brands”   (Aaker   and   Joachimsthaler,   2000:   308);   however,   “global   brand   strategy   is   often   misdirected”   (Aaker   and   Joachimsthaler,   2000:   309)   and   “the   key   to   a   global   brand   ...   is   finding   a   position   that   will   work   in   all   markets”   (Aaker   and   Joachimsthaler,   2000:   307).   When   creating   a   global   brand,   a   company   should   keep  in  mind  the  following  principles  (Aaker  and  Joachimsthaler,  2000:  308-­‐9):   • Different  market  share  positions  –  how  to  advertise  a  brand.   • Different  brand  images  –  how  to  design  a  brand.     • Preempted  positions  –  how  to  distinguish  a  brand.   • Different  customer  motivations  –  how  target  a  brand.   • Different  customer  responses  to  executions  and  symbols  –  how  to  localise   a  brand.     Three   of   the   more   recognised,   successful   global   brands   that   have   followed   these   principles   include   Apple   Computers,   Coca-­‐Cola,   and   Unilever’s   Dove.   These   brands   have   each   had   their   periods   of   failure   on   a   global   scale,   and   the   dissertation   will   briefly   discuss   how   they   managed   to   overcome   their   issues   through  corporate  re-­‐branding.  (Barnes,  2001;  FundingUniverse,  2004abc;  Haig,   2003:  13-­‐18;  Heller,  1996)                 Page  2  
  • 10.   II. Purpose,  Aim,  and  Objectives   Through  researching  the  branding  stories  of  Apple,  Coca-­‐Cola,  and  Dove,  there  is   an  apparent  overlapping  theme  in  how  they  have  each  reached  the  top  positions   in   their   markets   today:   rebranding   from   the   bottom-­‐up.   The   study   will   answer   the   question,   “How   does   brand   design   affect   consumer   purchasing?”   The   following   objectives   have   been   explored   in   efforts   to   understand   more   information  on  this  topic:   Objective  1:   Gain   insight   into   the   world   of   brand   creation,   maintenance,   and   expiration.   Explored  by:   Researching   the   branding   industry’s   foundation,   principles,   theories,  and  models.   Objective  2:   Investigate  correlations  between  the  design  of  a  brand  and  how  it   affects  consumer-­‐purchasing  habits.   Explored  by:   In-­‐depth   analysis   of   the   Apple,   Coca-­‐Cola,   and   Dove   brand   case   studies,   as   well   as   further   research   on   consumer   behaviour,   patterns,  and  trends.   Objective  3:   Examine  the  sensory  features  of  brand  design.   Explored  by:   Researching  topics  on  colour  theory,  logo  development,  as  well  as   product  and  package  design.   Objective  4:   Identify   consumer-­‐purchasing   habits/trends   in   the   UK   and   US   markets.   Explored  by:   Exploring   consumer-­‐purchasing   habits   and   trend   studies   on   consumers  in  the  United  Kingdom  (UK)  and  United  States  (US).     Along  with  the  above  objectives,  it  was  necessary  to  analyse  these  brands  from   an   international   perspective,   researching   their   effectiveness   more   specifically   within   the   UK   and   US   markets.   Ultimately,   the   dissertation   disproves   the   following  null  hypothesis  based  on  found  literature  and  analysis:  “Brand  design  is   not  directly  linked  to  consumer  purchasing  habits.”             Page  3  
  • 11. Literature  Review  I:  Sector  Overview     I. Branding  as  an  Industry   Whether  trying  to  develop  a  product  or  trying  to  sell  a  destination  hot  spot,  it  is   necessary   to   start   from   the   beginning   and   look   at   the   core   principles   and   foundations  of  what  branding  entails.  In  short,  branding  “means  adding  value  to   products”   (De   Mooij,   2005:   96),   but   what   are   those   values   it   adds   to   the   products?    “A  brand’s  values  are  what  it  stands  for  and  what  it  believes  in;  they   are   the   guidelines   that   form   its   moral   compass”;   “strong   brands   are   respected   for   their   values   and   are   defined   by   them”   (Hitchens   and   Hitchens,   2010:   109).   These   values   are   the   intangible   aspects   that   the   consumer   gives   the   brand   itself.   Some   of   the   strongest   global   brands   incorporate   one   or   a   number   of   the   following   attributes:   pioneering,   creativity,   innovation,   caring,   communication,   knowledge,   and   inspiration;   values   are   what   defines   a   brand.   (Hitchens   and   Hitchens,  2010:  110)     To  achieve  the  results  of  having  the  values  of  a  brand  correctly  identified  by  the   consumer,  it  is  necessary  to  keep  these  ideals  and  values  in  mind  in  all  stages  of   the  branding  development  process—from  conception  to  implementation:   • Idea   Generation   –   “identify   product   ideas   that   will   provide   important   customer   benefits   compatible   with   company   mission”   (Solomon   et   al.,   2009:  259-­‐60).   • Product   concept   development   and   screening   –   “expand   product   ideas   into   more   complete   product   concepts   and   estimate   the   potential   commercial  success  of  product  concepts”  (Solomon  et  al.,  2009:  259-­‐61).   • Marketing  strategy,  development  –  “develop  preliminary  plan  for  target   markets,  pricing,  distribution  and  promotion”  (Solomon  et  al.,  2009:  259,   261)   • Business   analysis   –   “estimate   potential   profit.   What   is   the   potential   demand,   what   expenditures   will   be   required,   and   what   is   the   cost   of   marketing  the  product”  (Solomon  et  al.,  2009:  259,  262)?               Page  4  
  • 12. • Technical   development   –   “design   the   product   and   the   manufacturing-­‐ and-­‐production  process”  (Solomon  et  al.,  2009:  259,  262-­‐3).   • Test   marketing   –   “develop   evidence   of   potential   success   in   the   real   market”  (Solomon  et  al.,  2009:  259,  263-­‐4).   • Commercialisation   –   “implement   full-­‐scale   marketing   plan”   (Solomon   et   al.,  2009:  259,  264-­‐5).     The  best  brands  build  an  emotional  connection  with  their  consumer,  ultimately   forming   a   brand   loyal   relationship   between   the   brand   and   the   consumer.   (Solomon   et   al,   2009:   301)   When   building   a   brand,   it   is   important   to   note   the   equity  of  the  brand,  which  helps  the  consumer  to  identify  the  traits  of  the  brand.   Essentially,  brand  equity  is  the  value  the  brand  adds  to  the  business  against  the   standard,   generic   product   (Solomon   et   al,   2009:   301).   Brand   identity   can   be   classified   as   being   the   “visual   and   verbal   articulation   of   a   brand,   including   all   pertinent   design   applications,   such   as   logo,   business   card,   letterhead,   or   packaging”   (Landa,   2006:   5).   The   paper   will   discuss   both   aspects   within   branding   and  how  they  reach  their  target  consumers.     Within   brand   identity,   each   product   line   or   range   of   products   must   have   their   own,  uniquely  developed  brand  concept,  even  in  the  case  of  competing  brands   that   are   owned   by   the   same   parent   company—as   is   common   during   a   merger   between   companies   or   an   acquisition   of   another.   (De   Pelsmacker   et   al.,   2007:   13-­‐14)   Strong   brands   are   well-­‐known   brands   and   “well-­‐known   brands   are   also   capable   of   developing   favourable   attitudes   and   perceptions   more   easily   …   leading  to  more  sales.”  (De  Pelsmacker  et  al.,  2007:  15)       Kevin  Lane  Keller  has  visualised  this  concept  by  introducing  the  Customer-­‐Based   Brand   Equity   model,   which   accounts   for   several   aspects   of   the   brand   equity   components—brand   salience,   brand   performance,   brand   imagery,   consumer   judgments,  consumer  feelings,  and  consumer  brand  resonance  (Figure  1).               Page  5  
  • 13.   Figure  1:    Customer-­‐Based  Brand  Equity  Model               CUSTOMER     BRAND     RESONANCE             CONSUMER   CONSUMER     JUDGMENTS   FEELINGS       BRAND   BRAND     PERFORMANCE   IMAGERY           BRAND  SALIENCE     Source:  Solomon  et  al.,  2009:  302     Keller’s  pyramid  poses  the  following  questions,  from  top  down  (Solomon  et  al.,   2009:  302):   • Relationships:  What  about  you  and  me?  –  Intense,  active  relationships   • Responses:  What  about  you?  –  Positive,  accessible  responses   • Meaning:   What   are   you?   –   Strong,   favourable,   and   unique   brand   associations   • Identity:  Who  are  you?  –  Deep,  broad  brand  awareness     The  report  has  broken  these  attributes  down  even  further  for  relevancy  with  De   Pelsmacker’s   model   into   four   distinct,   yet   overlapping,   categories—brand   awareness,   perceived   quality,   strong   brand   association   and   high   brand   loyalty   (De  Pelsmacker  et  al.,  2007:  59).   Brand   awareness   should   always   be   considered   throughout   the   branding             Page  6  
  • 14. process—from   conception   to   implementation—as   there   are   many   benefits   presented   from   having   a   strong   brand   presence.   “A   brand   name   serves   as   a   shorthand   signal   for   favourable   brand   associations”   and   “gives   the   company   and   the   brand   a   sense   of   trustworthiness   and   the   image   of   commitment.”   (De   Pelsmacker  et  al.,  2007:  58)  Essentially,  the  more  times  someone  hears  of  or  sees   the  brand,  this  often  adds  to  a  better  recall  of  that  brand,  whether  the  consumer   uses   or   purchases   that   brand   or   not.   In   the   United   States,   there   are   often   television  advertisements  about  certain  stores  in  a  region  that  may  not  currently   be   open;   however,   when   that   store   opens,   the   region   is   already   familiar   with   that   store   because   of   having   previously   heard   or   seen   their   advertisements,   which  has  the  potential  to  influence  the  consumer  to  stop  by  the  store  to  check   it   out   in   person.     With   strong,   recognisable   brands,   there   is   often   an   understood   and  perceived  sense  of  quality  for  those  products.     Perceived  quality  is  another  aspect  of  brand  identity  that  should  always  be  in  the   forefront   of   the   branding   process.   If   the   public   perceives   one   product   to   be   better   over   another,   they   are   much   more   likely   to   purchase   that   product;   the   same   idea   works   with   brands.   “Higher   perceived   quality   as   well   as   a   positive   brand  personality  and  higher  customer  loyalty  give  the  company  the  opportunity   of   charging   a   premium   price”,   which   could   also   lead   to   higher   sales   in   certain   cases.  (De  Pelsmacker  et  al.,  2007:  58)  Tesco  has  recently  developed  their  “Tesco   Finest   ‘premium   quality’   own-­‐label   brand”   (Solomon   et   al.,   2009:   305).   Customers   have   automatically   perceived   this   brand   to   be   of   better   standards   than   the   generic   branded   products.   Because   of   this   perceived   added   value,   consumers   are   willing   to   spend   more   on   these   products.   Tesco   is   then   able   to   discount   the   generic,   national   brands   to   market   value   but   still   earn   profits   on   their   own-­‐label   products.   (Solomon   et.   al,   2009:   305)   With   this,   a   perceived   sense   of   quality   relates   a   strong   brand   association   and   creates   potential   for   developing  a  brand  loyal  relationship  between  the  consumer  and  the  brand.                 Page  7  
  • 15. Strong   brand   association   gives   leeway   for   a   brand   to   potentially   delve   into   other   product  lines  or  brand  extensions  using  the  same  brand  name.  “The  image  and   personality  of  the  brand  is  easily  carried  over  to  the  new  product,  giving  it  a  head   start”   above   the   competition.   (De   Pelsmacker   et   al.,   2007:   58-­‐9)   Although,   it   is   necessary   to   ensure   that   there   is   a   logical   and   strategic   planning   behind   this   sort   of   initiative   (Lindstrom,   2010:   112).     Coca-­‐Cola   has   been   able   to   extend   their   product   offerings   to   an   enterprise   of   over   400   brands   globally   (The   Coca-­‐Cola   Company,   1886).   While   Coca-­‐Cola   enthusiasts   have   lauded   this   effort,   certain   brand  extensions  may  not  always  be  the  best  move  for  the  company  (Haig,  2003:   63).  When  a  customer  has  developed  a  strong  relationship  with  a  certain  brand,   they  are  then  more  likely  to  purchase  their  brand  extension  products  as  well.  The   merge   over   to   additional   product   purchasing   is   due   to   brand   loyalty.   (De   Pelsmacker  et  al.,  2007:  59)     High   brand   loyalty   is   a   major   advantage   to   the   manufacturer   and   retailer,   as   it   is   “cheaper  to  retain  an  existing  loyal  customer  than  to  win  over  a  new  one.”  High   brand  loyalty  also  allows  for  the  company  to  count  on  their  products  selling  from   store   shelves.   Of   the   brand   equity   components,   this   is   arguably   the   most   important  to  a  business  as  it  focuses  predominantly  on  costs  and  sales  retention.   (De  Pelsmacker  et  al.,  2007:  59)  As  an  example,  Burberry  has  a  variety  of  product   offerings   between   their   colognes   and   perfumes   to   their   famous   patterned   scarves,  handbags,  and  wallets.  Because  of  their  distinct  patterns  and  fragrances,   it   is   possible   that   Burberry   has   been   able   to   maintain   a   loyal   following   of   consumers.  If  this  is  the  case,  each  time  they  launch  a  new  product,  they  do  not   have  to  ‘sell’  those  items  to  their  current  consumers,  but  rather  ‘inform’  them  of   their   availability.   Because   of   the   relationship   and   trust   that   has   developed   between  the  company  and  consumer,  there  is  an  automatic  assumption  on  the   behalf   of   the   consumer   that   the   new   product   will   maintain   the   same   quality   and   standards  of  the  products  they  may  have  previously  purchased.                 Page  8  
  • 16. Table  1:    Brand  Equity  Components  and  Branding  Benefits   Brand  Equity  Components   Benefits       Brand  Awareness   • Brand  in  evoked  set   • Influence  on  attitude  and  perceptions   • Anchor  of  associations   • Signal  of  substance/commitment         Perceived  Quality   • Price  premium   • Differentiation  /  positioning   • Reason  to  buy   • Channel  member  interest   • Brand  extension  potential         Strong  Brand  Associations   • Differentiation  /  positioning   • High  price  premium   • Memory  retrieval  potential   • Reason  to  buy   • Brand  extension  potential         High  Brand  Loyalty   • Reduced  marketing  costs   • Trade  leverage   • Attracting  new  customers   • Time  to  respond  to  competitive  threats     Source:    De  Pelsmacker  et  al.,  2007:  59     As   shown   in   Table   1,   there   are   several   overlapping   benefits   within   each   brand   equity   component.   This   overlap   demonstrates   just   how   intertwined   and   necessary   each   component   is   to   the   branding   process.   (De   Pelsmacker   et   al.,   2007:  59)     II. Revitalisation  of  Brands   There   are   many   successful   brands   that   have   developed   over   the   years,   none   more   successful   and   recognisable   than   Apple,   Coca-­‐Cola,   and   Dove;   however,   these   brands   were   not   always   at   the   top   of   their   market   (Funding   Universe,   2004abc).   It   seems   as   though   every   brand—at   one   point   or   another—must             Page  9  
  • 17. reinvent   itself   to   stay   competitive   within   their   industry   or   market.   These   particular  brands  went  through  a  period  of  failure  before  their  revitalisation.       i. Apple,  Inc.   Apple  Computer,  Inc.,  headquartered  in  Thousand  Oaks,  California,  USA  and  now   aptly   called   Apple,   Inc.   (Oppenheimer   and   Rosenberg,   2007:   2)   was   founded   in   1976   by   two   computer   gurus   and   became   some   of   the   first   innovators   in   the   creation,   selling,   and   distribution   of   the   personal   computer   in   the   1980s   (FundingUniverse,   2004:   Apple;   The   Apple   Museum,   1998).   Today,   “Apple   committed   to   bringing   the   best   personal   computing   experience   to   students,   educators,   creative   professionals   and   consumers   around   the   world   through   its   innovative   hardware,   software   and   Internet   offerings.”   With   the   beginning   of   their   personal   computer   in   1984,   Apple   paved   the   way   for   industrial   design   techniques  that  are  still  being  used  in  practise  today.  (FundingUniverse,  2004a)   In   the   present   day,   Apple   has   a   wide   range   of   technological   product   offerings   including:  personal  computers,  cellular  phones,  software,  mp3  players,  and  more   (Apple,  Inc.,  1976).     Apple  has  not  always  been  one  of  the  leading  forefronts  for  personal  computers;   in  fact,  it  has  arguably  only  been  in  the  last  10-­‐15  years  that  they  have  been  able   to  re-­‐establish  themselves  as  a  leading  brand.  The  year  1996  was  a  deciding  year   for  Apple,  Inc.  It  was  within  that  year  Apple  decided  they  needed  a  new  direction   and   to   regain   leadership   from   Apple   founder,   Steve   Jobs   (who   rejoined   in   1997).   The  product  offerings  from  Apple  had  faded  from  the  market  and  were  no  longer   deemed   to   be   the   ‘latest   and   greatest’   of   their   kind.   Microsoft   Windows   was   releasing   new   products   and   ranges   in   a   consistent   stride,   whereas   Apple   had   fallen  short  to  consumer  demand.  Most  home  purchases  at  that  time  were  going   to  Microsoft  products.  (Anon,  1996)  To  regain  entry  into  the  market,  Jobs  hired   their   original   advertising   agency   that   then   launched   an   extremely   successful   campaign  with  the  product  release  of  the  improved  iMac  computer  system.                 Page  10  
  • 18. The   campaign   “featured   black   and   white   portraits   of   famous   people   …   [and]   included:   Albert   Einstein,   Richard   Branson,   Muhammad   Ali,   Mahatma   Ghandi,   Amelia  Earhart  and  Pablo  Picasso”  (Hitchens  and  Hitchens,  2010:  42).  Instead  of   ‘standard’   campaign   advertisements,   Apple   placed   their   ads   within   the   mainstream   media,   such   as   newspapers   (which   appealled   to   the   ‘average   Joe’   consumer).   This   campaign   was   a   stem-­‐off   from   their   original   1984   campaign   of   ‘Think  Differently’,  and  is  responsible  for  regaining  interest  with  their  current  and   potentially   new   consumers.   With   this   campaign,   innovative   techniques   were   introduced  to  add  to  their  computer  systems.  (Hitchens  and  Hitchens,  2010:  42;   The  Apple  Museum,  1998;  Anon,  1996)       Apple  aroused  the  curiosity  of  consumers  through  the  expression  of  their  brand   identity.   (Kapferer,   2001:   29)   Apple   maintained   their   presence   of   being   able   to   differentiate   their   product   from   the   rest   of   the   market   and   in   doing   so,   they   “gave   the   brand   the   ability   to   communicate   its   distinctiveness   on   a   level   which   transcended   physical   and   material   considerations   and   the   basic   advantages   of   the   actual   product.”   (Kapferer,   2001:   212)     The   primary   contributing   factor   to   Apple’s  brand  success  lies  within  its  ability  to  look  and  feel.       This  sensory  concept  relates  back  to  the  founding  principles  of  brand  design,  as  it   goes   “back   to   design   basics,   to   how   design   elements   communicate   visually”.   Apple   is   sleek   in   their   product   and   package   designing,   as   well   as   for   any   Apple   compatible   components.   The   Apple   brand   itself   is   a   symbolic   name   that   compliments  their  product  offerings.  Like  their  products,  the  Apple  brand  name   is   an   allegorical   (symbolic)   name   “that   expresses   their   nature   through   an   illusion   to  an  allegory  or  a  symbol”.  The  Apple  brand  alludes  to  the  tangible  fruit  object   of  an  apple;  however,  is  a  metaphoric  reference  to  being  in  the  core  of  it  all.  All   of   Apple’s   brand   extensions   are   representative   of   the   same   metaphorical   movement  by  using  the  “i”  notion,  which  is  representative  of  being  interactive,   differentiating  Apple  from  other  product  brands.    (Landa,  2006:  112,  126)   ii. The  Coca-­‐Cola  Company             Page  11  
  • 19. The  Coca-­‐Cola  Company  was  founded  in  1886  in  Atlanta,  Georgia,  USA,  where  it   is  still  headquartered  today,  and  is  the  leading  beverage  provider  throughout  the   world  (The  Coca-­‐Cola  Company,  1886).  Their  number  one  market  is  in  soft  drinks,   in  which  they  are  selling  an  average  of  1.3  million  bottles  every  day  around  the   world.  Coca-­‐Cola  is  truly  a  global  brand  with  70%  of  sales  generating  outside  of   North   America   and   offering   nearly   400   brands   in   over   200   countries.   (FundingUniverse,   2004b;   The   Coca-­‐Cola   Company,   1886)   The   Coca-­‐Cola   Company  has  developed  itself  “into  one  of  the  most  powerful  and  admired  firms   in   the   world”   through   expertise   in   the   following   areas:   consumer   marketing,   infrastructure,   product   packaging,   and   customer   marketing   (FundingUniverse,   2004b).  Through  their  success,  Coca-­‐Cola  decided  to  try  a  new  brand  extension   into  an  entirely  new  market,  away  from  soft  drinks.     Brand   extension   is   often   thought   to   be   necessary   and   profitable   when   they   have   dominated   and   saturated   their   current   markets.   Unfortunately   for   Coca-­‐Cola,   they   reached   a   period   of   brand   failure   trying   to   launch   their   own   range   of   clothing.  This  proved  to  be  a  complete  flop  and  was  quickly  withdrawn  from  their   main  selling  items,  with  the  exception  of  selling  these  goods  in  their  own  Coca-­‐ Cola  stores.  Aside  from  this  range  of  product  failures,  they  have  been  successful   on  a  global  scale  with  their  brand  extensions  into  diet  and  flavoured  cola  drinks.   In  fact,  Coca-­‐Cola  has  been  so  successful  in  these  markets  that  they  were  able  to   force  the  Virgin  Cola  brand  off  store  shelves  through  dominating  the  market  by   such  a  majority.  (Haig,  2003:  63-­‐5,  84)     One   of   the   ways   Coca-­‐Cola   has   been   able   to   dominate   the   cola   market   for   so   long   is   due   to   maintaining   a   solid   brand   identity.   Coca-­‐Cola   has   always   implemented   a   “carefully   planned   strategic   brand   identity   that   is   memorable,   consistent,   and   distinctive”   (Landa,   2006:   5).   Coca-­‐Cola   has   been   able   to   develop   their  identity  through  practising  the  following  principles:   • Using   an   explanatory   brand   name,   that   is   a   name   to   best   explain   or   describe  the  product  or  service  (Landa,  2006:  126).             Page  12  
  • 20. • Employing   a   well   known   and   recognisable   tagline   (slogan),   such   as   “Drink   Coca-­‐Cola”   or   “Always   Coca-­‐Cola”   and   most   recently   “The   Coke   Side   of   Life”  (Landa,  2006:  145;  Coke  Lore,  2010)   • Utilising  product  placements  within  TV  and  film  (Landa,  2006:  187).       All  in  all,  Coca-­‐Cola  demonstrates  a  strong  brand  with  proven  success;  however,   it  is  important  to  look  through  the  brand’s  complete  history  to  see  the  future  of   the  brand  and  not  to  repeat  the  same  mistakes.  (Haig,  2003:  65)     iii. Unilever,  Dove  brand     Unilever  is  divided  into  two  companies  coinciding  in  business  strategies:  Unilever   PLC  (based  in  the  United  Kingdom)  and  Unilever  N.V.  (based  in  The  Netherlands).   Nearly  52%  of  Unilever’s  revenues  are  spread  throughout  a  variety  of  sectors  and   maintain   production   facilities   in   88   countries   while   selling   in   an   additional   70   countries,   making   Unilever   a   global   parent   brand.   Accounting   for   the   top   two   revenue   sources   include   Europe   at   47%   and   North   America   at   21%.   (FundingUniverse,  2004c)     Originally  a  US-­‐only  product,  the  Dove  brand  has  developed  into  the  third-­‐most   widely   distributed   and   used   product   within   Unilever.   Beginning   as   a   soap   bar,   Dove   now   competes   in   the   body   wash,   shampoo,   and   conditioner   product   sectors.   In   2004,   the   Dove   brand   created   one   of   the   most   widespread,   viral   marketing   campaigns   of   the   decade   by   portraying   ‘real   beauty’   of   ordinary   women.  (AdBrands,  1998;  Dove,  1998)     Unfortunately,   Dove   also   had   their   share   of   hard   times   with   the   consumers,   in   particular  within  the  Asian  markets.  Dove  has  implemented  their  ‘Campaign  for   Real   Beauty’   all   over   the   world   with   much   success;   however,   the   consumers   aggressively  dismissed  their  entry  into  the  Chinese  market  and  other  “countries   where   the   concept   of   idealized   beauty   still   held   sway”   (Hollis,   2009).     This   failure   was   due   to   the   fact   that   “a   model   on   billboards   is   something   that   women   do   aspire   to,   and   feel   is   attainable”   whereas   in   the   Western   cultures,   these             Page  13  
  • 21. advertisements  were  much  more  effective  and  were  more  familiar.  (Hollis,  2009)     To  overcome  this  obstacle,  Dove  has  localised  their  brand  for  these  specific  areas   by  introducing  a  new  ‘Ugly  Duckling’  campaign.  The  difference  between  the  two   campaigns  lies  in  the  subject  matter.  The  ‘Real  Beauty’  campaign  puts  focus  on   saying  that  not  everyone  is  perfect  and  decided  to  use  real  women  as  models  in   their  advertisements,  where  as  the  ‘Ugly  Duckling’  campaign  is  built  around  the   Dove  brand  itself—unveiling  one’s  own  inner  beauty  by  using  the  Dove  products.   This  transition  of  advertising  has  proved  successful  for  Dove  in  the  Chinese,  and   other  similar,  markets.  (Hollis,  2009)       Through   localising   their   brand,   Dove   has   been   able   to   maintain   their   overall   brand   identity   by   successfully   managing   to   “consistently   introduce   innovative   ingredients   and   consumer   benefits”   (De   Mooij,   2005:   30)   into   their   core   message.  Like  the  case  of  the  Chinese  market,  Dove  has  been  able  to  preserve  its   holdings   in   the   Indian   market   by   using   local   traditions   and   practises   in   the   formulation  of  their  brand  identity  (Haig,  2003:  135).  Because  of  their  willingness   to   globally   localise   their   brands,   Dove   still   remains   successful   in   its   global   competitive  market.  (Haig,  2003:  221)     As   previously   mentioned,   the   main   component   the   Dove   brand   highlights   is   on   the   localisation   of   their   products;   however,   it   must   also   be   noted   that   this   is   just   one  facet  of  many  that  Dove  implements  to  ensure  that  their  brand  is  successful.   For  instance,  the  Dove  brand  identity  is  strategically  managed  to  execute  product   differentiation,   as   well   as   a   keen   effort   and   focus   on   their   sensory   values.   This   type   of   brand   identity   reassures   the   consumer   on   the   quality   of   their   product   by   having   them   as   distinctive,   relevant,   and   aspirational   as   possible.   (Lindstrom,   2010:  162)                       Page  14  
  • 22. iv. Comparisons  of  Cases     It  has  been  noted  in  each  case  that  the  major  themes  of  successful  reinvention   was   through   restructuring   their   brand   identity.   The   following   table   shows   a   balance  of  the  similarities  and  differences  within  each  case:     Table  2:    Case  Comparison  Study     Apple   Coca-­‐Cola   Dove   Strategic  Brand   Yes   Yes   Yes   Identity   Differentiation   Yes     Yes   i-­‐Pod   Body  Wash   Brand  Extensions   Diet  Cola   i-­‐Pad   Shampoos   (Successes)   Flavoured  Cola   i-­‐Tunes   Conditioners   Brand  Extensions   Coca-­‐Cola       (Failures)   Clothing   Localisation  Efforts     Yes   Yes   Sensory  Values   Yes   Yes   Yes       As   demonstrated   in   Table   2,   each   brand   has   had   their   own   way   of   reinventing   themselves  as  a  market  leader;  however,  the  dominating  themes  amongst  them   all  include  a  strategic  brand  identity,  successful  lines  of  brand  extensions,  and  a   focus   on   sensory   values.   These   are   arguably   the   three   most   important   aspects   in   branding.   The   idea   of   creating   a   strong   brand   identity   has   been   deeply   discussed   already;   for   the   purpose   of   the   report,   brand   extensions   will   not   be   heavily   discussed;   and   the   idea   of   sensory   values   will   be   mentioned   later   within   this   document.               Page  15  
  • 23. Literature  Review  II  –  Marketing  Theory     I. Purchasing  Habits  in  the  UK  and  US   There  are  many  emerging  trends  over  recent  years  in  response  to  national  crises   (9/11  in  the  US;  financial  crises  in  the  UK  and  US),  the  global  ‘green’  movement,   as  well  as  the  Internet  boom.  When  the  9/11  terrorist  attacks  happened  in  the   United   States,   there   was   a   resurgence   of   American-­‐made   products   being   purchased   throughout   the   nation   (Maja,   2002).   Responding   to   this   crisis,   Americans’  “feelings  of  patriotism  and  love  of  country”  became  forefront  in  their   purchasing   habits   (Maja,   2002)   through   buying   American   flags,   car   decals,   and   other   forms   of   seemingly   frivolous   merchandise.   A   mere   seven   years   after   the   United  States  was  struck  with  this  horror,  a  financial  crisis  developed  across  the   United  States  and  United  Kingdom,  as  well  as  many  other  countries  all  over  the   world   (CashMoneyLife,   2008).   Consumers   became   fearful   of   their   once   secure   investments   and   panicked   on   what   to   do   with   their   savings   and   pension   plans,   if   they   still   had   any   left   (Osborne,   2008).   Contrary   to   what   most   people   would   believe,  “consumers  are  becoming  wealthier,  but  the  global  economic  crisis  has   prompted  consumers  to  scrupulously  re-­‐evaluate  their  spending  habits”  (Anon.,   2009c).       Another  recent  trend  in  consumer  purchasing  is  the  ‘go  green’  philosophy,  which   companies   all   over   the   world   are   trying   to   implement   (Revnew,   2009).   The   ‘go   green’   movement   has   taken   off   and   now   “people,   companies,   cities,   and   even   countries”  (Hofheimer,  2008)  are  beginning  to  implement  these  strategies.  Many   consumers   are   doing   their   research   and   “want   to   know   that   the   manufacturer   we   purchase   from   has   taken   steps   to   reduce   its   environmental   footprint”   (Revnew,   2009).   This   idea   of   ‘going   green’   is   only   a   recent   development   within   the  last  ten  years.  Previously,  it  was  thought  of  simply  as  “stay  in  bed  an  extra   hour”,   but   today   is   means   “turning   off   the   lights,   recycling   waste,   installing   waterless  urinals  ...  and  investigating  in  green  technology.”  (Lim  Lay  Ying,  2007)                 Page  16  
  • 24. As  Hofheimer  states,  the  “greening  trend  is  large,  important,  and  emerging  as  a   significant   shift   in   thinking   about   our   business,   civic,   and   personal   lives”   (Hofheimer,   2008);   however,   only   a   small   percentage   (roughly   4%)   of   people   are   “driving   consumer   awareness   on   green   trends   and   the   efficacy   of   companies’   environmental  claims”  (Anon.,  2008a).  These  ‘greenfluencers’  are  typically  more   educated,   earning   higher   salaries,   and   are   under   35   years   of   age   (Anon.,   2008a).   In   a   survey   conducted   by   RSR   Research,   “better-­‐performing   retailers   ...   are   ‘greening’   their   brands   now   in   anticipation   of   future   consumer   demand”;   however,   around   50%   of   those   surveyed   are   concerned   with   how   great   the   return  on  investment  will  be  in  the  long-­‐term.  (Canning,  2008)     A   third   focal   point   on   consumer   purchasing   habits   should   be   within   the   use   of   the   Internet,   as   consumers   are   utilizing   this   tool   to   its   fullest   advantage.   “Spending  online  has  never  been  so  rewarding”  and  “the  online  retail  market  is   growing   rapidly”   (Anon.,   2006).   For   customers   to   remain   loyal,   especially   in   an   online   environment,   it   is   necessary   for   a   company   to   offer   various   rewards   or   incentives  to  increase  the  likelihood  for  repeat  purchases.  “Customers  like  added   value   ...     [and]   a   new   breed   of   online   loyalty   and   reward   programmes   has   emerged”   (Anon.,   2006).   However,   with   these   reward   and   loyalty   programmes   comes   a   potential   loss   of   privacy,   as   “data   on   the   purchasing   habits   of   tens   of   millions  of  customers  are  recorded  every  time  they  use  a  store  loyalty  card  and   tens   of   millions   more   credit   and   debit   card   purchases   are   equally   monitored,   stored   and   ultimately   put   to   use   for   other   peoples   financial   gain”   (Watson,   2008).   Even   without   registering   with   a   particular   programme,   every   time   someone   uses   their   Internet   browser,   the   data   collection   process   begins   (Watson,   2008).   When   comparing   the   UK   and   US   consumer,   “the   average   UK   consumer   will   spend   40   percent   more   online   than   the   average   US   consumer   and   make  24  percent  more  purchases  online”  (Anon.,  2008b).  In  fact,  UK  consumers   are  much  more  likely  to  have  an  aggressive  research  approach  before  making  a   purchase  and  13%  more  likely  to  be  a  frequent  online  shopper.                 Page  17  
  • 25. One   ever-­‐present   theme   running   between   the   two   subjects   (United   Kingdom   and   United   States)   is   that   they   are   both   masculine-­‐based   and   individualistic   cultures.  Both  the  UK  and  US  are  more  influenced  by  advertisements  relating  to   an  individual  than  a  group  association,  which  must  be  taken  into  account  by  the   company   for   when   these   consumers   go   shopping.   Additionally,   these   consumers   enjoy  hearing  or  reading  testimonials  about  how  products  helped  others.  If  the   company   does   not   know   their   target   audience,   then   they   will   not   effectively   reach   the   potential   masses   that   they   should   be   targeting.   (De   Mooij,   2005:   70-­‐1,   111,  142)     When   advertising   to   consumers,   companies   may   choose   to   implement   a   push   or   pull  strategy  (Solomon  et  al.,  2009:  415):   • Push  Strategy  –  “the  company  wants  to  move  its  products  by  convincing   members   of   the   distribution   channel   such   as   wholesalers,   agents,   or   retailers  to  offer  them  and  entire  their  customers  to  select  these  items.”   • Pull  Strategy  –  the  company  “counts  on  consumers  wanting  its  products   and  so  convincing  retailers  to  respond  to  this  demand  by  stocking  them.”     Both   are   important   and   effective   strategies   when   used   properly.   Because   the   UK   and  US  are  more  individualistic  in  nature,  a  pull  strategy  may  be  more  effective   on  these  customers  as  efforts  are  focused  on  attracting  the  individual  consumer.   Additionally,  this  type  of  strategy  has  proven  successful  through  the  case  study   of   Proctor   &   Gamble   dropping   their   consumer   sales   budget   nearly   in   half   and   implementing  a  ‘value  pricing’  strategy.  (Solomon  et  al.,  2009:  415-­‐6)     II. Consumer  Behaviour,  Patterns,  and  Trends   Consumer  behaviour  is  an  integral  part  of  any  marketing-­‐related  element,  as  it  is   imperative  that  businesses  are  able  to  understand  the  needs  and  desires  of  their   customers.  By  definition,  consumer  behaviour  is  “the  study  of  how,  where,  when   and  why  we  conduct  the  exchange  elements  of  our  lives  to  satisfy  our  needs  and   desires.”   (Anon.,   2009a;   Solomon   et   al.,   2009:   148)   When   a   consumer   often             Page  18  
  • 26. needs   to   choose   between   products,   and   they   are   not   loyal   to   a   specific   brand,   they  rely  on  their  intuition  to  make  the  best  decision.     Unfortunately,   there   is   no   possible   way   to   know   exactly   how   consumers   will   respond  to  anything—advertisements,  products,  brands,  etc.;  however,  there  is   a  commonly  accepted  way  of  determining  the  decision-­‐making  process,  which  is   outlined  in  Figure  2.     Figure  2:    Consumer  Decision-­‐Making  Process               STEP  1:   STEP  2:   STEP  3:   STEP  4:   STEP  5:   PROBLEM   INFORMATION   EVALUATION   PRODUCT   POST-­‐   RECOGNITION   RESEARCH   OF  OPTIONS   CHOICE   PURCHASE   EVALUATION           Source:  Solomon  et  al.,  2009:  150     It   is   highly   imperative   that   this   entire   process   is   considered   when   developing   a   brand.  This  process  is  outlined  in  following  scenario  of  purchasing  a  new  laptop   computer:   • Step   1:   Problem   Recognition   –   “occurs   whenever   a   consumer   sees   a   significant   difference   between   their   current   state   of   affairs   and   some   desired  or  ideal  state”  (Solomon  et  al.,  2009:  151).   Example:    A  consumer  is  looking  to  purchase  a  new  laptop  computer.     • Step   2:   Information   Research   –   “the   consumer   checks   his   memory   and   surveys   the   environment   to   identify   what   options   are   out   there   that   might  solve  his  problem”  (Solomon  et  al.,  2009:  152-­‐3).   Example:  The  consumer  recalls  all  of  the  brand  names  with  which  they  are             Page  19  
  • 27. familiar,  as  well  as  a  list  of  product  attributes  they  would  like  to  have  on   their  new  purchase.  If  this  information  is  not  to  their  satisfaction,  or  they   know  very  little  about  the  product  industry/sector,  they  may  try  additional   sources   for   information—friends,   advertisements,   reviews,   Internet   searching.     • Step   3:   Evaluation   of   Options   –   identifying   and   weighing   all   influential   factors  for  making  a  purchasing  decision  through  a  comparison  of  positive   and  negative  views.  (Solomon  et  al.,  2009:  153-­‐4)   Example:   The   consumer   narrows   their   product   choices   down   to   two   brands   of   computers.   One   brand   is   of   better   quality   for   sounds   and   graphics,   whereas   the   other   brand   is   better   for   report   and   essay-­‐style   content.     • Step   4:   Product   Choice   –   purchasing   one   of   the   debated   products.   (Solomon  et  al.,  2009:  154-­‐5)   Example:  The  consumer  decides  to  choose  the  computer  that  offers  them   better  sounds  and  graphics,  as  that  particular  consumer  is  a  filmmaker.     • Step   5:   Post-­‐Purchase   Evaluation   –   decision   on   value   is   made   if   the   product  is  at  least  to  their  satisfaction  and  there  is  a  weighing  of  options   to  see  if  the  product  is  sufficient  for  the  reason  purchased.  (Solomon  et   al.,  2009:  155-­‐6)   Example:   The   consumer   tests   the   computer   with   their   software   programs.   It   is   at   this   point   whether   or   not   the   customer   will   decide   if   they   are   ultimately  satisfied  in  their  purchase  decision.         The  example  given  is  based  on  a  purchase  that  is  not  made  very  often  (for  the   average   consumer);   however,   the   decision-­‐making   process   may   be   easily   changed  due  to  the  impulsive  of  certain  purchases.  “There  are  few  marketers  or   researchers  who  have  not  experienced  the  situation  where  a  market  or  a  brand             Page  20  
  • 28. behaves  in  a  manner  we  cannot  decipher”.  (Anon.,  2007a)       As   mentioned   before,   all   of   the   steps   in   this   process   must   be   considered   throughout  the  entire  development  of  a  brand.  Marketers  are  able  to  respond  to   this   process   with   strategic   thinking.   Figure   3   demonstrates   the   response   a   marketer  has  to  each  of  the  5-­‐steps  in  the  consumer  decision-­‐making  process:       Figure  3:    Marketer’s  Responses  to  Decision-­‐Making  Stages   STEP  1:   MARKETERS  RESPONSE:   Encourage  consumers  to  see  that   PROBLEM   existing  state  does  not  equal   RECOGNITION   desired  state.   STEP  2:   MARKETERS  RESPONSE:   Provide  information  when  and   INFORMATION   where  consumers  are  likely  to   SEARCH   search.   STEP  3:   MARKETERS  RESPONSE:   Understand  the  criteria   EVALUATION  OF   consumers  use  in  comparing   brands  and  communicate  own   ALTERNATIVES   brand  superiority.   MARKETERS  RESPONSE:   STEP  4:   Understand  choice  heuristics   used  by  consumers  and  provide   PRODUCT  CHOICE   communication  that  encourages   brand  decision.   STEP  5:   MARKETERS  RESPONSE:   POST-­‐PURCHASE   Encourage  accurate   consumer  expectations.   EVALUATION     Source:  Solomon  et  al.,  2009:  152               Page  21  
  • 29.   One   of   the   best   ways   to   influence   the   decision   of   consumers   is   through   the   design  elements  and  the  development  of  the  company’s  brand.  There  are  many   different   factors   that   persuade   a   person’s   decision-­‐making   including   internal,   social,  and  situational  components.  Figure  4  illustrates  which  factors  are  included   within  each  component  of  the  decision  process.     Figure  4:    Influences  on  Consumer  Decision  Making         SOCIAL   INFLUENCES:   SITUATIONAL     INFLUENCES:     Culture   Subculture   Physical     Social  class   environment     Group   Time   memberships     INTERNALINTERNAL   INFLUENCES:     Perception     Motivation   Learning     Attitudes   Personality     Age  groups   Lifestyle           DECISION  PROCESS   Source:  Solomon  et  al.,  2009:  157     The  following  are  the  factors  considered  in  detailed  analysis  for  the  report:1   • Social  Influences  –  culture   • Internal  Influences  –  learning,  perception,  attitudes,  and  age  groups   • Situational  –  time                                                                                                                  1  This  will  be  further  discussed  in  the  ‘Limitations’  portion  of  the  report.               Page  22  
  • 30.   With   the   influencing   factors,   also   comes   a   motivation   from   the   consumer.   It   is   important   to   take   a   look   at   what   “motivates   a   consumer   to   buy   a   particular   product  or  brand”  (Solomon  et  al.,  2009:  161).  Abraham  Maslow  has  developed   a   hierarchy   of   needs   within   the   field   of   psychology,   but   the   same   levels   he   discusses  can  also  be  used  in  the  theory  of  marketing.       When  developing  a  brand,  it  is  necessary  to  keep  these  levels  (Figure  5)  of  needs   in  mind  throughout  the  whole  branding  process  (Solomon  et  al.,  2009:  160-­‐1):   • Self-­‐Actualization  –  what  is  it  about  the  brand  or  product  the  brand  offers   that   provides   the   consumer   with   the   feeling   helping—themselves   or   someone  else?   Example:  Buying  a  product  whose  profits  go  towards  helping  a  charity.     • Ego  Needs  –  what  is  it  about  the  brand  or  product  the  brand  offers  that   provides  the  consumer  with  the  feeling  of  being  treated  or  pampered?   Example:  Purchasing  a  luxury  item  or  splurging  in  their  favourite  store.     • Belongingness   –   what   is   it   about   the   brand   or   product   the   brand   offers   that  provides  the  consumer  with  the  feeling  of  fitting  in  with  the  rest  of   their  peers?   Example:  Collecting  the  same  style  of  necklace  that  is  the  latest  fashion.     • Safety   –   what   is   it   about   the   brand   or   product   the   brand   offers   that   provides  the  consumer  with  the  feeling  of  security?   Example:  Obtaining  a  home-­‐alarm  system.     • Physiological  –  what  is  it  about  the  brand  or  product  the  brand  offers  that   provides  the  consumer  with  the  feeling  of  being  able  to  survive?   Example:  Gathering  groceries  at  the  local  market.               Page  23  
  • 31.   These   needs   are   ranked   from   the   least   necessary   to   the   most   important   as   deemed  for  a  standard  of  living  and  quality  of  life.  It  is  important  for  companies   to   know   where   their   brands   are   associated   on   this   scale   and   as   to   how   well   they   appeal   to   their   consumers   who   meet   these   needs.   Along   with   the   potential   influences  and  these  needs,  the  actual  design  elements  of  a  brand  are  essential   to  correctly  identifying  and  targeting  the  consumer.       Figure  5:    Maslow’s  Hierarchy  of  Needs   SELF   ACTUALIZATION :   Self-­‐fulRillment,   enriching   experiences   EGO  NEEDS:   Prestige,  status,   accomplishment   BELONGINGNESS:   Love,  friendship,   acceptance  by  others   SAFETY:   Security,  shelter,  protection   PHYSIOLOGICAL:   Water,  sleep,  food     Source:  Adapted  from  Solomon  et  al.,  2009:  161     III. Design  Elements   Today’s  measurement  standards  may  not  be  within  how  great  the  product  is,  but   rather  how  well  the  brand  performs.  Brands  are  measured  “by  its  effectiveness   in   the   realm   of   commerce   ...   [and]   must   communicate   on   both   a   rational   and   an             Page  24  
  • 32. emotional   level,   delivering   an   image   and   a   message   that   is   relevant,   as   well   as   inspiring.”  (Recker  and  Kathman,  2001)  Therefore,  when  establishing  a  brand,  it   is   important   to   look   at   all   elements   of   design–collection   of   sensory   input.   (Hitchens   and   Hitchens,   2010:   218)   These   elements   help   “set   the   expectations   through  expression”  for  the  consumer.  (Recker  and  Kathman,  2001)     As  mentioned  in  the  case  of  Apple,  Inc.,  they  had  to  revisit  how  their  products   ‘look   and   felt’   to   the   customers.   This   aspect   of   the   sensory   values   can   be   considered   one   of   the   most   important,   as   it   helps   the   consumer   make   a   prejudgment  about  a  product  even  before  use.  “The  look  and  feel  of  a  brand  is   the   unique   style   that   makes   it   recognizable,   it   is   the   subtle   interplay   of   characteristic   elements:   logo,   colour,   type,   imagery,   materials   and   use   of   language  that  collectively  define  the  brand  image”  (Hitchens  and  Hitchens,  2010:   178-­‐9).  This  is  of  grave  importance,  as  it  interlinks  the  various  fields  of  marketing   and   design   so   that   a   brand   will   be   known   by   its   “behaviour   and   visual   style   …   inextricably  linked  with  the  visual  language  of  the  brand”  (Hitchens  and  Hitchens,   2010:  179).  The  look  and  feel  must  be  relevant  to  the  style  of  brand  imaging  with   which  the  product  may  be  associated.       One   of   the   best   ways   to   make   sure   that   a   brand   has   the   correct   association   with   consumers   is   to   make   sure   that   it   falls   within   the   correct   realms   on   a   perceptual   map.  A  perceptual  map  is  “a  vivid  way  to  construct  a  picture  of  where  products   or   brands   are   ‘located’   in   consumes’   minds”   (Solomon   et   al.,   2009:   228).   The   most   accurate   way   of   determining   where   the   brand   or   product   sits   on   a   perceptual  map  is  to  survey  current  and  potential  consumers  information  about   that  brand  or  product.  These  questions  should  be  asked  throughout  all  phases  of   the   branding   process,   not   solely   after   the   product   has   been   released   into   the   market  for  a  while.  (Solomon  et  al.,  2009:  228)                     Page  25  
  • 33. i. Colour  Theory   One   of   the   fastest   growing   trends   in   the   marketing   and   design   process   is   the   research  on  colour  theories  and  principles–both  psychological  and  physiological.   With   most   consumers   shopping   in-­‐store   (a   staggering   73%),   it   is   important   for   companies  to  consider  the  colour  theory  when  developing  a  brand,  as  that  brand   then   “becomes   clear   when   comparing   two   brands   from   the   same   product   category.”   The   ‘visual   culture’   is   increasingly   important,   as   consumers   want   everything   “attractively   presented   in   a   full-­‐colour,   graphic   format.”   Fundamentally,   there   are   “11   basic   colours   ...   that   are   universal,   regardless   of   the   shade,   tone,   or   tint.”   (Anon.,   2007b)   Colour   is   one   of   “the   most   elusive   design   elements”   as   it   also   “can   appear   differently   when   it   is   surrounded   by   other   colors”   (Landa,   2006:   140,   142),   which   could   be   contributed   to   the   understanding   that   every   person   perceives   colour   in   a   different   way   and   this   “varies  greatly  …  depending  on  culture,  physiology,  psychology,  and  exposure  to   marketing   color   symbolism”   (Landa,   2006:   140).   Landa   best   explains   these   associations  in  the  following  way  (Landa,  2006:  140-­‐144):   • “Color   and   culture:   the   symbolism   and   associations   of   colors   in   specific   cultures  and  countries.”   Example:   Green   may   be   known   as   having   mint   flavouring;   however,   in   another   country,   it   may   be   known   for   being   the   colour   of   something   decaffeinated.       • “Physiological  response  to  color:  the  way  a  particular  eye  perceives  color,   and  how  a  person  physically  responds  to  color.”   Example:   Someone   who   is   colour-­‐blind   may   not   be   able   to   respond   or   react  to  a  brand  design  the  same  way  that  someone  would  that  has  20/20   vision.     • “Psychology   and   color:   the   way   a   particular   person   or   cultural   groups   responds   to   color,   and   the   color   associations   formed   for   that   person   or   group.”             Page  26  
  • 34. Example:  Blue  is  known  as  being  a  ‘cool’  colour  and  providing  a  ‘soothing’   effect.  This  is  often  why  a  doctor’s  office  in  the  US  may  have  blue  walls.     • “Marketing   context:   the   specific   color   representations   that   have   been   established  by  marketers.”   Example:   Yellow   is   associated   with   being   lemon-­‐scented   or   lemon   flavoured  and  orange  is  known  for  having  a  tropical  smell  or  taste.     When   exploring   more   into   colour   theory,   psychologists   have   noted   that   each   colour   evokes   a   different   emotional   response   for   the   average   person.   It   is   important  to  remember  not  to  choose  a  brand’s  colour  for  it  being  trendy  at  that   time,   as   fashions   quickly   fade   and   it   will   appear   as   though   the   brand   is   out-­‐of-­‐ date.   The   standard   10   colours   will   be   discussed   (in   alphabetical   order)   at   this   time,  from  a  Western-­‐culture  vantage  point:     Table  3:    Colour  Meaning  Comparisons   Colour   Connotations   Language   Famous  Brands         Negativity,   blackmail,  blacklist,   • Black  &  Decker   blackmail,   black  hole,  little   • Guinness   blacklist,  black   black  dress,  black   • All  Blacks   hole,  class,   tie,  black  ball   • Black  N  Red   Black   wealth,     • First  Direct   elegance,     sophistication,   formal,  stand   out,  funerals           Trust,   blue  moon,  the   • Barclays  Bank   conservatism,   blues,  blue  print,   • General  Motors  (GM)   cool,  calming,   blue  humour,  Blue   • IBM   Blue   sky,  sea,   Monday,  blue   • Chevron   blueberry,   blood   • Samsung   flowers     • National  Health     Service  (NHS)                 Page  27  
  • 35.             Growth,   green-­‐fingered,   • BP   nature,  safety,   green  with  envy,   • Marks  &  Spencer   minty,  medical   Green  Man,  Green   • Lloyds  TSB   care,  banking,   Knight,  Jack  of  the   • Greenpeace   Green   money,   Green,  green   • Publix   naivety,   thumb,  green  horn   • Jolly  Green  Giant   emerald,       billiards           Neutral,   grey  area,  grey   • Accenture   mature,   hair,  grey  pound,   • Apple   Grey     prestigious,   silver  surfer,  silver   • Audi   (Silver)   platinum,   lining   • Mercedes-­‐Benz   silver,  hope,     • Silver  Cross   optimism             Citrus  fruit,   A  Clockwork   • Orange   yellow-­‐red,   Orange,  chocolate   • easyJet   royal  family,   orange,  Orange   • Sainsbury’s   Orange   spiritual,   County  (OC),   • GlaxoSmithKline  (GSK)   Protestantism,   orange  juice  (OJ),   • Cingular  Wireless   Halloween   orange  tan   • Tango       •           Femininity,   in  the  pink,  tickled   • Thomas  Pink   Barbie,  gum,   pink,  pretty  in  pink,   • T-­‐Mobile   flamingos,   rose-­‐tinted  glasses   • Lastminute.com   Pink   Financial     • Smile   Times,  settling,   • Financial  Times   flowers             Wealth,   purple  heart,   • Liverty   opulence,  sails   purple  patch,   • Cadbury   of  Cleopatra,   purple  prose,  born   • Milka   Purple   badge,  injury,   in  the  purple,   • Yahoo   royalty/regal,   shrinking  violet   • Silk  Cut   velvet                     Page  28  
  • 36.           Pride,  passion,   roses,  the  red   • HSBC   lust,  sex,   planet  (Mars),  see   • Coca-­‐Cola   strength,   red,  red  book,  Red   • Virgin   energy,  blood   Army,  red-­‐letter   • Marlboro   Red   and  war,   day,  red  light   • Vodafone   strawberry,   district,  red   cherry   handed,  paint  the     town  red           Innocence,   whiter  than  white,   • Mont  Blanc   purity,   Snow  White,   • The  White  Company   cleanliness,   whitewash,  white   • White  Stuff   spirituality,   flag,  white   • Lillywhites   White   goodness,   wedding,  white   • R  Whites   healing,   dove     hospitals,     doctors,  bride,   surrender           Warmth,  sun,   yellow-­‐brick  road,   • Aviva   brightest   yellow  jaundice,   • Shell   colour,   yellow  belly,  yellow   • Yellow  Pages   happiness,   fever,  yellow   • Hertz   Yellow   spring,  new   ribbon,  yellow   • The  AA   life,  desert   jersey     sands,  bile,     autumn  leaves     Source:  Adapted  from  Hitchens  and  Hitchens.,  2010:  160-­‐174     When  looking  at  Table  3,  it  is  obvious  that  each  colour  may  represent  a  variety  of   industries,   sectors,   and   may   appeal   to   different   target   markets.   It   is   for   this   reason   that   the   study   of   colour   theory   within   branding   is   of   such   importance.   “Colour   is   linked   with   emotion   and   sensation;   have   strong   psychological   connection[s];   significant   influence   in   purchasing   decisions;   [and   are   recognisable]  before  we  read  a  word”  (Hitchens  and  Hitechens,  2010:  161).                   Page  29  
  • 37. Through  the  research  of  colour  theory,  it  has  been  shown  that  the  blue  identity   was  the  dominant  colour  for  every  52/100  companies  surveyed  in  October  2009   (Hitchens  and  Hitchens,  2010:  161).  Some  famous  examples  of  colour  theory  into   practise  includes  the  following:   • Red   –   The   Coca-­‐Cola   red   has   been   ‘stolen’   by   the   company   Vodafone   within   the   European   market   according   to   a   Brand   Sense   survey   conducted   in   the   UK.   Only   22   percent   of   people   surveyed   still   associate   the  red  colour  with  Coca-­‐Cola.  (Lindstrom,  2010:  48-­‐49)   • Green  –  The  original  colour  for  the  Lucky  Strike  cigarette  brand  was  of  a   green   hue.   Unfortunately   because   of   war   times,   the   ink   colour   was   available   in   minimal   quantity   and   therefore   the   Lucky   Strike   brand   repositioned   itself   with   a   red   hue,   claiming   to   have   “gone   to   war”.   This   campaign   was   so   successful   that   their   profit   margins   increased   by   38   percent  within  the  next  year  of  sales.  (Lindstrom,  2010:  49-­‐50)   • Yellow  –  this  colour  is  thought  to  be  synonymous  with  transportation.  At   one   period   in   time   it   was   automatically   representative   of   the   DHL   courier   brand;   however,   in   the   last   few   decades,   McDonald’s   and   Kodak   have   taken  over  and  claimed  the  rights  to  the  yellow  hue.  Currently,  they  are   the  two  major  players  colour  identity.  (Lindstrom,  2010:  51)     Alongside   with   colour,   another   important   aspect   of   a   brand   is   the   logo.   “In   todays   visual-­‐obsessed   society,   where   consumers   have   more   choice   and   less   time  than  ever  before,  it  has  never  been  more  important  for  marketers  to  invest   in  the  design  and  look  of  their  product  or  logo.”  (Anon.,  2007b)       ii. Logo  Development   A   logo   is   the   most   recognisable   element   of   a   brand;   its   purpose   is   to   communicate  the  brand’s  message  through  graphic/textual  style.  In  order  for  a   logo  to  serve  its  purpose,  it  must  be  used  consistently  throughout  all  mediums,   as   well   as   “evolve,   growing   from   the   company’s   core   values”.   (Freed,   2005)   A   logo   is   typically   the   primary   differentiating   element   of   products.   This   principle             Page  30  
  • 38. was   demonstrated   in   a   case   study   where   consumers   had   to   match   car   vehicles   with   the   brand   (without   the   use   of   logos).   Only   one   in   four   participants   could   accurately   depict   the   correct   vehicle   (Williams,   2007).   Essentially,   a   logo   is   a   brand’s   trademark;   the   logo   is   unique   to   other   products   and   is   modelled   for   instant  recognition  by  consumers  (Anon.,  2009d)  and  its  “makeup  should  define   and   represent   a   brand’s   character”   (Landa,   2006:   137).   “[A   logo]   should   look   just   as   good   in   15-­‐foot   letters   on   top   of   a   company   headquarters   as   it   does   one   sixteenth  of  an  inch  tall  on  company  stationery”  (Logo  Orange,  2000).     A  logo  can  be  synonymously  referred  to  as  an  “avatar,  colophon,  emblem,  icon,   ideogram,   logogram,   logotype,   monogram,   pictogram,   signature,   trade   mark   or   wordmark”   with   industry   professionals.   (Hitchens   and   Hitchens,   2010:   151).   Throughout  this  list,  there  are  four  distinct  types  that  can  be  seen  in  a  company’s   brand:   • Wordmark   (logotype)   –   “the   name   is   spelled   out   in   unique   typography   or   lettering”  (Landa,  2006:  130-­‐1).     Table  4.1:    Wordmark  Examples   Brand   Image2     Barnes  &  Noble   Booksellers         Coca-­‐Cola         Philips                                                                                                                      2  Images  obtained  through  a  standard  Google.com  image  search  for  ‘Wordmark  Examples’.             Page  31  
  • 39. Source:  Adapted  from  Landa,  2006:  130-­‐1     • Lettermarks   –   “created   using   the   initials   of   the   brand   name”   (Landa,   2006:  132).     Table  4.2:    Lettermark  Examples   Brand   Image3     IBM         General  Electric         Marks  &  Spencer       Source:  Adapted  from  Landa,  2006:  132                                                                                                                                3  Images  obtained  through  a  standard  Google.com  image  search  for  ‘Lettermark  Examples’.             Page  32  
  • 40.   • Symbol   Mark   (Pictorial)   –   “representational   image   that   symbolizes   the   brand   or   social   cause   it   relates   to   an   identifiable   object”   (Landa,   2006:   133).     Table  4.3.1:    Symbol  Mark  (Pictorial)  Examples   Brand   Image4     Shell         Fat  Face       Apple,  Inc.     Source:  Adapted  from  Landa,  2006:  133                                                                                                                          4  Images  obtained  through  a  standard  Google.com  image  search  for  ‘Symbol  Mark  (Pictorial)  Examples’.             Page  33  
  • 41.   • Symbol   Mark   (Abstract)   –   “representational   visual   with   an   emphasis   on   the  intrinsic  form,  an  extraction  relating  to  a  real  object,  modified  with  an   abstract  emphasis”  (Landa,  2006:  134).     Table  4.3.2:    Symbol  Mark  (Abstract)  Examples   Brand   Image5     2012  Olympics         Barclays  Bank         Guinness       Source:  Adapted  from  Landa,  2006:  134                                                                                                                              5  Images  obtained  through  a  standard  Google.com  image  search  for  ‘Symbol  Mark  (Abstract)  Examples’.             Page  34  
  • 42.     • Combination  Mark  –  “a  combination  of  words  and  symbols”  (Landa,  2006:   135-­‐6).     Table  4.2:    Combination  Mark  Examples   Brand   Image6     Delta  Air  Lines         Starbucks  Coffee         Dove       Source:  Adapted  from  Landa,  2006:  135-­‐6     “A   logo   is   the   keystone   of   any   graphic   design   plan”   (Landa,   2006:   138).   A   logo   incorporates   many   different   styling   elements.   Along   with   colour   theory   (as   previously  discussed)  logos  can  also  envelop  typography.  Typography  is  a  subject   that   is   often   forgotten   or   neglected;   however,   the   most   successful-­‐global   brands                                                                                                                    6  Images  obtained  through  a  standard  Google.com  image  search  for  ‘Combination  Mark  Examples’.             Page  35  
  • 43. have  been  responsible  for  developing  their  own,  new  and  innovative  typographic   features,  rather  than  sticking  to  an  easily  copied  typeface  or  font  available  on  the   standard   computer.   Typography   “is   a   unique   setting   of   characters   created   specifically   for   the   brand”   (Hitchens   and   Hitchens,   2010:   153).   When   designing   a   brand  typography,  the  company  must  consider  the  typeface,  space  between  the   letters,   respective   sizes,   and   how   it   relates   to   the   colours   involved,   as   this   will   create  a  recognisable,  yet  difficult  to  mimic,  feature  of  the  brand.  The  style  of  the   typography   of   the   brand   must   actually   be   representative   of   the   brand.   It   is   important   to   recognise   that   if   a   “brand   has   a   carefree   personality,   then   hard-­‐ edged,  rigid  forms  may  not  be  appropriate”  (Landa,  2006:  153,  112).       Typography   even   has   the   ability   to   evoke   emotions   or   assist   in   the   recall   of   certain   qualities   or   events   in   one’s   own   life.   This   design   element   is   also   essential   in  developing  product  line  extensions.  It  is  important  for  a  company  to  use  the   same  typographic  standards  throughout  all  their  product  offerings.  (Hitchens  and   Hitchens,  2010:  153-­‐4)  Coca-­‐Cola  has  done  well  in  this  aspect  whenever  they  had   launched   an   extension   of   their   regular   Coca-­‐Cola   line—Diet   Coke,   Vanilla   Coke,   Cherry  Coke,  etc.  All  of  these  colas  are  packaged  with  the  same  ‘look’  and  ‘feel’   similar   enough   to   the   original   Coca-­‐Cola   product,   yet   distinctive   enough   to   tell   the   difference   from   another,   similar   product.   All   in   all,   logos   are   extremely   important   to   the   success   of   a   brand,   but   it   must   be   remembered   that   the   logo   itself  is  not  the  brand.  “The  logo  is  really  the  tip  of  the  iceberg;  it’s  the  face  of  the   brand  that  fronts  a  strategic  system  for  brand  identity.”  (Hitchens  and  Hitchens,   2010:  155)     iii. Packaging  and  Products   In   the   average   trip   to   the   supermarket,   a   consumer   is   inundated   with   nearly   30,000   products.   Consumers   can   easily   make   swift   decisions   and   “first   impressions   really   do   count   …   A   brand   may   be   judged   in   the   blink   of   an   eye”   (Hitchens   and   Hitchens,   2010:   24).   Unlike   other   elements   in   brand   design,   packaging   is   a   joint   effort   amongst   several   businesses   including   industrial   designers,   packaging   engineers,   and   manufacturers.   (Wheeler,   2006:   134)             Page  36  
  • 44. “Packaging   is   more   than   just   filling   packages   with   product”   (Anon.,   2000).   Products   evoke   emotion   from   the   consumers   (positive   and   negative),   which   makes   it   dangerous   for   a   brand   to   claim   that   a   certain   product   will   ‘do   something’   specific   for   all   consumers   (Stompff,   2003).   A   product   should   be   designed   to   “outlast   any   brand   identity   campaign”   (Stompff,   2003)   while   “packages  are  brands  that  you  trust  enough  to  take  into  your  home”  (Wheeler,   2006:  134).  It  is  necessary  to  understand  these  differences.       An   example   to   assist   in   the   understanding   of   the   differences   between   package   and  product,  as  given  by  the  researcher,  would  be  the  following:   • A   packet   of   chewing   gum   comes   in   a   handy   container   to   be   placed   in   a   vehicle’s  cup  holder.  The  package  is  the  container  the  pieces  of  gum  come   in,   whereas   the   product   itself   is   the   chewing   gum.   Both   evoke   different   responses:   The   container   may   evoke   happiness,   as   it   was   designed   for   convenience  in  the  vehicle;  the  gum  may  evoke  relief,  as  the  peppermint   flavouring  helps  calm  the  nerves  of  the  gum  chewer.     The   focus   on   packaging   will   coincide   with   the   ideas   of   integrating   all   parts   of   the   brand   identity.   Packaging   design   “   is   a   graphic   design   application   which   operates   at  the  casing,  as  well  as  to  attract  a  consumer  and  to  present  information;  it  is  an   amalgam   of   two-­‐   and   three-­‐   dimensional   design,   promotional   design,   information  design,  and  functionality”  (Landa,  2006:  161).  Everything  about  the   product   usage   should   be   considered   and   analysed   when   designing   a   package— how  it  appears  on  the  shelf,  how  it  will  be  used,  if  the  packaging  will  be  a  part  of   the  actual  product,  if  it  should  be  recyclable,  easily  stored,  etc.  (Solomon  et  al.,   2009:   309)   If   the   product   being   offered   currently   exists,   then   the   packaging   is   often  designed  in  a  similar  fashion  as  to  what  is  already  available;  however,  there   are   a   few   products   that   think   outside   of   the   norm   and   potentially   create   their   own  trends.  Table  5  includes  several  factors  to  consider  for  package  design.                 Page  37  
  • 45. Table  5:  Considerations  for  Package  Design   Features   Questions  to  Consider…   Example       • Is  it  ‘green’?   • Biodegradable  candy     wrapper  where  proceeds  are     going  to  an  organisation     such  as  WWF.   Material   • Can  it  be  reused?  It  is   • Water  bottle   recyclable?     • How  sturdy  is  it?   • Tupperware  container  that     can  be  run  through  the     dishwasher.       • Is  it  attractive?   • Perfume  bottle   • Does  it  enhance  the   • Festive,  holiday  outfit  on   product  or  entice   bottle  of  juice   Aesthetics   consumers  to  purchase?     • Does  it  appear  authentic?   • Canned  soup  or  classic  cola   bottles  –  the  way  it’s  always   been       • Is  it  round,  square,   • Liquid  detergent  –  all  of  the   Shape   triangle,  or  hourglass?   product  needs  to  be  able  to   come  out  of  the  bottle       • What  is  on  the  package?   • Canned  vegetables   Shows   • Is  it  informative  or   • Do-­‐It-­‐Yourself  (DIY)  projects   instructive?     • Does  it  add  anything?   • Offers  off  on  next  purchase   Source:  Adapted  from  Solomon  et  al.,  2009:  209-­‐310     If   a   product   is   appropriately   packaged,   this   could   lead   to   a   greater   rate   of   retention  for  future  purchases  by  the  consumer.  Another  very  important  factor  is   to   make   sure   the   package   stands   out   from   other   similar,   competing   products.   (Landa,   2006:   161)   “It   must   be   attractive   and   appropriate   for   its   audience   and   marketplace”   and   consider   how   it   sits   “on   a   shelf   …   in   visual   competition   with   the   products   sitting   next   to   it”   (Landa,   2006:   170).   Packages   are   not   limited   to   the  tangible  package  that  is  often  assumed;  a  package  can  also  be  the  design  of  a   company  website  that  provides  a  product  or  service.  (Landa,  2006:  161)             Page  38  
  • 46. Research  Methodology     I. Rationale,  Approach,  and  Design   There   are   many   process   options   for   primary   data   collection   when   conducting   marketing   research:   exploratory,   descriptive,   and   causal.   Each   of   these   uses   is   important;  however,  for  the  purpose  of  the  paper,  a  combination  of  exploratory   and  descriptive  methods  has  been  used.  Exploratory  research  is  best  used  to  gain   an   insight   in   market   phenomena   and   to   determine   people’s   attitudes   towards   brands   in   general.   As   exploratory   methods   are   typically   associated   with   qualitative   data,   the   research   for   the   dissertation   was   conducted   through   in-­‐ depth  interviews  (semi-­‐structured).  (Malhotra  and  Birks,  2007:  69)  The  purpose   of   qualitative   research   is   to   “provide   an   in-­‐depth   understanding   of   people’s   experience,   perspectives   and   histories   in   the   context   of   their   personal   circumstances  or  settings”  (Spencer,  2003:  3).     Descriptive  research  directly  examines  how  a  market  is  controlled  and  functions   and   is   used   to   determine   brand   recognition.   Typically,   descriptive   research   is   associated   with   quantitative   findings,   and   for   this   report,   the   research     conducted   was   through   a   mass-­‐distributed   survey   dealing   with   various   brand   perception   elements:   colours,   logos,   packaging,   as   well   as   international   recognition.  (Malhotra  and  Birks,  2007:  73)  The  purpose  of  quantitative  research   is   to   “determine   the   relationship   between   one   thing   (an   independent   variable)   and   another   (a   dependent   or   outcome   variable)   in   a   population”   (Hopkins,   2000).       The   main   objective   of   this   research   is   to   understand   how   brand   design   affects   consumer-­‐purchasing   habits   on   an   international   scale,   with   a   primary   focus   on   the   UK   and   US   markets.   This   study   was   undertaken   in   two   phases:   qualitative   research1  and  quantitative  research2.                                                                                                                  1  Exploratory  methods  used  and  a  framework  analysis-­‐style  analysis.             Page  39  
  • 47.  In-­‐depth  interviews  –  conducted  in  efforts  to  understand  behaviours  and   trends,  as  well  as  perceptions  on  brand  design  and  purchasing  habits.    Surveys   –   conducted   in   efforts   to   understand   cause   and   affect   relationships,   such   as   how   brand   design   influences   the   purchasing   decision  on  branded  products.     The  research  design  uncovers  answers  to  the  following  questions  in  line  with  the   study’s  objectives:  what,  how,  when,  where,  and  for  whom?   • What   is   the   desired   outcome   from   the   research   findings?   Determine   the   correlation  between  brand  design  and  purchasing  habits.   • How   was   the   research   conducted?   Through   qualitative   (in-­‐depth   interviews)  and  quantitative  research  methods  (mass-­‐distributed  survey).   • When  did  the  research  take  place?  November  2010  –  January  2011   • Where  will  the  research  take  place?  Online,  United  Kingdom,  and  United   States.   • For   whom   is   the   research   being   conducted?   Brand   designers   in   multinational   companies,   international   marketing   students,   and   international  marketing  theorists.     To   complete   the   exploratory   research,   a   semi-­‐structured   interview   was   developed   with   the   primary   objectives3   of   the   research   in   mind;   whereas,   the   descriptive   research   also   stayed   in   sync   with   the   primary   objectives,   the   users   were  forced  to  choose  options  (using  a  Likert  scale,  selecting  from  a  drop-­‐down   menu  with  specific  choices,  and  choosing  ‘all  that  apply’)  with  the  exception  of   one  short  answer  question  regarding  recognisable  brand  colours.                                                                                                                          2  Exploratory  methods  used  to  determine  the  cause  and  effect  relationships  between  brand  design  and  purchasing  habits.      3  Objectives  can  be  found  on  page  3.             Page  40  
  • 48. II. Target  Demographics   The   primary   targets   of   the   research   included   the   ‘average   person’   in   both   the   United  Kingdom  and  United  States.  In  order  to  obtain  research  with  this  group,  it   was  necessary  to  conduct  in-­‐depth  interviews  (semi-­‐structured)  with  the  average   product   purchaser   in   the   UK   and   US.   Overall,   a   result   of   16   out   of   19   in-­‐depth   interviews  was  conducted  with  this  primary  target  group.  Additionally,  there  was   a   mass-­‐distributed   survey   sent   (via   online)   to   determine   people’s   perceptions   towards  brand  design  and  to  measure  their  purchasing  habits.  A  sample  of  241   participants—the   minimum   needed   was   200   (Malhotra   and   Birks,   2007:   409,   Table   14.2)—completed   the   survey.   This   survey   was   sent   to   members   in   both   target  groups.     A   secondary   target   demographic   included   a   select   group   of   business   professionals   in   branding/marketing/design   departments   within   multinational   companies,   as   well   as   industrial   designers.   This   approach   was   to   gain   a   more   detailed   insight   as   to   see   if   they   subconsciously   purchase   products   with   a   different   agenda   on   their   mind.   In   order   to   obtain   research   with   this   group,   it   was   necessary   to   conduct   these   in-­‐depth   interviews   (semi-­‐structured)   with   professionals  in  the  UK  and  US.       III. Data  analysis   Analysing   the   gathered   data   is   a   more   difficult   task   in   the   research   process.   As   there  is  a  compilation  of  information  from  in-­‐depth  interviews  and  surveys,  it  is   necessary   to   examine   these   responses   in   a   methodological   order.   The   type   of   data  analysis  performed  is  co-­‐dependent  on  the  type  of  research  methods  that   have  been  undertaken.  A  framework  analysis  has  been  used  for  the  exploratory   data  collection,  which  is  “built  on  a  set  of  principles  around  which  to  frame  and   structure  ...  questions  that  might  be  asked  of  a  piece  of  work  in  order  to  critically   assess   ...   [and]   judge   overall   merit,   based   on   the   questions   and   indicators   that   are   most   relevant”   (Spencer,   2003:   7).   These   categories   have   then   been   cross-­‐ analysed   with   the   individual   responses   to   form   common   threads   among   the   participant’s  responses.             Page  41  
  • 49.   The  analysis  process  of  quantitative  findings  was  similar,  but  can  most  effectively   be  done  through  the  use  of  sophisticated  software  programmes.  For  the  analysis   of   this   study’s   results,   the   online   resource   Zoomerang4   was   used   to   gather   the   data   and   used   for   the   direct   and   cross-­‐tabulation   analysis.   With   this   tool,   participant  inputs  were  automatically  computed  and  calculated  in  detail,  which   helps   to   visually   display   common   trends   among   all   survey   participants   when   displayed  in  graph  form.     IV. Sampling   As   previously   mentioned,   respected   guidelines   for   sample   sizes   are   set   for   conducting   an   appropriate   amount   of   interviews,   as   well   as   obtaining   an   adequate   number   of   online   survey   respondents.   It   was   necessary   for   the   qualitative   research   to   have   at   least   8   semi-­‐structured,   in-­‐depth   interviews   (19   were   completed)   and   a   minimum   of   200   survey   respondents   (241   were   obtained)   for   quantitative   research.   Additionally,   it   was   necessary   to   obtain   a   sampling  through  convenience;  therefore,  the  survey  was  distributed  online  and   available  to  those  who  currently  live  in  the  UK,  US,  and  ‘Other’  countries.     V. Ethical  Considerations  and  Sampling  Errors     When   performing   the   consumer   research,   it   is   necessary   not   to   cross   ethical   boundaries  in  a  variety  of  different  forms.  The  following  list  (or  set  of  ‘personal   rules’)  includes  ethical  issues  the  researcher  respected  in  regards  to  conducting   the  consumer  research:   • Do  not  include  a  personal  interview  with  the  researcher.  –  Potential  bias   from   the   researcher   as   they   developed   the   survey   and   know   which   results  to  skew.   • Do   not   include   a   personal   survey   taken   by   the   researcher.   –   Potential   bias   from   the   researcher   as   they   developed   the   survey   and   know   which   results  to  skew.                                                                                                                  4  Zoomerang  is  an  online  survey  software;  http://www.zoomerang.com             Page  42  
  • 50. • Do  not  tell  the  interviewees  the  aim  of  the  research  until  the  interview  has   been   completed.   –   Potential   bias   from   the   interviewee   as   they   would   know  the  ultimate  aim  of  the  research  and  may  skew  the  results.   • Do  not  tell  the  survey  respondents  the  aim  of  the  research  until  the  survey   has  been  completed.  –  Potential  bias  from  the  respondents  as  they  would   know  the  ultimate  aim  of  the  research  and  may  skew  the  results.   • Do   not   falsify   any   interview   transcripts   or   survey   results.   –   Damage   to   study  and  apparent  bias  added  to  results.   • Credit  all  sources  used.  –  Avoid  plagiarism  and  give  credit.   • Do   not   pay,   bribe,   or   compensate   interviewees   as   to   skew   the   results.   –   Potential  bias  for  obtaining  only  the  results  desired.   • Survey   was   distributed   on   an   online   platform.   –   Allows   for   potential   misuse  by  those  not  necessarily  target  for  the  survey.     • Convenience   sample   used.   –   Potential   of   not   obtaining   enough   respondents  from  one  of  the  target  groups.   • Possibility   for   inconsistency   within   survey.   –   Potential   for   accidental   ‘misleading’   questions   and   cause   for   confusion   among   the   respondents,   such   as   not   having   an   “N/A”   or   “I   do   not   know”   answer   to   some   of   the   questions.     VI. Transcript,  Measurements,  and  Mechanism   The  in-­‐depth  interviews  were  conducted  through  a  semi-­‐structured  approach  in   an  online  interview  platform  also  using  the  aforementioned  Zoomerang  website.   This  was  done  for  efficiency  and  expedited  purposes  so  as  to  receive  the  quickest   results   at   the   most   convenient   time   frame   for   the   respondents.   Following   the   receiving   of   responses,   a   framework   analysis   was   conducted   focusing   on   patterns  and  theme  measurements.  Participants  were  encouraged  to  answer  the   questions   to   the   best   of   their   abilities   and   had   additional   open-­‐ended,   follow-­‐up   questions  to  prevent  such  cases  of  not  obtaining  enough  information.                 Page  43  
  • 51. Before   the   online   survey   was   launched,   it   was   pre-­‐tested   twice   by   a   random   sample   of   3   people   in   the   target   group   so   as   to   eliminate   any   potential   errors   and   confusion   among   those   completing   the   survey.   The   final   version   was   then   launched   online   and   was   self-­‐administrated.   An   online   version   of   the   survey   was   chosen   due   to   time   constraints   and   the   requirements   of   needing   responses   amongst   several   countries.   By   having   the   survey   online,   this   was   also   a   cost-­‐ effective   technique   to   gain   quick   access   to   a   wide   population.   Snowballing   techniques   were   use   to   reach   the   required   number   of   participants,   which   resulted   in   the   ‘volunteer’   and   ‘convenience’   sampling.   There   was   no   initial   control   for   this   group,   as   it   was   open   to   everyone,   including   those   who   were   interviewed.   This   ‘double-­‐response’   is   not   a   conflict   of   interest   or   skewing   of   results,   as   the   interview   questions   may   have   pertained   to   the   same   subject   as   the  survey,  but  were  not  the  same  in  nature.  The  survey  was  designed  to  have   several   different   response   types:   choosing   one   answer   from   a   series,   cross   between   Likert   scale   and   semantic   differential   scaling,   as   well   as   one   fill   in   the   blank   question.   All   questions   were   marked   for   mandatory   answering,   so   there   was   no   need   to   prepare   for   the   ‘999’   variable.   To   analyse   the   data   output,   Zoomerang  was  again  used  to  compare  all  responses  to  avoid  researcher  errors   and  to  eliminate  researcher  biases.             Page  44  
  • 52. Empirical  Findings  and  Analysis     I. Findings  and  In-­‐depth  Analysis   The  following  information  displays  the  data  collected  and  how  it  can  be  applied   to   the   researched   materials   found   in   the   literature   review,   as   well   as   matching   the  report’s  objectives  and  disproving  the  null  hypothesis:  “Brand  design  is  not   directly   linked   to   consumer   purchasing   habits.”   For   the   interview   analysis,   a   framework   was   developed   to   measure   the   common   themes   on   the   interviewees   opinions  found  on  brand  design,  as  well  as  their  considerations  when  purchasing   products.   Additional   information   will   be   discussed   for   the   quantitative   analysis   (questionnaires)  and  will  be  displayed  in  a  format  as  to  follow  each  objective.     i. Interviews   The   qualitative   research   was   comprised   of   nineteen   semi-­‐structured,   in-­‐depth   interviews  across  the  target  demographic.  The  interview  questions  in  full  can  be   seen   in   Appendix   A;   however,   this   section   will   focus   only   on   the   information   found  from  those  interviews.  In  line  with  each  objective  outlined  in  this  report,   questions  were  developed  to  understand  if  these  objectives  match  to  real-­‐world   purchasing   habits   and   considerations   of   brand   design   when   making   those   purchasing  decisions.     Demographic   information   was   requested   of   each   participant   for   a   further   analysis,   if   warranted,   after   this   initial   paper   is   reviewed   in   detail.   These   questions  included  the  following  details1,2,3:   • Question  #2  –  Age  range   • Question  #3  –  Where  the  interviewee  is  currently  living.   • Question  #4  –  Where  the  interviewee  was  born.   • Question  #5  –  Where  the  interviewee  has  spent  most  of  their  life.                                                                                                                  1  A  complete  list  of  objectives  and  corresponding  questions  can  be  found  in  Appendix  A.  2  Charts  for  these  demographics  can  be  found  in  Appendix  D.  3  Question  #1  was  an  optional  question  to  see  if  the  interviewees  wished  to  receive  the  feedback  and  results  of  this  study  and  was  in  no  way  related  to  the  actual  analysis  of  the  dissertation.             Page  45  
  • 53. • Question  #6  –  Whether  interviewee  is  a  marketing  professional.     The  following  information  will  be  the  analysis  displayed  (Appendix  B)  with  each   objective  and  how  the  questions  match  with  the  objectives4,:   Objective  1:   Gain   insight   into   the   world   of   brand   creation,   maintenance,   and   expiration.   Question(s):   No  questions  were  used  to  match  this  objective,  as  the  information   found  through  literature  reviews  was  sufficient.     Objective  2:   Investigate   correlations   between   the   design   of   a   brand   and   how   it   affects  consumer-­‐purchasing  habits.   Question  #12  –  as  it  relates  to  brand  recognition.     • An   overwhelming   number   of   interviewees   agreed   that   they   would   be   likely   to   purchase   a   product   because   they   have   heard   of   it   before,   whether   it   was   through   word-­‐of-­‐mouth   or   because   it   was   ‘drilled   in   by   advertising’  (as  one  interviewee  noted,  they  would  hope  the  brand  would   live   up   to   it’s   claims).   Of   those   who   did   not   respond   that   they   would   choose   a   brand   through   recognition,   four   of   the   interviewees   said   this   may   influence   their   purchase   decision   depending   on   the   item   (more   common   for   lesser-­‐values   products),   and   a   simple   two   of   nineteen   said   they  would  not  be  influenced.  Eight  of  the  interviewees  said  they  feel  that   if   they   recognise   a   brand,   there   is   a   sense   of   trust   that   is   given   towards   that   brand;   however,   only   six   interviewees   said   they   believe   this   automatically  instils  a  sense  of  trust  and  a  high  number  of  five  disagreed   completely.     With   this   information   gained   on   brand   recognition,   marketers   should   be   aware   that   while   they   may   push   the   brand   onto   consumers,   consumes   are   not   automatically   tricked   into   trusting   the   brand.   For   a   majority   of   consumers   to                                                                                                                  4  Appendix  C  details  the  framework  analysis  and  how  it  was  used.             Page  46  
  • 54. trust  the  brand,  one  interviewee  noted  that  a  relationship  must  be  built  between   the  brand  and  the  consumer.       Objective  3:   Examine  the  sensory  features  of  brand  design.   Question  #7  –  relating  to  the  interviewees  favourite  brand.     • The  information  gained  from  this  question  shows  that  the  most  common   favourite  brand  among  the  participants  was  Apple,  which  was  studied  as  a   case   example   on   re-­‐branding   earlier   within   this   report.   Analysis   of   this   question   demonstrates   that   the   favourite   colours   amongst   all   the   interviewee’s   favourite   brands   dominantly   included   white,   red,   and   black.   Other   colours   were   discussed;   however,   these   were   overwhelming   the   leaders   in   within   the   colours   mentioned.   Additionally,   they   preferred   these   brands   as   they   were   consistent,   luxurious,   natural,   maintained   an   aesthetic   appeal,   gained   trust   with   the   consumer,   evoked   a   positive   feeling,   recognisable   (on   and   off   the   shelf),   and   are   deemed   of   high   quality.     Marketers   should   note   these   characteristics   and   colours   and   consider   further   studying   the   Apple   brand   design.   By   understanding   this   information,   they   will   be   able  to  ensure  a  successful  new  branding  or  rebranding  strategy  and  effort.  This   information  will  also  help  to  eliminate  wasted  time,  as  this  is  information  directly   from  the  consumer.     Question  #8  –  relating  to  the  interviewees  favourite  logo.     • After  gathering  responses  from  all  nineteen  interviewees,  two  logos  stood   apart  from  the  rest,  Apple  and  Nike.  Again,  the  colours  of  white  and  black   were  noted  as  being  the  most  favourable,  with  red  mentioned  in  a  five-­‐ way   tie   for   third   place   (along   with   multi-­‐coloured,   green,   blue,   yellow/gold).   For   their   favourite   logo,   the   following   characteristics   were   given:  cheerful,  historic,  evoking  positing  feelings,  offered  a  broad  product   range,  trust,  and  confidence.             Page  47  
  • 55.   Marketers   should   note   the   way   Apple   brands   each   of   their   products   as   a   cohesive  group.  Nike  was  also  mentioned  and  is  another  great  case  to  study  for   those  wishing  to  develop  a  new  brand  or  rebrand  their  current  business.  Similar   characteristics  were  also  given  between  the  favourite  brand  and  favourite  logo.         Question  #9  –  relating  to  how  the  interviewee  deems  package  design.     • The   way   consumers   view   a   product’s   packaging   was   more   difficult   to   uncover  and  was  approached  in  a  systematic  direction.  Several  questions   were  asked  within  this  question  to  try  to  unveil  the  way  the  interviewee   considers   packaging   design   as   a   brand   element,   as   opposed   to   the   way   something   looks.   When   asked   directly,   it   was   a   toss   up   with   the   interviewees   if   packaging   was   a   consideration   for   purchasing   a   product.   Some   interviewees   were   very   enthusiastic   about   design,   whereas   a   few   others  really  could  not  seem  to  care  less.  However,  contrary  to  what  they   stated  in  the  beginning,  the  analysis  shows  that  actually  nine  interviewees   considered  packaging  and  products,  six  considered  product  only,  and  four   considered   the   packaging.   Also   contrary   to   their   initial   statements,   an   overwhelming   thirteen   stated   that   they   preferred   a   functional   package   design   and   fourteen   even   stated   that   a   package   design   can   evoke   emotions  for  the  consumer,  which  can  sway  the  purchasing  decision.     As   mentioned   within   the   literature   review,   package   design   is   a   very   important   part   of   the   branding   experience.   Marketers   must   take   notice   of   this,   as   it   is   a   major   influencing   decision.   Package   design   should   be   implemented   as   early   as   the   brand   and   product   concept   development   and   should   not   be   left   for   the   launching  phase  of  the  cycle.                   Page  48  
  • 56. Objective  4:   Identify   consumer-­‐purchasing   habits/trends   in   the   UK   and   US   markets.   Question   #10   –   relating   to   why   the   interviewee   is   brand   loyal,   and   to   which   brand(s)  they  are  loyal.     • The   most   common   brands   are   Apple,   Crest,   Amazon,   Volkswagen,   Nike,   Hellman’s,   Bounce,   and   Tide.   These   brands   all   have   a   significant   brand   loyal   consumer.   The   more   popular   characteristics   mentioned   among   these   brands   include   a   sense   of   happiness,   satisfaction,   quality,   confidence   and   trust,   as   well   as   a   good   reputation.   The   majority   of   interviewees   said   they   are   not   necessarily   influenced   by   vouchers   or   coupons,   but   would   be   influenced   if   their   peers   or   colleagues   recommended  trying  a  new  brand.       A   lot   of   advertising   efforts   are   focused   on   sending   out   vouchers   for   their   products;   however,   it   is   apparent   that   it   does   not   make   a   difference   to   those   consumers  who  are  already  loyal  to  one  brand.  It  is  important  for  marketers  to   focus   on   how   to   get   people   to   spread   the   word   about   a   product,   rather   than   inundate  a  potential  customer  with  offers.     Question  #11  –  relating  to  how  price,  fashion,  and  economic  factors  affect  their   purchasing  decisions.   • Price  was  determined  to  be  the  biggest  concerning  factor  for  purchasing  a   product.  Most  of  the  interviewees  seemed  to  be  very  price-­‐conscious  and   mentioned   characteristics   such   as   purchasing   from   warehouses   or   wholesalers,   looking   for   sales   or   bargain   shopping.   Several   of   the   interviewees   felt   this   was   an   extremely   important   factor   and   is   the   bottom-­‐line  when  purchasing  a  product.  Fashion  does  not  seem  to  impact   most   of   the   interviewees;   however,   a   few   remained   that   better   quality   items   are   the   more   expensive   products.   Additionally,   the   economy   only   comes   into   play   when   understanding   prices.   Most   everyone   stated   that   they   are   purchasing   necessary   goods   over   luxury   items   in   the   current             Page  49  
  • 57. economy.   Additionally,   during   times   of   economic   struggle,   offers,   vouchers,  or  some  other  kind  of  incentive  would  make  them  more  likely   to   purchase   that   product   over   another.   However,   as   before,   peer   suggestions  remained  the  strongest  influential  factor.     Marketers   must   take   this   information   into   consideration.   As   previously   mentioned,  people  do  not  like  to  be  overwhelmed  with  vouchers,  but  in  a  time   of   economic   difficulty,   they   are   more   likely   to   be   influenced.   Price   is   the   most   important   factor   among   the   consumers,   so   it   is   necessary   for   marketers   to   put   their   brand   into   being   a   brand   that   consumers   can   be   brand   loyal   to   in   efforts   to   overcome  price  being  an  issue.     Question  #13  –  relating  to  how  a  company’s  risk  management,  ethical  standards,   and  CSR  affect  the  interviewee’s  purchasing  decisions.     • Only  the  minority  gave  a  response  to  being  influenced  by  the  company’s   risk   management,   ethical   standards,   and   corporate   social   responsibility   (CSR);   however,   there   is   a   contradiction   in   what   they   are   actually   more   likely  to  purchase.  Very  few  responded  that  they  would  be  influenced  by   these  factors;  however,  ten  said  they  are  more  likely  to  purchase  locally   made   products   or   fair-­‐trade   products.   They   commented   they   are   not   influenced  by  a  company’s  risk  management  policy,  but  ten  interviewees   are   greatly   impacted   by   a   company   handling   ‘bad   press’,   with   three   more   saying  it  may  affect  their  opinions  depending  on  the  circumstances.     The  consumer  does  not  necessarily  do  everything  consciously,  which  can  be  seen   by   this   analysis.   The   consumer   says   they   do   one   thing,   but   their   actions   tend   towards   something   completely   different.   This   misleading   information   is   why   marketing   research   is   necessary.   Marketers   should   take   notice   of   what   the   consumer  does  and  not  what  they  say  they  do.                   Page  50  
  • 58. ii. Questionnaires   Each   question   for   the   online-­‐survey   was   critically   constructed   and   reviewed   to   follow  in  accordance  to  the  dissertation’s  objectives.  This  section  elaborates  on   the  survey  questions  and  provides  visual  aids  (when  appropriate)  for  explaining   the   gathered   data’s   results.   Analysing   quantitative   data   can   be   a   lengthy   and   tedious  process.  This  information  was  gathered  and  analysed  for  trends  using  the   Zoomerang  website  (Appendix  F).  Specific  charts  and  tables  were  gathered  and   further   reviewed   to   meet   the   objectives   of   this   report.   The   questions   in   this   survey  were  designed  to  be  ordinal  and  scaling  (interval  and  ratio),  and  excluding   nominal   variables5.   They   were   analysed   using   two   types   of   statistical   analysis   process:   bivariate   and   univariate.   Bivariate   measurement   is   performed   when   analyzing   two   variables   at   the   same   time   (through   cross-­‐tabulation),   whereas   univariate  measurement  is  performed  when  analyzing  a  single  variable  at  a  time.   Following   the   same   analysis   process   of   the   interviews,   each   question   is   paired   with  the  objectives  and  displayed  accordingly.     Demographic   information   was   requested   of   each   participant   for   a   further   analysis,   if   warranted,   after   this   initial   paper   is   reviewed   in   detail.   These   questions  included  the  following  details6,7,8:   • Question  #2  –  Age  range   • Question  #3  –  Where  the  interviewee  is  currently  living.   • Question  #4  –  Where  the  interviewee  was  born.   • Question  #5  –  Where  the  interviewee  has  spent  most  of  their  life.   • Question   #6   –   Whether   or   not   the   interviewee   is   a   marketing   professional.   • Questions  #7  –  If  in  the  field  of  marketing,  respondents  were  requested  to   provide   their   job   titles.   Of   those,   their   titles   were   as   follows:   Marketing                                                                                                                  5  A  variable  is  a  characteristic  that  can  be  classified,  counted  or  measured.  6  A  complete  list  of  objectives  and  corresponding  questions  can  be  found  in  Appendix  E.  7  Charts  for  these  demographics  can  be  found  in  Appendix  H.  8  Question  #1  was  an  optional  question  to  see  if  the  interviewees  wished  to  receive  the  feedback  and  results  of  this  study  and  was  in  no  way  related  to  the  actual  analysis  of  the  dissertation.             Page  51  
  • 59. Executive   (1),   Marketing   Assistant   (11),   Account   Manager   (4),   Marketing   Officer  (1),  Product  Manager  (2),  Marketing  Managers  (3),  Brand  Manager   (2),   Marketing   Director   (1),   Vice-­‐President   of   Marketing   (1),   Marketing   Intern  (1),  Marketing  Student  (5),  Marketing  Service  (1),  Creative  Planner   (1),   Marketing   Academic   /   Lecturer   (2),   Sales   (1),   and   Brand   Strategy   Consultant  (1).     The   following   information   will   be   displayed   with   each   objective   and   how   the   question  matches  with  the  objectives  of  this  report9,:   Objective  1:   Gain   insight   into   the   world   of   brand   creation,   maintenance,   and   expiration.   Question(s):   No  questions  were  used  to  match  this  objective,  as  the  information   found  through  literature  reviews  was  sufficient.     Objective  2:   Investigate   correlations   between   the   design   of   a   brand   and   how   it   affects  consumer-­‐purchasing  habits.   Question  #31  (item  5)  and  Question  #31  (items  1,  4,  6,  8-­‐12)  –  cross-­‐tabulation  to   determine   if   the   design   of   the   brand   has   any   bearing   on   the   purchasing   of   products  according  to  eight  different  variables.     • Design   of   brand   …   mood   I   am   in.   (Appendix   I,   Chart   1)   Indicates   a   relatively   uninfluenced   position   of   buying   products   because   of   brand   design  due  to  their  mood.   • Design   of   brand   …   colours   of   the   product.   (Appendix   I,   Chart   2)   Demonstrates   the   position   that   if   the   design   of   the   brand   influences   your   purchasing   decision,   so   does   the   colour   of   the   product.   If   the   design   of   the  brand  does  not  influence  their  purchasing  decision,  neither  does  the   colour  of  the  product.   • Design  of  brand  …  design  of  the  product.  (Appendix  I,  Chart  3)  There  is  a   strong  association  that  the  design  of  the  brand  correlates  to  the  design  of   the  product,  both  affecting  the  consumer’s  purchasing  decision.                                                                                                                  9  Appendix  G  details  the  analysis  and  how  it  was  used  with  each  objective.             Page  52  
  • 60. • Design   of   brand   …   amount   the   product   costs.   (Appendix   I,   Chart   4)   An   even   stronger   correlation   is   shown   when   looking   at   those   who   are   influenced  by  the  design  of  the  brand  and  the  amount  the  product  costs   as  being  an  influencing  factor.   • Design  of  brand  …  warranty  available  for  the  product.  (Appendix  I,  Chart   5)   Respondents   suggest   that   whether   they   agree   or   disagree   that   the   brand   design   influences   their   purchasing   decision,   most   agree   or   are   neutral  when  it  comes  to  a  warranty  for  the  product  being  an  influential   purchasing  factor.   • Design   of   brand   …   reviews   from   other   sources.   (Appendix   I,   Chart   6)   Relatively   high   responses   for   those   who   feel   design   of   the   brand   influences   their   decision   making   also   are   influenced   by   reviews   from   other  sources.   • Design  of  brand  …  time  I  have  to  purchase  the  product  (time  allowed  to   spend   in   store).   (Appendix   I,   Chart   7)   Those   consumers   who   are   influenced   by   the   design   of   the   brand   also   agree   that   the   time   they   are   allowed  to  purchase  the  product  while  in  store  makes  a  difference  in  their   purchasing  decision.     • Design  of  brand  …  time  I  have  to  purchase  the  product  (limited  time  offer   items).   (Appendix   I,   Chart   8)   This   correlation   shows   that   whether   the   brand  design  influence  their  decision  or  not,  they  generally  agree  that  the   time   they   have   to   purchase   a   limited   time   offered   product   influences   their  purchasing  decision.       Marketers   should   take   note   of   this   analysis   in   efforts   to   tailor   their   brands   towards  the  desires  of  the  consumer.  This  could  include  being  careful  on  pricing   their   products   (or   services),   adequately   accounting   for   colour   and   packaging   when  developing  a  logo  and/or  brand,  as  well  as  maintaining  and  developing  a   strong  brand  reputation.                 Page  53  
  • 61. Question   #31   (item   5)   and   Question   #16   (favourite   and   least   favourite   brand   colours)   –   cross-­‐tabulation   to   determine   if   the   design   of   the   brand   has   any   bearing  on  the  colour  of  their  favourite  and  least  favourite  brand.     • Design   of   brand   …   colour   of   favourite   brand.   (Appendix   I,   Chart   9)   In   general,   the   favoured   brand   colours   are   red,   blue,   black,   and   white.   For   those   who   claim   not   to   be   influenced   by   brand   design,   their   preferred   colours  include  white,  red,  and  blue,  whereas  those  who  admit  to  being   influenced  by  brand  design  prefer  the  colours  black,  blue,  and  red.     • Design  of  brand  …  colour  of  least  favourite  brand.  (Appendix  I,  Chart  10)   In  general,  the  least  favoured  brand  colours  include  yellow,  orange,  and   black.  For  those  who  are  influenced  by  brand  design,  their  least  preferred   colours   include   orange,   green,   and   yellow;   whereas   the   those   who   are   not  influenced  by  brand  design,  their  least  preferred  colours  include  black   and  pink.  There  does  not  appear  to  be  a  strong  correlation  between  the   two   groups.   To   understand   this   data,   it   is   necessary   to   look   at   the   previous   analysis   and   try   to   avoid   the   colours   that,   overall,   people   do   not   seem  to  favour.     Marketers   should   consider   these   findings   when   developing   and   establishing   a   brand  or  when  making  the  endeavour  to  re-­‐establish  an  already  existing  brand.   As  mentioned  in  the  findings,  notable  colours  to  use  include  red  or  blue  and  to   avoid  pink  and  possibly  black  (even  though  a  majority  also  said  they  found  this   colour  to  be  favourable  to  those  who  consider  brand  design  an  influencing  factor   for  making  purchasing  decisions.     Objective  3:   Examine  the  sensory  features  of  brand  design.   Question   #15   –   top   5   brands   listed   for   immediate   brand   recall   through   colour   association.   • Table   6   shows   the   top   5   brands   associated   with   each   of   the   most   commonly   found   colours   in   brand   design.   Included   with   this   data   is   the   ‘N/A’  option  for  those  who  were  unable  to  think  of  a  brand  for  the  colour.             Page  54  
  • 62.   Table  6:  Top  5  Brand  and  Colour  Associations   Colours   Brands   #  of  Respondents       • N/A   • 73   • Coca-­‐Cola   • 15   • Axe   • 13   Black   • Coca-­‐Cola  Zero   • 11   • Nike   • 9   • Dell   • 7           • N/A   • 51   • Pepsi   • 41   Blue   • IBM   • 16   • Dove   • 10   • Microsoft   • 5           • N/A   • 75   • The  Body  Shop   • 12   Green   • Irish  Springs   • 11   • Mountain  Dew   • 8   • Sprite   • 8           • N/A   • 91   • Apple   • 26   Grey  (Silver)   • Mercedes-­‐Benz   • 9   • Diet  Coke   • 8   • Honda   • 8           • N/A   • 67   • Orange  Mobile   • 36   Orange   • Tropicana   • 15   • Sunkist   • 13   • The  Home  Depot   • 12           • Victoria’s  Secret   • 71   • N/A   • 66   Pink   • Barbie   • 8   • Susan  G.  Komen   • 7   • T-­‐Mobile   • 7                 Page  55  
  • 63.     • N/A   • 154   • London  Metropolitan   • 6   Purple   • Crown  Royal   • 5   • Delta  Sigma  Pi   • 5   • Bed,  Bath  &  Beyond   • 4           • Coca-­‐Cola   • 113   • N/A   • 34   Red   • Red  Bull   • 9   • Target   • 9   • Virgin   • 6           • N/A   • 98   • Dove   • 43   White   • Apple   • 38   • Crest   • 4   • Colgate   • 3   • Nike   • 3           • N/A   • 104   • McDonalds   • 15   Yellow   • The  Yellow  Pages   • 9   • Best  Buy   • 6   • Chiquita   • 4   • Hertz   • 4       Source:  Data  compiled  from  question  #15  in  the  mass-­‐distributed  survey.     As   found   within   the   context   of   the   favoured   brands   within   the   in-­‐depth   interviews,   Apple   is   listed   on   Table   6   twice   (Whte,   Grey/Silver),   other   notables   are   Coca-­‐Cola   (Black,   Red)   and   Dove   (Blue,   White),   which   both   appeared  twice  on  the  list  as  well.  These  three  brands  that  were  studied   are   also   the   among   the   few   brands   mentioned   twice   in   the   top   5   spots   in   the  colour  recall  exercise.     Marketers  can  further  research  on  why  these  brands  are  continually  successful.   These   three   brands   also   incorporate   some   of   the   most   favoured   characteristics   found  through  the  in-­‐depth  interviews  including  cheerful,  quality,  and  historic.             Page  56  
  • 64. Question  #16  –  direct  look  at  the  colours  associated  with  respondent’s  favourite   and  least  favourite  brands.   • In   symmetry   to   the   in-­‐depth   interview   results,   the   most   favourable   colours   associated   with   favourite   brands   include   red,   blue,   black,   and   white   whereas   the   least   favourable   colours   associated   with   brands   include  yellow,  orange,  black,  and  pink.    (Appendix  I,  Charts  11)     These   results   show   that   when   consumers   think   of   their   favourite   brands,   they   are   often   associated   with   professional   and   clean   colours.   Seemingly   opposite   colours   are   associated   with   the   least   favourite   associated   with   bright   colours.   Also   as   mentioned   before,   the   colour   of   black   may   be   seen   as   dark   and   depressing.   It   is   important   for   marketers   to   note   these   consumer   associations   when  developing  or  redesigning  a  brand.     Questions   #17-­‐21   –   overlook   of   brand   recognition   and   recall   on   brand   logos   shown,  from  several  different  and  global  industries.   • Respondents   were   given   a   list   of   five   brand   options   to   choose   from   for   each   of   the   five   logos   presented.   Overall,   most   of   the   brands   were   correctly  selected  and  it  must  be  noted  that  the  McDonalds  logo  was  the   only  logo  to  receive  a  100%  rate  of  correct  selection.  (Appendix  I,  Charts   12-­‐16)     Further  review  of  McDonalds  on  a  global  scale  for  their  brand  recognition  should   be  studied.  Marketers  should  view  them  as  an  example  on  how  to  create  brand   awareness  and  brand  recognition  or  recall,  as  they  have  succeeded  in  their  area.     Questions  #22-­‐26  –  overlook  of  brand  recognition  and  recall  on  brand  packaging   shown,  from  several  different  and  global  industries.   • Respondents   were   given   a   list   of   five   brand   options   to   choose   from   for   each   of   the   five   packaging   presented.   Overall,   most   of   the   brands   were   correctly  selected.  It  must  be  noted  that  the  Hummer  brand  was  correctly             Page  57  
  • 65. identified  99%  of  the  time.  (Appendix  I,  Charts  17-­‐21)     Information  to  take  away  from  these  findings  is  a  study  of  the  Hummer  vehicle  to   see  why  it  was  the  most  recognisable  packaging  of  all  five  packages.  Hummer  has   branded   itself   well   on   a   global   scale   and   marketers   should   further   research   as   to   how  they  can  establish  their  packaging  to  be  just  as  recognisable.     Question  #27  –  understanding  how  respondents  answered  the  questions  #16-­‐26   on  colours,  logos,  and  packaging  and  whether  they  used  an  additional  resource   for  their  responses.   • The  majority  of  respondents  were  able  to  answer  the  branding  elements   without   use   of   help   and   also   were   able   to   recognise   all   or   most   brands   presented.   Only   5%   used   an   additional   resource   such   as   a   friend,   family   member,  colleague,  or  Internet  search  engine  (Appendix  I,  Chart  22)     This   information   enforces   the   results   of   the   researcher   choosing   brands   that   were  internationally  known  and  recognized  so  as  to  avoid  a  country-­‐specific  bias.     Questions  #28-­‐30  –  overall  brand  recognition  difficulty  for  questions  #16-­‐26.   • Overall,   the   respondents   found   it   difficult   to   immediately   associate   a   brand  to  a  colour  given,  yet  found  overwhelmingly  found  it  not  difficult  to   associate   the   brands   with   presented   logos   or   packaging.   (Appendix   I,   Charts  23-­‐25)     It  is  important  to  conduct  further  research  in  the  future  on  this  subject  as  to  why   the   respondents   had   difficulty   associating   brands   with   colours.   Giving   an   internationally   known   brand   and   asking   for   their   brand’s   associated   colours   could  also  help  to  conduct  further  analysis.  However,  this  research  mentioned  is   beyond   the   scope   of   this   dissertation   topic.   Marketers   can   still   use   this   information   to   their   benefit   by   further   exploration   into   the   brands   used   in   this   study  on  their  logo  developments  and  packaging  designs.             Page  58  
  • 66.   Objective  4:   Identify   consumer-­‐purchasing   habits/trends   in   the   UK   and   US   markets.   Questions   #9,   11,   13   –   indicates   if   the   respondents   have   heard   of   particular   computer   system,   soft   drink,   and   hygiene   product   brands   (to   tie   into   the   case   studies  with  Apple,  Coca-­‐Cola,  and  Dove).   • Computer   systems:     The   majority   of   respondents   had   heard   of   all   five   computers  systems.  (Appendix  I,  Chart  26)   • Soft  drinks:    The  majority  of  respondents  had  heard  of  four  of  the  five  soft   drink   brands,   the   exception   being   continent-­‐specific   Virgin   Cola.   (Appendix  I,  Chart  28)   • Hygiene   products:     The   majority   of   respondents   had   heard   of   all   five   hygiene   brands,   the   exception   being   Lush.   This   particular   brand   is   commonplace  in  the  UK  (and  other  European  countries),  but  has  only  in   recent  years  entered  into  the  US  market  and  even  then  is  only  in  select   areas.   A   surprising   amount   of   respondents   have   heard   of   the   Jergens   brand,   as   it   is   a   newly   established   brand   within   the   UK,   originally   developed  in  the  US.  This  contradiction  to  the  Lush  brand  may  be  due  to   population  size  of  the  primary  study  groups.  (Appendix  I,  Chart  30)     Marketers   can   use   this   information   to   understand   how   brand   recognition   is   influenced   among   locations,   specifically   indicative   within   the   soft   drinks   and   hygiene   products   analyses   as   those   products   are   more   repeat   purchases   than   an   electronic  good.     Questions   #10,   12,   14   –   indicates   if   the   respondents   have   purchased   particular   computer   system,   soft   drink,   and   hygiene   product   brands   (to   tie   into   the   case   studies  with  Apple,  Coca-­‐Cola,  and  Dove).   • Computer   systems:     Microsoft   took   the   lead   at   95%   with   Apple   coming   in   second  at  68%,  and  IBM  in  third  with  25%  of  respondents  who  purchased   these   computer   systems.   Only   a   very   small   percentage   (9%)   of   people             Page  59  
  • 67. who  actually  purchased  at  least  one  of  the  other  two  computer  systems,   and   only   a   small   2%   who   has   not   purchased   any   of   the   five   options.   (Appendix  I,  Chart  27)   • Soft   drinks:     The   largest   two   percentages   of   drinks   purchased   by   the   respondents   are   Coca-­‐Cola   (95%)   and   Pepsi   Cola   (80%).   Only   a   small   percentage   (4%)   responded   to   not   having   purchased   any   of   the   soft   drinks  listed,  which  could  be  from  personal  choice  to  not  consuming  soft   drink  beverages.  (Appendix  I,  Chart  29)   • Hygiene   products:     Dove   gained   the   largest   percentage   (90%)   of   respondent  purchases  with  Bath  &  Body  Works  (a  US-­‐based  brand)  came   in   second   with   66%,   The   Body   Shop   in   third   with   49%,   and   Jergens   in   fourth  with  48%.  A  mere  3%  of  the  respondents  claim  to  have  purchased   none   of   the   presented   options,   which   could   be   due   to   market   competition  with  other  product  brands.  (Appendix  I,  Chart  31)     It   can   be   determined   that   just   because   a   consumer   has   heard   of   the   brand   it   does   not   mean   that   they   have   necessarily   purchased   said   brand.   For   the   soft   drinks,   this   may   be   due   to   the   fact   the   two   leaders   are   in   direct   competition   whereas   the   other   drink   choices   are   either   continent-­‐specific   or   considered   an   energy  drink.  Marketers  will  be  able  to  use  this  information  for  further  research   and  studies  beyond  the  scope  of  this  dissertation.     Question   #8   –   respondents   answer   how   often   they   purchase   electronics,   soft   drinks,  and  hygiene  products  (to  tie  into  the  case  studies  with  Apple,  Coca-­‐Cola,   and  Dove).   • On   average,   55%   of   respondents   purchase   electronics   on   a   yearly   basis,   40%   weekly   and   32%   monthly   for   soft   drinks,   and   a   staggering   79%   purchase  hygiene  products  on  each  month.  (Appendix  I,  Chart  32)     Marketers  should  note  that  when  developing  a  brand,  they  should  consider  their   product   (or   range   of   products)   for   often   people   will   be   performing   a   repeat             Page  60  
  • 68. purchase.   This   information   could   potentially   help   marketers   in   how   much   time   they   should   invest   in   updating   their   brands.   It   is   not   to   say   that   with   every   purchase   period   (daily,   weekly,   etc.),   there   should   be   a   new   branding,   but   rather   the  opposite.  As  seen  in  the  case  study  of  Apple,  Coca-­‐Cola,  and  Dove,  they  each   took  different  increments  to  rebrand  themselves.       Question  #32  –  asks  the  respondents  if  their  opinions  have  changed  in  any  way   (positively  or  negatively)  to  a  series  of  company  characteristics.   • 78%  of  respondents  indicated  that  their  opinions  on  a  product  or  brand   have  changed  due  to  price  comparisons.  (Appendix  I,  Chart  33)   • 46%  of  respondents  indicated  that  their  opinions  on  a  product  or  brand   have   changed   due   to   fashion   trends.   33%   of   respondents   indicated   that   their  opinions  on  a  product  or  brand  might  change  because  of  this  factor.   (Appendix  I,  Chart  33)   • 71%  of  respondents  indicated  that  their  opinions  on  a  product  or  brand   have  changed  due  to  the  economy.  (Appendix  I,  Chart  33)   • 62%  of  respondents  indicated  that  their  opinions  on  a  product  or  brand   have  changed  due  to  brand  loyalty.  (Appendix  I,  Chart  33)   • 41%  of  respondents  indicated  that  their  opinions  on  a  product  or  brand   have   changed   due   to   a   brand   reputation.   35%   of   respondents   indicated   that   their   opinions   on   a   product   or   brand   might   change   because   of   this   factor.  (Appendix  I,  Chart  33)   • 30%  of  respondents  indicated  that  their  opinions  on  a  product  or  brand   have   changed   due   to   a   company’s   risk   management   handling.   39%   of   respondents   indicated   that   their   opinions   on   a   product   or   brand   might   change  because  of  this  factor.  (Appendix  I,  Chart  33)   • 41%  of  respondents  indicated  that  their  opinions  on  a  product  or  brand   have  changed  due  to  a  company’s  ethical  standards.  40%  of  respondents   indicated  that  their  opinions  on  a  product  or  brand  might  change  because   of  this  factor.  (Appendix  I,  Chart  33)   • 29%  of  respondents  indicated  that  their  opinions  on  a  product  or  brand             Page  61  
  • 69. have  changed  due  to  corporate  social  responsibility.  43%  of  respondents   indicated  that  their  opinions  on  a  product  or  brand  might  change  because   of  this  factor.  (Appendix  I,  Chart  33)     In   this   analysis,   the   higher   percentages   for   change   in   opinion   is   due   to   a   consumer’s  own  circumstances,  whereas  the  lower  percentages  are  more  market   or   industry-­‐focused.   An   additional   piece   of   information   to   understand   is   that   with  the  lower  percentages  on  changed  opinions,  there  is  also  a  relatively  similar   number  of  respondents  who  ‘might’  change  their  opinion  based  on  a  company’s   efforts  or  reactions.  The  company  as  a  whole  could  have  a  great  impact  on  the   brands  it  represents.     Question   #3   and   Question   #31   (items   1,   4,   6,   8-­‐12)   –   cross-­‐tabulation   to   determine   if   where   the   respondent   currently   lives   has   an   effect   on   eight   different   variables  of  purchasing  products.   • The   majority   of   respondents,   no   matter   where   they   are   currently   living   (UK-­‐48%,   US-­‐54%,   Other-­‐57%),   agree   that   their   mood   is   a   considering   factor  when  buying  products.  (Appendix  I,  Chart  34)   • The   majority   of   respondents,   no   matter   where   they   are   currently   living   (UK-­‐41%,  US-­‐43%,  Other-­‐43%),  agree  that  the  colours  of  the  product  are  a   considering  factor  when  buying  products.  Also  notable  is  that  the  ‘other’   category   had   24%   respond   that   they   strongly   agree   this   is   a   considering   factor.  (Appendix  I,  Chart  35)   • The   majority   of   respondents,   no   matter   where   they   are   currently   living,   strongly   agree   (UK-­‐31%,   US-­‐39%,   Other-­‐38%)   and   agree   (UK-­‐48%,   US-­‐ 46%,   Other-­‐46%)   that   the   design   of   the   product   is   a   considering   factor   when  buying  products.  (Appendix  I,  Chart  36)   • The   majority   of   respondents,   no   matter   where   they   are   currently   living,   strongly   agree   (UK-­‐52%,   US-­‐74%,   Other-­‐59%)   and   agree   (UK-­‐38%,   US-­‐ 24%,   Other-­‐35%)   that   the   amount   the   product   costs   is   a   considering   factor   when   buying   products.   It   should   also   be   noted   that   0%   of   all             Page  62  
  • 70. respondents  strongly  disagreed  with  this  statement,  and  only  the  UK  (3%)   disagreed.  (Appendix  I,  Chart  37)   • The  UK  respondents  were  fairly  neutral  (Strongly  Agree-­‐14%,  Agree-­‐24%,   Neither   Agree/Disagree-­‐31,   Disagree-­‐28%,   Strongly   Disagree-­‐3%)   when   considering   a   warranty   available   for   the   products   they   buy.   However,   the   US  and  ‘Other’  respondents  were  fairly  similar  in  that  overall,  they  agree   (US-­‐44%,  Other-­‐46%)  this  is  a  considering  factor  when  buying  a  product.   (Appendix  I,  Chart  38)   • UK  and  US  respondents  both  strongly  agree  (UK-­‐34%,  US-­‐35)  that  reviews   from   other   sources   is   a   considering   factor   when   buying   a   product.   However,   the   UK   respondents   begin   to   be   neutral   for   the   rest   of   this   specific   analysis,   whereas   the   US   joins   the   ‘Other’   respondents   in   agreeing   (US-­‐53%,   Other-­‐49%)   that   reviews   from   other   sources   is   a   considering  factor  for  buying  products.  (Appendix  I,  Chart  39)   • The  UK  and  US  respondents  agree  (UK-­‐41%,  US-­‐46%)  that  the  time  they   have  in  store  to  purchase  a  product  is  a  considering  factor  when  buying;   however,  the  ‘Other’  respondents  group  is  very  spread  out  on  the  graph   (Strongly  Agree-­‐14%,  Agree-­‐30%,  Neither  Agree/Disagree-­‐30%,  Disagree-­‐ 19%,  Strongly  Disagree-­‐8%).  (Appendix  I,  Chart  40)     • The   majority   of   respondents,   no   matter   where   they   are   currently   living   (UK-­‐48%,  US-­‐53%,  Other-­‐43%),  agree  that  the  time  they  have  to  purchase   a   product   based   on   limited   time   offers   is   a   considering   factor   when   buying   a   product.   Additionally,   the   UK   (14%)   and   US   (14%)   respondents   strongly   agree   this   could   be   a   considering   factor,   whereas   the   ‘Other’   respondents  (32%)  remain  that  they  neither  agree/disagree.  (Appendix  I,   Chart  41)     By   far,   price   is   the   biggest   indicating   factor   within   any   demographic   group   for   buying  products,  alongside  with  the  design  of  the  product  itself.  Marketers  can   use  this  information  to  their  advantage  by  designing  the  brand  to  match  the  way             Page  63  
  • 71. consumers   understand,   utilise,   and   emotionally   connect   themselves   to   a   product.   This   is   not   to   say   that   a   brand   design   should   be   formulated   after   product  development,  but  rather  they  should  be  formed  together  so  as  to  create   a  sense  of  cohesion  amongst  them  both.             Page  64  
  • 72. Conclusions  /  Recommendations     I. Summary  and  Overview   The   main   aim   of   this   research   was   to   disprove   the   null   hypothesis   that   “brand   design   is   not   directly   linked   to   consumer   purchasing   habits.”   Four   objectives   were  carefully  developed  to  gain  insight  into  the  general  topic  and  specific  field.   Specific   examinations   were   conducted   through   researching   the   general   field   of   marketing   and   marketing   theories,   as   well   as   a   thorough   review   of   three   company-­‐rebranding  case  studies  and  a  comparison  between  them  all,  and  an  in-­‐ depth   look   at   the   design   elements   and   features   of   branding   and   the   branding   process  as  a  whole.     For   an   additional   review,   interviews   were   undertaken,   as   well   as   compiling   survey  data  pertaining  to  each  of  the  four  objectives  to  back  up  the  information   found   in   the   initial   literature   research.   Through   carefully   selected   design   and   a   detailed   analysis,   it   can   be   determined   that   this   null   hypothesis   has   been   disproved.  This  can  be  concluded  as  such  due  to  the  findings  within  the  analysis.     II. Research  Limitations   Surprisingly,  there  is  not  a  significant  amount  of  literature  on  this  specific  topic.   There   has   been   minimal   research   on   this   particular   subject,   which   will   account   for  some  limitations  in  the  research  conducted  for  this  report.  Additionally,  there   are   some   possibilities   for   geographic   and   convenience   errors   that   could   be   noted.   The   following   points   call   attention   to   limitations   that   were   imposed   within  the  scope  of  the  dissertation:   • There   was   difficulty   found   in   obtaining   a   proportionate   number   of   respondents  from  both  the  UK  and  the  US  due  to  a  convenience  sampling   method.  In  the  demographic  data,  it  can  be  noted  that  there  were  more   respondents   from   the   ‘Other’   category   than   the   UK,   which   may   have   potentially   skewed   the   results.   However,   this   was   taken   into   consideration   during   the   interpretation   and   was   accounting   for   by   analysing  the  portion  of  respondents  who  replied  to  the  question,  ‘where             Page  65  
  • 73. are   your   currently   living?’   rather   than   all   three   of   the   geographic   demographic  questions  in  cross-­‐tabulation  for  purchasing  habits.   • Due   to   a   quick   turnaround   time,   the   technique   used   to   conduct   the   in-­‐ depth  interviews  may  be  considered  insufficient  by  some  researchers.  As   the   structure   was   similar   to   an   open-­‐ended   questionnaire,   interviewees   may  have  been  more  vague  with  some  of  their  responses  than  it  they  had   had   actual   communication   with   another   person   in   a   face-­‐to-­‐face   or   conference   environment.   However,   this   potential   issue   was   accounted   for   by   asking   a   minimum   of   two   follow-­‐up   questions   for   each   interview   question.  By  conducting  the  interviews  in  this  manner,  interviewees  were   able   to   respond   in   a   relaxed   personal   environment,   allowed   for   complete   anonymity,  as  well  as  time  to  respond  to  each  question  appropriately.   • This  dissertation  was  undertaken  while  the  researcher  was  also  working   on  a  full-­‐time  basis.  This  may  have  had  an  impact  on  the  overall  quality  of   the   report,   as   well   as   presenting   an   issue   for   time.   However,   this   issue   was  hopefully  resolved  due  to  a  structured  timeline  and  pre-­‐planning.   • When  analysing  qualitative  research,  it  is  often  difficult  to  take  away  the   necessary   information,   as   there   may   also   be   an   influx   of   unrelated   material.  Using  a  semi-­‐structured  approach  can  help  to  eliminate  some  of   the   unnecessary   information   (such   as   stories   to   accompany   their   opinions),   but   it   cannot   prevent   everything.   Additionally,   the   interviewee   may   be   caught   up   in   one   part   of   the   question   and   accidentally   (or   purposefully)  neglect  the  other  portions.  As  there  were  suggested  follow-­‐ up   questions   needing   responses,   this   was   an   attempt   to   avoid   unnecessary  data  inflow.   • Potential   for   data   analysis   error   when   using   the   online   Zoomerang   tool.   While   the   website   is   designed   specifically   for   analysis   of   this   genre   and   magnitude,  there  is  always  a  potential  for  computer  error.  To  combat  this   potential  issue,  the  open-­‐ended  responses  (such  as  question  #15  on  the   mass-­‐distributed   survey)   were   carefully   examined   and   analysed   independently  from  the  online  tool.             Page  66  
  • 74.   III. Key  Points  of  Interest   With   the   information   from   the   study,   marketers   and   those   involved   with   any   part   of   the   branding   process   can   take   away   several   key   points   that   have   been   noted  within  the  research  analysis,  such  as  the  following  ideas:   • Consumers   are   not   automatically   trusting   of   a   brand   just   because   they   may  have  brand  recognition,  recall,  or  awareness.   • Marketers  should  be  aware  that  the  more  favoured  brand  colours  include   red,   blue,   and   white;   and,   the   least   favoured   brand   colours   include   yellow,   pink,   and   orange.   Also   note,   the   colour   black   maintains   a   mixed   opinion.   • Package  design  greatly  influences  the  consumer  purchasing  decision.   • While   vouchers   or   offers   seem   to   be   an   attention   getter   for   potential   consumers,   the   truth   is   that   they   do   not   have   much   bearing   on   actual   purchase-­‐making  decisions.   • Price  is  the  most  important  factor  for  consumer  purchasing  decisions.   • Consumers   are   not   always   aware   of   what   they   actually   want   and   therefore,   careful   market   research   should   be   conducted   for   every   product  launch  or  brand  decision.   • Brand   reputation   is   important   and   should   be   considered   at   all   stages   of   the  branding  process.   • Preferred  brand  character  associations  include  cheerfulness,  quality,  and   history  (or  nostalgia).   • Most  preferred  brands  are  associated  with  being  clean  and  professional.   • A  brand  and  product  (or  range  of  products)  should  be  co-­‐developed  and   maintain  the  same  characteristics  for  cohesion.   • A   consumer’s   own   circumstances   greatly   influence   their   purchase   decision;   however,   the   way   a   company   act   (or   reacts)   can   also   have   a   great  impact  on  the  consumer’s  decision.                 Page  67  
  • 75. IV. Relevant  Future  Research   As   noted   within   the   analysis   portion   of   the   document,   a   deeper   look   into   the   following  subjects  can  be  performed  to  determine  more  specific  behaviours:   • Apple,   Coca-­‐Cola,   and   Dove   brands   should   be   further   reviewed   for   a   more   detailed   assessment   as   to   why   their   brands   are   market   leaders   and   their   connection   of   appropriately-­‐used   brand   design   elements.   Nike   is   another   brand   that   showed   up   in   more   than   one   area   in   the   analysis   and   should  be  deserving  of  further  analysis.   • The   McDonalds   brand   was   the   most   recognised   amongst   the   entire   analysis,   and   therefore,   should   be   more   closely   studied   as   to   how   they   are  an  example  of  successful  international  brand  awareness.   • The  Hummer  brand  was  the  most  identifiable  packaging  design  amongst   the   entire   analysis,   and   therefore,   should   be   more   closely   studied   as   to   how   they   are   an   example   of   successful   package   design.   Some   professionals  would  consider  this  more  a  product  design  than  a  package   design;   however,   with   consideration   that   the   product   is   a   vehicle,   the   package   design   stands   for   itself.   An   example   to   distinguish   these   two   (product  versus  package  design)  is  available  on  page  37  of  the  report.   • Many   survey   respondents   found   it   difficult   to   recall   a   brand   to   match   a   colour   given.   To   understand   this   issue,   more   research   should   be   conducted  as  to  what  triggers  recollection  with  consumers.  This  may  be   more  of  a  psychological  study  than  a  marketing  study.   • Further   research   is   suggested   for   the   subject   of   location-­‐branded   products,   particularly   those   that   are   not   available   internationally   and   to   see  what  impact  they  still  have  on  foreign  markets.             Page  68  
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  • 82. Miller,  Jon  and  Muir,  David  (2004)  The  Business  of  Brands.  West  Sussex:  John  Wiley  &   Sons,  Inc.  Rodgers,   Mark   (2004)   “Polar   purchasing:   Mark   Rodgers   discusses   the   death   of   the   middle   ground-­‐-­‐a   growing   trend   on   both   sides   of   the   Atlantic   which   sees   purchasing   as   a   form   of   expression.”   Brand   Strategy,   September   [accessed   January   2010   from   HighBeam   Research:   http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-­‐ 122421042.html]  Ragas,   Matthew   W.   and   Bueno,   Bolivar   J.   (2002)   The   Power   of   Cult   Branding:   How   9   Magnetic   Brands   Turned   Customers   Into   Loyal   Followers.   New   York:   Crown   Business.  Schroeder,   Jonathan   E.   and   Salzer-­‐Mörling,   Miriam   (eds)   (2006)   Brand   Culture.   Routledge.  Abingdon,  Oxon.  Southgate,  Paul  (1994)  Total  Branding  by  Design.  London:  Kogan  Page  Limited.  Van   Gelder,   Sicco   (2003)   Global   Brand   Strategy:   Unlocking   Brand   Potential   Across   Countries,  Cultures  &  Markets.  London:  Kogan  Page  Limited.               Page  75  
  • 83. Appendix  A:    In-­depth  Interview  Semi-­structured  Questions     Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing: In-Depth Interviews  Thank you for taking the time to complete this survey. You will be helping to analyse the question "Whydo people choose one product or brand over another?" Please know that all responses are anonymous.All questions MUST have an answer. Please note this may take anywhere between 20 minutes to an hour.Thank you again!1  If you would like to see the results of this study once the analysis has been completed, please fill in yourinformation details below: Name – Email Address – Comments –2  * What is your age? Under 18 25-34 45-54 19-24 35-44 Over 553  * Where are you currently living? United Kingdom United States Other4  * Where were you born? United Kingdom United States Other5  * Where have you spent the majority of your life? United Kingdom United States Other6  * As a profession, are you in the field of marketing? Yes NoIf yes, what is your position title?           Page  76  
  • 84. 7  * Think about your favourite brand. What is the brand and why is this your favourite brand?Please include as much information as possible and consider the following questions when answering: 1. What are the dominant colours of the brand? 2. Is it more the product you enjoy or the entire brand itself? (Ex: Do you enjoy a certain laundry detergent or do you buy a range of cleaning products by the same manufacturer?) 3. What aspects of the brand can you relate to? (Ex: Does this brand get you?)8  * What is your favourite logo and why?Please include as much information as possible and consider the following questions when answering: 1. What are the prominent colours used in this logo? 2. Do you feel a certain emotion when you see this logo? (Ex: Does it make you happy, cheerful, etc.? Please use as MANY adjectives as possible to describe your feelings.) 3. Is this logo associated with a favourite product?9  * Does the way the product is packaged influence your decision to purchase one product over another?Please include as much information as possible and consider the following questions when answering: 1. Does the packaging make the product easier to use? 2. How does the packaging make you feel and what emotions does it evoke? (Ex: A perfume can possibly help to make you feel sexy and cheerful. A certain type of vehicle may imply being more safe than another. Please list as many adjectives as possible and provide the product type and brand if possible.) 3. Do you consider the way the product is packaged before purchasing? (Ex: It looks cooler than another similar product.)10  * What brands are you most loyal to and why?Please include as much information as possible and consider the following questions when answering: 1. Do you always receive offers (vouchers/coupons) for this brand? 2. Do your friends/peers/colleagues also use this brand? 3. Does this brand evoke any certain emotions? (Ex: Does this brand make you happy, cheerful, etc. Please use as many adjectives as possible.)11  * How does price, fashion, and the economy affect your decision to purchase a product?Please include as much information as possible and consider the following questions when answering: 1. Why are you purchasing this product? (Ex: Is it a necessary or luxury item for you?) 2. Have you received offers (vouchers/coupons) for a product and has this encouraged you to buy that product over another one? 3. Have others recommended using this product?           Page  77  
  • 85. 12  * How does brand recognition affect your decision to purchase a product?Please include as much information as possible and consider the following questions when answering: 1. Are you more likely to purchase one product over another because you have heard of it before? 2. Does this inspire a sense of trust in the brand?13  * How does a companys risk management, ethical standards, and/or corporate social responsibility(CSR) efforts affect your decision to purchase a product?Please include as much information as possible and consider the following questions when answering: 1. Are you more likely to purchase a product because some of the profit is donated to an organisation or cause? 2. Do you purchase any products because it is known that they ... use local ingredients, are made in your home country, or are made with fair-trade products? 3. Does the way a company handles bad press affect how often you purchase their products? (Ex: A toy manufacturer recalling toys because of a known toxin in the plastic.)           Page  78  
  • 86. Appendix  B:    In-­depth  Interview  Transcripts     Zoomerang Survey Results Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing: In-Depth Interviews Response Status: Completes Filter: No filter applied Jan 17, 2011 3:05 PM PST Thank you for taking the time to complete this survey. You will be helping to analyse the question "Why do people choose one product or brand over another?" Please know that all responses are anonymous. All questions MUST have an answer. Please note this may take anywhere between 20 minutes to an hour. Thank you again! 1. If you would like to see the results of this study once the analysis has been completed, please fill in your information details below: Respondent # Question 1: Name Question 1: Email Address Question 1: Comments 1-17 Not provided to protect identity. 2. What is your age? Under 18 0 0% 19-24 2 11% 25-34 3 16% 35-44 6 32% 45-54 4 21% Over 55 4 21% Total 19 100% 3. Where are you currently living? United Kingdom 4 21% United States 14 74% Other 1 5% Total 19 100% 4. Where were you born? United Kingdom 3 16% United States 15 79% Other 1 5% Total 19 100%           Page  79  
  • 87. 5. Where have you spent the majority of your life? United Kingdom 3 16% United States 15 79% Other 1 5% Total 19 100% 6. As a profession, are you in the field of marketing? Yes 3 16% No 16 84% Total 19 100% Respondent # Response 1 Marketing assistant, copywritter and account assistant. A bit a everything in fact ;) 2 marketing educator 3 Director of a Corporate Training Center 7. Think about your favourite brand. What is the brand and why is this your favourite brand? Please include as much information as possible and consider the following questions when answering: What are the dominant colours of the brand? Is it more the product you enjoy or the entire brand itself? (Ex: Do you enjoy a certain laundry detergent or do you buy a range of cleaning products by the same manufacturer?) What aspects of the brand can you relate to? (Ex: Does this brand get you?) Respondent # Response 1 Crest toothpaste red and blue I enjoy the product because it remains consistent in flavor and quality 2 I dont have a favorite brand, It just depends on specific moment in my life, for example currently I really love the brand of perfume Chanel. It is very old, was established in 1920 by a French Lady whom I admire for her fashion style, she totally revolutionize the trends and the brand make you feel confident, gives you personality and style. I guess it is both the product and brand I love, but I would say the brand has a more important role in making me love its products portfolio. The Brands colors are Black and gold. 3 Burts Bees. The dominant color is yellow. I will choose a Burts Bees product before buying another similar product in a different brand. I like that the product is a natural product. 4 Honestly cannot think of a favorite brand. 5 My favourite brand from shampoo/conditioner is LOreal Elvive for coloured/highlighted hair. The containers are bright red (fire engine red). In fact, LOreals different products have different coloured packaging so I just need to look for the right colour. I also use LOreal skin products but their packaging is white. The products appeal to me because they market what it is of interest to me,,ie product specifically designed for coloured hair and skin products marketed for my age group. I like the way they look, ie theyre sharp, professional, and appear to be high end. 6 Under Armour. Their logo is mostly black and white, but red has also been used, and other colors. The brand signifies power, strength, and durability, and the apparel it creates follows those characteristics. 7 Irish Spring. Green. Like the product. Used bar soap first but now prefer the body wash. Makes me feel cleaner and fresher than other products. 8 Favourite brand would be yahoo. Purple colour and I love purple as a colour. I love Yahoo as it links me to so much. It is a link to the world. 9 Probably apple. 1. The brand sticks to a very neutral palette: whites, blacks, silvers and greys. On in its un products it breaks into block colours. 2. Its definitely both the product and the brand. When I buy something that has some functionality besides its aesthetic appeal I want it to do that WELL and EFFICIENTLY. Apple does this. All the products, feel like a natural extension once youve mastered the basic syntax. That the products are shin and pretty just makes them worth the extra money :) So the product offers a great experience and as such I trust the brand and keep           Page  80  
  • 88. coming back to them for hardware and software. 3. The brand gets that i only want to be in control of the things that are directly going to affect me as a consumer and not want to have to deal with technicalities. My time is valuable and as such I want to be using the product as little as possible but be able to enjoy this experience. I think apple gets this. They have a bunch of nifty short cuts, they make helpful videos and always let you know theyre at your back. look at their support website for example. Clear instructions on how to contact them and how much its all going to cost up front. People appreciate that kind of honesty. I appreciate it. 10 Going to have to go with Apple on this, mainly because of their customer service and company model. They truly seem to identify with and take their customers into account. Dominant colors is interesting since they went from rainbow to essentially white over the course of 20 years. The apple is very identifiable and the brand has an overall positive feeling to most people I believe. 11 I think my favorite brand is probably Coke or more specifically Diet Coke. I enjoy Diet Coke. I think the brand has been a constant in my life and when I had tried other similiar products, I am always disappointed and come back to Coke. I will even pay more for it. Dominant colors are red, white and gold. 12 Tide laundry detergent. I have tried other products but nothing compares or works as well. 13 BBC. Bordeaux red logo on white background. I enjoy a range of its output (radio, televison). It has an important link with my upbringing and cultural grounding (growing up with iconic names, faces, events, programmes) 14 I guess my favorite would be chick-fil-A. its the product and the ethos of the company; the brand evokes very pleasant, trusting feelings. 15 Food: Heinz Ketchup, easily recognizable on the shelf, I like the taste rather than the others. I know that they make other items, but the ketchup is the only one I use. Clothes: Does designers count as a "brand" as many of them have branded themselves a certain way? If so my fav is armani exchange. One reason I believe is the clothes and the other is branding for they setup a certain image. 16 Green, white, blue The brand is tried and true 17 Lush is my favorite brand. I like it because everything is handmade and all natural. They have great smelling products that I feel good about buying. Their main colors are black with either green or white writing on the packages. I think it is more of the brand itself that I like, however, their products are top-notch. I am sure if there were another hand-made, all natural product out there that smelled as great as this product, I would buy it. However, Lush gives back to the community- for example, they support local farmers in different countries and have stopped using some ingredients because the farmers cant get fair prices for it anymore. While I am by no means a vegetarian or a vegan, I can appreciate that many of their consumers are, so they create products for them. Lush also creates different smelling products that actually work! If I am paying $20.00 for a great smelling bottle of conditioner that promises to moisturize my hair, then it better do it, or I will not be back to that product or brand again. But Lush follows through with their advertising promises, which I appreciate as well. 18 Polo Ralph Lauren: its classic, and modern at same time. Polo is the best quality clothing I have bought ever and and worth spending the money on cause you know you can wear multiple times w/out fading and etc. 19 Apple 1.Silver 2.The products not the brand 3. I relate to the high quality and intuitive design 8. What is your favourite logo and why? Please include as much information as possible and consider the following questions when answering: What are the prominent colours used in this logo? Do you feel a certain emotion when you see this logo? (Ex: Does it make you happy, cheerful, etc.? Please use as MANY adjectives as possible to describe your feelings.) Is this logo associated with a favourite product? Respondent # Response 1 Google is one of my favorite logos. Rainbow of colors with modifications for holidays or events, I like it because it is simple and cheerful. 2 difficult question... I cant think about my favorite one. However to make a link with my previous answer, I would say the one of Chanel is really effective : it is simple, white and black, close the brand history because it is using the founder name intial interlaced (Coco Chanel). In terms of emotions, when I see it, I think about the universe created by the brand, I can even smell its perfumes fragrance! It is classy, make women feel beautiful, sexy, confident and unique. Yes definitely this logo is associated with a brand a would select among other luxury brands.           Page  81  
  • 89. 3 I love the Apple logo. Most of the time, I see logo as black, silver, or lighting up on a computer. I feel mischievous, happy, and sneaky; this comes because Apple people are different. We dont go with the rest of the PC world flow. Although we have learned how to fit in their world. There is not an Apple product I wouldnt want to have, so it is associated with a favorite product. 4 Bass pro shops...without looking I cannot tell you the colors of the logo....does make he happy & cheeful, because I love fishing & the outdoors. This logo is associated with warehouses full of products I enjoy & purchase. 5 McDonalds is probably the logo I think of most. I always think of sunshine and fun. The arches are yellow and I always think of Ronald McDonald so its a bit like a cirucus. Quarter pounder with cheese is my favourite fast food burger so the logo is very much associated with that. 6 I will still go with Under Armour. Same colors as above, and it makes me feel invincible. The simple logo of a U and A intertwined always gives a positive feeing. 7 H-E-Buddy. Red. Best grocery store in US. Cheerful place to shop. Good merchandise for fair prices. Broad range of products in food and non-food items. 8 Favourite logo would be National Trust. It makes me feel happy, well known design and associated with old properties. I enjoy looking around old buildings and gardens. The National Trust is a well trusted organisation and brand. It is historically known for looking after the heritage and history of british buildings and areas of historical interest. 9 This is a toss-up between Nike ad Penguin. Although both are different i like them for similar reasons so just to complicate your life Ill include them. 1. Both are black and white. 2. Nike: Positive feelings due to shoppping experience and experience whilst wearing the product. A sense of doing something better for myself. Reinvention, confidence, vanity, optimistic. Penguin: Positive feelings due to a life-long relationship with the brand and all round good expereinces. Comfort, reassurance, famlily, warmth, time with self?,anticipation. 3. Of course. 10 Favorite logo could be considered Apple since its about the only logo I would ever put on my car. Prominent color would be white. Emotion is one of pride over a company that has come so far and yet still seems to care about their customers. 11 Probably the Disney logo of the silhouette of Mickey Mouse -- it always makes me smile and feel happier. It also makes me feel nostalgic, happy, cheerful, youthful, and fun. There are different versions - black, blue, etc. The logo may be associated with products but also with experiences like Disneyland or movies 12 The Gerber Baby. Its a black and white sketch and this logo symboloizes "comfort." Gerber has been around for ages - any of their products I trust for my kids. They also have "Gerber Life" which is life insurance for kids - because of their reputation, I would consider the insurance through them as well. 13 bordeaux red. Sense, reliability, impartiality. The logo is not associated with a particular product. 14 I think Apples logo is most recognizable and well known. Its usually red. Seeing it makes me feel confident about the product, though reluctant to deal with the interface differences among all products. I guess the iPhone would be a favorite. 15 I think that my favoriate logo is the NIKE logo. I love it. I think that it is smart, sassy, sexy, and tells me exactly what it is without even looking, eventhough they are slapping it on everything these days. It does make me happy. It makes me feel more motivated and confident. This is a brand that I a purchase quite a bit of merchandise from which started with tennis shoes and moving to shorts, shirts, sunglasses, and sport bags. 16 Yellow and black no 17 For some reason, I really like the Fed-Ex logo. I had never noticed that the E and the X when put together make an arrow. I was a bit older when a friend of mine pointed it out to me (read-college- aged, not 15). The main colors are purple and green. While I like these colors, when I seem them together in a different setting I dont think, "Fed-Ex!" However, I can understand their choice of colors- purple being somewhat passionate and impatient and green, meaning go in terms of stop- lights. Seeing the logo makes me laugh and it does make me happy. Happy to remember the time that my friend pointed it out and was amazed I had never seen it. Also content to know that people are delivering packages to people that could bring cheer to someones day via a present. I prefer not to dwell on the fact that the Fed-Ex person could be delivering bad news. While Fed-Ex isnt a favorite product, I dont have any problem with them. When I mail packages, I usually go to whatever is more convenient to me and that is usually the post office. If there were a Fed-Ex around, I would probably use them, if their prices were agreeable.           Page  82  
  • 90. 18 Apple: The logo has changed along with its product line up since the 80s. In the 80s the apple logo was a rainbow and now is just the apple w/ a bite out of it. I know its quality if I see the apple logo. I can rely and respect the logo for all my computing. 19 Beatles Logo 1.Black 2.Think positive thoughts of music, art, culture and lifestyle 3.Yes-they have brand equity (band equity) 9. Does the way the product is packaged influence your decision to purchase one product over another? Please include as much information as possible and consider the following questions when answering: Does the packaging make the product easier to use? How does the packaging make you feel and what emotions does it evoke? (Ex: A perfume can possibly help to make you feel sexy and cheerful. A certain type of vehicle may imply being more safe than another. Please list as many adjectives as possible and provide the product type and brand if possible.) Do you consider the way the product is packaged before purchasing? (Ex: It looks cooler than another similar product.) Respondent # Response 1 I think the product package remaining the same and with a logo that is easy to select makes a difference. I do not consider packaging. 2 I love when the packaging is innovative and help using the product, bringing something to its use. So the external packaging is to my mind not as important as the inner one, the one enveloping the product itself. It wont have impact on my product decision, but I would definitely favorize the product with a smarter, greener, nicer packaging. I will buy more the product for the product itself. 3 In the case that a package is not part of the product, I cannot say packaging makes a product easier to use, however, it does make it easier to be able to start using. If a package is hard to open, you cannot start using a product quickly. If the package is part of a product, it can make a product easier to use. For my favorite perfume, DKNYs Be Delicious, has a perfect little package. It is shiny and round with a little dimple on the top. I keep the product on my dresser, because it is sexy. I feel pretty, happy, less stressed when I use the product. If the product is not one I am loyal to and there is not a loyal option, I will consider the look of the packaging before purchasing it. 4 No the packaging does not influence decisions. It is their entire marketing strategy...one stop shopping for anything outdooors. 5 For skin care items, I use LOreal mature skin products. Their packaging is very professional/smart looking and easily identified on the shelves. Because the products are marketed specifically for mature skin, I feel that they help keep me young looking. The manner in which a product is packaged doesnt really have a role in my decision making. 6 Packaging isnt usually considered when I buy something. Also if something does come in a "limited edition" box or bottle, I might be inclined more to purchase it instead of the regular version. 7 I dont select an item because of the packaging. 8 The way that a product is packaged does influence in me in the way that I buy an item. If it has less packaging, recyclable and is packaged in the least amount of packaging possible. If a product has lots of packaging then I am more likely not to buy it. For example VW Golf cars are known to be safe, reliable and also economical. Also they are known to not to depreciate in price. VW are a trusted brand of which they are known to be world leaders. The VW Golf is known to be a well liked and known brand. Reason why recently hired the car was because of its safe and also economical fuel economy. I am not necessarily influenced by colour of a brand, more these days that it is recyclable and also reliable. A lot of brands are known out there for being not as reliable for there longevity and also there reliability. ACER computers are known for being unreliable for battery life. I am influenced by performance and also whether a product lasts rather than a colour of a brand. 9 1. Probably not other than setting it up. WHen you say packaged do you mean physically or how it is packaged i.e. advertised? 2. The packaging is the initial attraction so it has to be both intriguing and easy on the eye. I like finding packaging with a very simple colour scheme. Good attention to detail, a little text, well put to draw me in. i like something that doesn;t shout about what it is. e.g. Urban outfitters, All Saints, Anthropologie. But thats for impule buys and fun stuff. For functional things, i.e. office supplies, the details need to be out there, I dont want to have to go looking for the information. 3. Yes but only initially. If there are 2 products of equal spec then looks will count. But definately not first priority. 10 The packaging of Apple products is meant to be environmentally-friendly with less and less packaging and waste. Everything about the packaging is simple and pleasing. 11 Packaging impacts me a bit but not a lot. To be honest, recently packaging that is impossible/incredibly difficult to get into annoys me a lot. Do I not buy something because of           Page  83  
  • 91. annoying packaging, maybe/maybe not but I know it has delayed my purchase. 12 Packaging doesnt really influence me other than when selecting meat from the grocery. If its not wrapped properly or if its just a mess, then I choose the cleaner package... 13 There is no tangible packaging as such. 14 If the packaging is durable and still easy to open, it makes the product easier. If its hard, then I feel annoyed with the product. The packaging of products shipped from Amazon are VERY pleasant--- clean, easily identified, secure yet east to access. And yes, when Im ordering online i do think about the durability and usability of the packaging. 15 Yes, I think packaging is very important for many times I make a decision based on how the box or packaging looks. If the pkging is good I assume the product will be too! 16 No, but to me, it speaks of quality 17 YES!!! I cant put enough emphasis on that! I hate when companies put things in those clam-shell packages that you need a chainsaw to get into. If there is a product that is packaged into one of those, unless I REALLY (and I mean really) want it, I wont buy it. It may be a great product, but if it takes 20 minutes to open it, forget it. Moving on, I do chose to buy some products over another based on packaging. For example, TooFaced and Benefit (makeup). While they are good products, there are the "drug store brands" (CoverGirl, Rimmel, etc.) that work just as well for me. However, their packaging is so cute that I, for some reason, feel better when I buy it. Even though no one sees the product when I put it on, I feel sexier, prettier, cuter, just putting it on. However, I do also consider price as well. If I can afford it, then I would probably go for the Benefit/TooFaced over CoverGirl/whatever. That being said, Maybellene just came out with new foundation that I bought solely based on the bottle. It looks so sleek and modern...it reminds me of a department store brand that is 3x more expensive. I guess I do consider the way something is packaged when I buy it, but unless it is that stupid clam-shell plastic packaging, I consider the price of the product as well. If I cant really afford to buy it, then I will buy a substitute. 18 packaging makes no difference to me at all 19 1. No 2. No 3. Yes, for some types of products 10. What brands are you most loyal to and why? Please include as much information as possible and consider the following questions when answering: Do you always receive offers (vouchers/coupons) for this brand? Do your friends/peers/colleagues also use this brand? Does this brand evoke any certain emotions? (Ex: Does this brand make you happy, cheerful, etc. Please use as many adjectives as possible.) Respondent # Response 1 Crest Toothpaste, I do receive coupons for Crest. Many of my friends use the same brands. The brand make me happy and feel refreshed. Coca-Cola Products I do receive coupons for Crest. Many of my friends use the same brands. The brand satisfies me. Nestle Chocolate Chips I do receive coupons. Many of my friends use the same brand. The brand make me happy and excited to use. 2 I am loyal to certain brands because they can ensure me quality, expertise, safety. When I buy them I rarely make a mistake or will be disappointed. I love brand which have strong ethical values, and offer innovative solutions to our daily life. I wont buy the brands advertise on vouchers if I dont need the product, I will rarely be influenced by my peer on a brand, I have my own preferences and tastes and even If i dont want to admit it, i often buy a brand for the emotions it conveys...! 3 Burts Bees - See my answer in question 1. Bare Minerals/Escentuals - I do not receive offers for the brand. I do have friends that use the brand, after I introduced them to it. I feel sexy, complete, professional, and pretty. Apple - I do not receive offers for this brand. I have several friends, peers, and colleagues that use this brand. The brand makes me feel mischievous, happy, and sneaky. (See my answer to 8 for more information) Amazon - I do not receive offers from this brand. I have several friends that use this brand. I feel economical, frugal, happy, and and satisfied with this brand. Pampered Chef - I do not receive offers for this brand. I am the primary person I know that use this product. I feel satisfied, talented, and full when I use this product. 4 I always shop value first. I try to stick with name recognition products, but in todays enconomy price is always a factor for most consumers. I always take advantage of coupons & special offers. I have also started buying store brands ie: kroger, publix, riteaid, etc if quailty is comparable,,because price is almost always less...the only emotions I experience when shopping is when I feel I received a bargain. 5 LOreal skin care products. I only sometimes get a coupon at the shop. I started using it without being influenced by family/friends and dont know of any who do use it. I feel/hope that the           Page  84  
  • 92. products keep me younger looking and help me to feel more confidence. 6 Brands I am loyal to: VW, Under Armour,Pepsi, Crest, Tiffany, and Eddie Bauer. I am loyal to these brands because of their reputation and dependability. 7 Folgers Decaf. Bisquck. VanCamps Pork and Beans. Have used for years and have found no satisfactory substitutes. 8 Most loyal to brands such as VW, Sony Ericcson, Nokia, Samsung, Hewlett Packard to name but a few. They make feel content and happy in the knowledge that the brands are reliable and do last. Dont receive offers for the above brands. But do go on reliability and also friends and family have used the brands and they are known for not breaking after a few uses. What I want from a brand is to know that it will last longer than a year for usage. So many brands are out there that are unreliable and I dont like brands that do not last. Environmentally friendly, reliable, happy and also economical are what I want most from a brand. 9 Apple, Nike. 1. Yes. Apple give you free songs every week and 99p rentals. Also do a great offer over the estive season. 2. Yes to both. 3. Professional reliable. I am willing to spend the money because i know and trust the quality. 10 There are certain brands I feel I trust for their intended purposes more than others, most seem to stem back to childhood and few I waver from. Some of these are listed below: - Hellmans - Bounce - Tide - Coke 11 I am loyal to...Diet Coke, Tide, Bounce, Zest, Listerine, Dawn (dishwashing soap), Almay, Oil of Olay, Clorox. Not as much influenced by others except my husband and even then we each have a couple of brands we are loyal to even if the other isnt. I think the reason I am loyal is that I can rely on the consistent quality of these items, I dont need to spend time worrying about whether or not it will work as expected, I feel that I get value even if it is not the least expensive option. Sometimes I get coupons but I am not really good at using them -- I do look for sales of preferred brands though. 12 Helmans mayonaise, Nike, Addidas and Fisher Price. The one thing they all have in common is quality. The only emotion I can think of is trust which is a comfort knowing that the toys are durable and safe, the sneakers wont fall apart and as for the mayo, well, I will never go generic b/c Helmans is the best! 13 Brands which reflect quality and durability, value and conservatism. I would place Marks & Spencer in this category but I do not receive vouchers or coupons. 14 Amazon, Barnes & Noble, Talbotts, Clinique, Lindt chocolates, Red Opal wines. It isnt relevant to me whether peers or colleagues use them--I just dont care. These brands evoke feelings of anticipation, enjoyment, and a kimd of reuniting with an old friend. 15 Express: yes I get vouchers Peter Pan Peanut Butter, no coupons I just like it better 16 no some do I feel confident because I know the brand works 17 I am most loyal to brands that actually produce what they promise. Again, with Lush, I dont actually get any coupons for the brand. However, they are pretty good at giving you free samples of stuff when you buy from them. For example, I bought some stuff from the Lush store in Macys and after talking with the staff a bit about the products, they gave me a HUGE sample of a face mask...it was enough for three mini-facials. Considering their products are pricey, I thought it was cool that they gave me something of value and it does keep me coming back to their product, even though I most likely would anyway. I dont know if anyone that I am friends with or my peers use this product. Certainly when I am in the store, I do see people my age there. I doubt that any of my colleagues use their products, since I am the youngest one at my office right now, but they could. Whenever I get a new product from Lush, I get extremely excited. I cant wait to go try it out and get blissed out and relaxed. When I do use their products, depending on the scent, I feel relaxed, sexy and sometimes even smug about it. 18 apple: They stand by their product and will fix anything they are responsible for and if they cannot fix they will replace that item, cause they stand by their product. Most of my friends are using apple products or have just made the switch to apple. 19 Stonyfield,Toyota, Honda, Apple, 1. No 2. Yes on Apple 3. No specific emotional attachments or reactions to any of them           Page  85  
  • 93. 11. How does price, fashion, and the economy affect your decision to purchase a product? Please include as much information as possible and consider the following questions when answering: Why are you purchasing this product? (Ex: Is it a necessary or luxury item for you?) Have you received offers (vouchers/coupons) for a product and has this encouraged you to buy that product over another one? Have others recommended using this product? Respondent # Response 1 Crest - It is a necessity. I have received coupons for this product. And I tend to purchase it at warehouse stores or when it is on sale. Yes. 2 I follow a certain balance in my daily purchases, I most of the time buy a product because i need it (food, fashion), but will also listen my desires and wants to buy products I just like! Of course trends and seasons (wheather), mood have impact on all my decisions! Others and vouchers have less impact on my decisions. Price must be reasonable for the products and brand, if not it will be a important barrier to my purchase. 3 Price and the economy are the primary reasons I will not purchase a product. I do not have a lot of disposal income, so money is an object with me. I typically do not purchase luxury items. If I receive an offer for a product, I will consider it more than an item without a coupon. If the product is electronic or has a review available with a positive outcome, I will consider the product before another. If I have a big purchase to make, I will shop around to make sure I purchase it at the best price available. 4 Most products I purchase are because I really needed them and purchasing decisions are based on known quality & price....I want quality for a bargain price...our economy is forcing most consumers into this shopping trend. 5 Price/fashion/economy dont really affect my decision to purchase. I purchase the project because of how I feel so perhaps it could be considered a necessity. I didnt start using the product because of receiving vouchers/coupons and no-one recommended it to me. 6 If something i too expensive, I mostly likely will not purchase it (unless I know what I am buying is worth the extra price, like a car or electronics). I will only use coupons for items that i normally buy. Recommendations from others may influence my decision. 7 Price is a consideration whether a necessary or luxury. Use coupons when I have them. 8 Fashion is not an influence in how I buy items, reliability of a brand is more important. Cheap brands such as Primark dont last long. Would prefer to save up and then buy an item. Such as buying a printer Hewlett Packard items last longer than cheaper makes. Reviews are more of an influence than colour or price of a brand. 9 1. It really depends. if its an essential item with a range of choices economy dictates the decision and I am more likely to go for the cheaper option. Luxury items its a considered process of functionality over aethetics. but obviously the cheaper the better. 2. Yes 3. Usually 10 I do tend to be a bargain-shopper, I hunt for coupons and will oftentimes make a decision to buy off of that, however it does not mean I will waver from some of the main brands I prefer. I would not buy Hunts ketchup over Heinz just because I had a coupon, for instance. 11 Most often I would purchase it because of a perceived need. It works better (even if it isnt the least expensive), it is consistently better quality. I will shop for sales but will buy at full price if I need it. For products I have not used before, I will rely on recommendations from people I trust or from Consumer Reports. I am not really a trendy person. 12 Price is a factor - if I receive a coupon and its a good deal, I will purchase the product. If its a product Ive never tried, that is usually the only way I branch out to try new things is when I have a coupon or if its on sale... 13 I do not purchase the BBC as it is free to air and I am outside the licence fee zone. But I would happily pay for it as I regard it as a necessity. No recommendation is necessary as I have formed my opinion of it over many years 14 Of these, necessity is first; then pleasure (which can include a coupon). Recommendations may help in the first purchase, but not after that. 15 All factors affect my decision and the bottom line is usaully the price except when it come to certain food and designer items and I will pay a extra price for I percieve them as a luxury item. 16 Luxury yes yes           Page  86  
  • 94. 17 I dont really consider fashion when purchasing a product. I purchase products for their price and whether I really need it or not. When I see something that I like/want, a tiny part of me questions if it is stylish, but then most of me says, "Will you use it more than once and do you have something similar at home?" The sensible part of me wins all the time, since I know what I am comfortable in and what I will or wont wear. 50% of the time, I purchase necessary stuff, and while it isnt necessary at the moment (such as body lotion), I will use it. The other 50% is luxury. Who really needs 30 pairs of shoes and 15 purses? In Texas, do I really need multiple pairs of gloves and matching hats? Probably not, but on the 5 days that is cold enough to warrant them, I will be happy that I have them and feel cute wearing them. I dont know if the economy has affected my decision to purchase a product. I havent gone into a store and thought to myself, "Oh, they are going out of business. Maybe if I buy something, it will help." Certainly, if I had a coupon for something that gave me enough of a savings over another product of similar value to me, I would use the coupon to buy that item. Friends recommendations do account for something when I go shopping. However, I try to listen to friends that know something about that area in general. For example, a friend of mine is big into makeup, is studying it for her research and worked in a makeup store here in the US. She knows what she is talking about, so if she recommends something, and I need it at that point in time, I buy it. If she recommended something technology related, for example, I might ask other friends before I bought something. 18 Economy has the biggest impact. Fashion is a want not a need and when the economy is rough they fashion industry takes the biggest hit b/c its not a need its a want. If I have received a coupon or voucher for that product i would consider it. 19 They all can have effects. 1.n/a 2 A significant coupon can influence selection 3. recommendations have a strong influence 12. How does brand recognition affect your decision to purchase a product? Please include as much information as possible and consider the following questions when answering: Are you more likely to purchase one product over another because you have heard of it before? Does this inspire a sense of trust in the brand? Respondent # Response 1 I am much more likely to try a product because I have heard of it before or it is from a brand that I use but less likely to try if I am happy with a competitors product. yes, I trust the products of brand names that I use. 2 Yes definitely for 1) and 2). 3 I will purchase a product I have experience with, in terms of brand, before purchasing one I know nothing about. If I have had a good experience with a brand, I will trust it and purchase it before another option. 4 Brand recognition is important, but today I research products to see if the same quality is available in a less expensive brand. 5 Sometimes, I am more inclined to buy when Ive heard of the product before, particularly when buying something new. For me, having heard of it before, means that its not really all that new and must already be tried and trusted by others. 6 If I have heard or had personal experience with a brand, I will tend to use it instead of another brand (examples of this is that I will less likely use supermarkets that sell off-brands). 7 Previous experience is key to repeat purchases. Certain brands of particular food items are all I purchase because I know what the quality is. 8 Brand recognition is a part influence in my decision in buying an item. Ive bought multiple times Sony Ericcson mobile phones as they are reliable to use and do not break easily. I bought a Tesco mobile phone many years ago and it broke after a few uses. Not reliable and trusted. 9 1. yes. If I trust the brand or have heard bad things about it I am less likely to use it. e.g. Google chrome. I waited till Id heard people;s expereinces till i downloaded it, 2. yes. 10 There are times I may not know a brand personally, but because of a commercial or recommendation I will try it over another comparable product. The recognition does at times help instill trust, but I feel trust in a product or brand is earned, but simply by identification, but by use. 11 I might purchase a brand that I have heard of but I would also go with generic if the ingredients were comparable. Having heard of a brand doesnt make me more likely to buy it. 12 There are certain brands that I trust simply b/c Ive used them, my mom used them and they have solid reputations. There was an issue w/a certain apple juice brand a few years ago. I have never           Page  87  
  • 95. purchased any of their products since. 13 I am more likely to purchase a product over another because I have used it and liked it rather than because I have heard about it. For me trust is based on past usage/experience (my own or sometimes of others) rather than volume of advertising. 14 Yes, I value a sense trust and respect for a company. If the company is not "respectable" in its dealings, ethics, and word, then I dont buy it ever again. 15 It does build in a feeling of trust. 16 sometimes sometimes 17 I do think that brand recognition plays a part in my purchasing decisions. In the grocery store, I am more likely, when making a first time purchase to try the name brand or the item with a brand name that I recognize. If I try the product and I like it, then I usually with stick with it. However, if the product doesnt meet my expectations, then I will try another name brand or the one that I havent heard of . Having that name recognition does help since you see/hear the commercials all the time. You expect them to live up to what they promise. If they dont then I just switch. 18 brand recognition is huge. I wouldnt buy a vizio TV over a Olivia/Samsung/Toshiba. I trust those three brands over a cheap alternative. 19 Brand recognition generally indicates market acceptance which infers that these products are selling so someone likes them 1. Yes I would use recognition as a weighing factor for purchase 2. No, not trust since I have been burned by poor quality products from famous companies like DELL, GE, Samsung, etc 13. How does a companys risk management, ethical standards, and/or corporate social responsibility (CSR) efforts affect your decision to purchase a product? Please include as much information as possible and consider the following questions when answering: Are you more likely to purchase a product because some of the profit is donated to an organisation or cause? Do you purchase any products because it is known that they ... use local ingredients, are made in your home country, or are made with fair-trade products? Does the way a company handles bad press affect how often you purchase their products? (Ex: A toy manufacturer recalling toys because of a known toxin in the plastic.) Respondent # Response 1 I am more likely to purchase a product because if they support a cause. I do purchase products because they support a cause (Newmans Own) and prefer some products that are made using local products. Following bad press or a recall I am cautious in what I purchase but try to make sure I understand exactly what the bad press is before deciding to purchase. 2 CSR is really important, I often dont like buying products from brand I dont know, products I dont know what are the ingredients from, or where they are manufacture. I would prefer buying products from a transparent brand which processes, values and history are known, It clearly give it more value, trust and influence my buying decisions. 3 If a portion of the proceeds of a product are being donated to a cause I believe in, I will lean toward purchasing that product. However, this is not always most important. I do purchase some products that are fair trade, as in my hot teas. I do purchase products that are "natural" or made in a local area, i.e. Cheerwine, Dr. Enuf, Burts Bees. I will purchase items from a local farmers market when in season. The affect of bad press is something I dont typically consider. In the case of the BP oil spill, I did not stop purchasing the product because the gas station I purchased it from was locally owned and operated and not a direct part of the spill. If a company has known human trafficking violations or use child workers in another country, I will tend to stay away from that product. 4 This factor has little impact on my purchasing decisions. 5 Honestly, this doesnt really have any affect on me at all. 6 Companys like Ben and Jerrys inspire m to buy their products because of their social responsibility. Knowing that buying their product helps to support their community definitely gives me a good feeling. 7 Like to purchase Made in the USA items. 8 Ethical standards are a major consideration nwhen buying a product. I have not bought products because for example Nestle and Walmart. Walmart are known to give money to the arms trade in the east. Also prefer organic and also non pesticides with products. Will pay more money if an item comes from a smaller trader or shop brand.           Page  88  
  • 96. 9 1. It depends. Only if it is a low risk item, like coffee. 2. Yes. Food mainly. 3. Yes. If the company is deemed unsafe or unethical i am less likely to buy from them. 10 I do have a soft-spot for brands that offer incentives by way of charitable organizations or causes and will oftentimes choose to shop with them because of it. Fair-trade and dealings with competitors also effects my purchase decision. How a company handles themselves with bad press or if a company chooses negative selling tactics also effects my decision. 11 I am more likely to try a product if I think that the company has a good foundation -- ethics. If 2 products were the same -- price and quality, I would pick the more responsible producer but would I pay a lot more? probably not. Local ingredients are more important to me for food products. Recalls can be a sign of social responsibility but too many can be an indicator of sloppy production and lack of ethics 12 When there are recalls due to malfunction or defect and the company does not inform the public effectively, that is when I decide to not purchase their product again. 13 I am not more likely to purchase because some profit is donated. Yes, I would avoid deliberate purchase of products from countries whose politics I regard as incompatible with my views or which require high transport costs 14 These things play into my decision, but they arent primary--they are more like the tipping points for purchasing decisions. I do like to encourage local or fair-trade companies. But most of all, I value integrity in the product: it does what its supposed to, with ease, and with an extra value of pleasure in some way. When bad press is the result of intentional decisions by a company to cut quality even when they know its risky, then I put the company on my "never buy" list. 15 A lot, if I have heard in the news or find out that the company does not support or goes against a cause I believe in I will not buy fron that company. In addition I will pay a little more for a brand that I believe is doing the right thing. 16 yes sometimes yes 17 I am more likely to purchase a product if part of the money goes to an organisation or cause. However, if the money is going to a cause that I think is over-used (no offense, but breast cancer awareness), I wont purchase it. Just as an example, if there are two cell phones for sale that are the same, and part of the proceeds on one go to Haiti and the other to Breast Cancer, I am going to go for Haiti. Its not that I am for breast cancer, its just that I think that there are other causes out there that need attention as well. However, I do also consider the price as well. If the price of one is over the price of another and they are similar enough to substitute in my opinion, even if the more expensive one is donating money, I will choose the less expensive one. I do purchase products that are local/made in my home country/are fair-trade, but it is not something that I specifically look for in most of my shopping. However, I do go local when buying some food (cheese, meat, honey, fruit and veg.) some time because of the taste factor. For that reason, I go to stores that carry local/fair-trade/home-made items when I want them. Fruit and veg tend to not have a taste when they come from Chile, but when they are grown down the road they taste great. The way that a company handles bad press does affect the way I buy. When I was buying a car, I looked at Toyotas and thought, "Even though I am buying a new car and it most likely wont have any problems such as shoddy breaks, I still dont want to have a product where the company denies that there is a problem until several months later." That is an extreme case, but Tylenol is a great example of something that I buy more often then a car. When they had poison in their medicine, they not only recalled ASAP but they changed the way that the product was packaged. I do purchase Tylenol over the store brand 99% of the time (price sometimes is a factor). 18 I would never but Tommy Hilfiger for the reason he is an anti-semite/racist and biggot at the same time. Is rather spend my money on a cpmpany the supports the community that it participates in like target. 19 It is very influential up to about a 20% adder to cost 1. Yes it is one reason that I shop at Target (5% of sales to charity) 2. Yes we buy local foods and fair-trade coffee when possible 3. Yes, if they seem ethical and take care of the problem           Page  89  
  • 97. Appendix  C:    In-­depth  Interview  Framework  Analysis     Objectives   Analyse       1. Gain  insight  into  the  world  of   • COMPLETED  THROUGH  LITERATURE  REVIEWS   brand  creation,  maintenance,  and     expiration.         2. Investigate  correlations  between   • Brand  recognition  –  #12   the  design  of  a  brand  and  how  it     affects  consumer-­‐purchasing   habits.         3. Examine  the  sensory  features  of   • Favourite  brand  –  #7   brand  design.   • Favourite  logo  –  #8     • Brand  packaging  –  #9         4. Identify  consumer-­‐purchasing   • Brand  loyalty  –  #10   habits/trends  in  the  UK  and  US.   • Price,  fashion,  economy  –  #11     • Risk  management,  standards,  CSR  –  #13         Demographic  Information   • Age  –  #2     • Currently  Living  –  #3   • Where  Born  –  #4   • Most  of  Life  –  #5   • Marketing  Professional  –  #6                               Page  90  
  • 98.       7. Favourite  brand   Brands  mentioned   Crest  Toothpaste   Irish  Spring   BBC   Chanel  Perfume   Yahoo   Chick-­‐Fil-­‐A   Burt’s  Bees   Apple  (3)   Armani  Exchange   L’Oreal  Elvive   Coke  /  Diet  Coke   Ralph  Lauren  Polo   Under  Armour   Tide   Heinz  Ketchup     Colours  mentioned   Red  (6)   Green  (3)   Rainbow   Blue  (2)   White  (7)   Orange   Black  (6)   Purple   Gold  /  Yellow  (4)   Silver  /  Grey  (2)     Reasons  (key  words)   Consistency  (5)   Clean  /  Fresh   Experience   Luxury  (2)   Linking  point   Positive  feeling  (2)   Established   Functionality   Recognizable  (3)   Natural  (2)   Aesthetics  (2)   Quality  (3)   Sharp  /  Professional   Honesty   Taste   Specific   Clear   Intuitive   Strength  /  Durability   Trust  (2)         8. Favourite  logo     Brands  mentioned   Google   Under  Armour   Disney   Chanel   H-­‐E-­‐Buddy   Gerber   Apple  (4)   National  Trust   FedEx   Bass  Pro  Shops   Nike  (2)   The  Beatles   McDonalds   Penguin     Colours  mentioned   Rainbow  (2)   Silver   Yellow  /  Gold  (2)   White  (5)   Green  (2)   Red  (2)   Black  (9)   Blue  (2)   Purple     Reasons  (key  words)   Simple   Desire  (2)   Warmth   Cheerful  (6)   Invincible   Pride   Historic  (5)   Positive  Feeling  (5)   “Go”   Luxury   Fair  price   Passionate   Sexy  (2)   Broad  product  range  (4)   Nostalgic    (2)   Happy  (2)   Trust  (5)   Culture   Sneaky   Comfort   Above  the  rest   Confidence  (5)                   Page  91  
  • 99. 9. Product  packaging     Is  packaging  considered  for  purchasing?   Yes  –  9   No  –  10     Where  is  the  general  focus?   Product  –  6   Packaging  –  4   Both  –  9     Packaging  functionality?   Yes  –  13   No  –  6     Evoking  positive  /  negative  emotions?   Yes  –  14   No  –  5         10. Brand  loyalty     Brands  mentioned   Crest  (2)   Vancamp’s  Pork  &  Beans   Oil  of  Olay   Nestlé   Sony  Ericcson   Colorox   Burt’s  Bees   Nokie   Adidas   Bare  Minerals   Samsung   Fischer  Price   Apple   HP   Barnes  &  Noble   Amazon  (2)   Apple  (3)   Talbots   Pampered  Chef   Nike  (2)   Clinique   Store  brands   Hellmans  (2)   Lindt   L’Oreal   Bounce  (2)   Red  Opal  Wines   Volkswagen  (2)   Tide  (2)   Express   Under  Armour   Coca-­‐Cola   Peter  Pan  Peanut  Butter   Pepsi   Diet  Coke   Toyota   Tiffany   Zest   Honda   Eddie  Bauer   Dawn   Stonyfield   Folger’s  Decaf   Almay     Offers/Vouchers/Coupons  make  a  difference?   Yes  –  6   No  –  10     Friends/Colleagues/Peers  make  a  difference  …   Yes  –  12   No  –  5     Emotions  evoked  …   Happiness  (6)   Innovation   Reputation  (5)   Satisfaction  (9)   Sexy  (3)   Dependability  (4)   Quality  (8)   Professional  (2)   Nastalgia   Expertise  (2)   Frugal  /  Bargain  (2)   Durability  (3)   Safety  (2)   Talented   Value  (2)   Ethics   Confidence  /  Trust  (6)   Conservative         11. Price,  fashion,  economy     Price  (characteristics)   Warehouse  purchasing   Potential  Barrier  for  purchase   Sales   Reasonable  pricing             Page  92  
  • 100. Price  comparisons   Must  not  be  too  expensive  (3)   Extremely  important  (3)   Savings   Not  a  factor   Bottom  line  purchasing  factor  (4)     Fashion  (characteristics)   Trends   Better  quality  =  more  expensive   Whether  (2)   Functionality  over  aesthetics   Not  a  factor  (4)     Economy  (characteristics)   Forced  to  bargain  hunt  (2)   Biggest  impact   Not  a  factor     Influenced  by  …   Offers  /  Vouchers  /  Coupons  –  9   Necessity  –  15   Peer  suggestions  –  10   Luxury  –  5         12. Brand  recognition     Purchase  something  because  you  recognise  and  have  heard  of  the  brand?   Yes  –  13   No  –  2   Sometimes  –  4     Does  brand  recognition  evoke  trust?   Yes  –  8   No  –  5   Sometimes  –  6         13. Risk  management,  ethical  standards,  CSR     Influenced  by  …   Risk  management  –  5   CSR  –  9   Ethical  standards  –  6   None  –  2     More  likely  to  purchase  because  they  donate  …   Yes  –  7   No  –  3   Sometimes  /  Depends  –  4     Do  you  purchase  because  they  are  known  for  helping  …   Local  community  /  are  locally  made  –  10   Are  fair-­‐trade  –  10   Environment  –  2   None  –  2     The  way  a  company  handles  ‘bad  press’  influences  you  …   Yes  –  10   No  –  2   Sometimes  /  Depends  –  3             Page  93  
  • 101. Appendix  D:    In-­depth  Interview  Demographic  Charts                     Page  94  
  • 102.                     Page  95  
  • 103.           Page  96  
  • 104. Appendix  E:    Survey  Questions     Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing: An International Study of Brands in the UK and US Markets  Thank you for taking the time to complete this survey. You will be helping to analyse the question "Whydo people choose one product or brand over another?" Please know that all responses are anonymous. Thissurvey may take anywhere between 10 - 15 minutes.All questions MUST have an answer. If you feel the question does not apply, then please feel free to clickon "N/A" if the option is available.Thank you again!    1  If you would like to see the results of this study once the analysis has been completed, please fill in yourinformation details below: Name – Email Address – Comments –2  * What is your age? Under 18 25-34 45-54 19-24 35-44 Over 553  * Where are you currently living? United Kingdom United States Other4  * Where were you born? United Kingdom United States Other5  * Where have you spent the majority of your life? United Kingdom United States Other6  * As a profession, are you in the field of marketing? Yes No           Page  97  
  • 105. 7  * If you are in the field of marketing you are a … I am not in the field of marketing. Category Manager Marketing Executive Marketing Manager Marketing Assistant Brand Manager Account Manager Marketing Director Marketing Officer Vice-President Product Manager Other, please specify8  * Purchasing HabitsHow often do you purchase electronics? Daily Yearly Never Weekly Every 1-3 Years N/A Monthly Every 4+ YearsHow often do you purchase soft drinks? Daily Yearly Never Weekly Every 1-3 Years N/A Monthly Every 4+ YearsHow often do you purchase hygiene (bath/shower) products? Daily Yearly Never Weekly Every 1-3 Years N/A Monthly Every 4+ Years9  * I have heard of this brand … (please choose all that apply) Apple IBM Unix Microsoft Linux None of the Above10  * I have purchased this brand … (please choose all that apply) Apple IBM Unix Microsoft Linux None of the Above11  * I have heard of this brand … (please choose all that apply) Coca-Cola Virgin Cola Red Bull Cola Pepsi Cola RC Cola Nonce of the Above12  * I have purchased this brand … (please choose all that apply) Coca-Cola Virgin Cola Red Bull Cola Pepsi Cola RC Cola Nonce of the Above           Page  98  
  • 106. 13  * I have heard of this brand … (please choose all that apply) Dove Bath & Body Works Jergens The Body Shop Lush None of the Above14  * I have purchased this brand … (please choose all that apply) Dove Bath & Body Works Jergens The Body Shop Lush None of the Above15  * Name the first brand that immediately comes to mind for the following colours:(Please list only one for each colour. If you cannot think of a brand immediately, please put “N/A” in thespace provided.) Black – Blue – Green – Grey (Silver) – Orange – Pink – Purple – Red – White – Yellow –16  * Which colour(s) does your ... favourite brand use? Black Orange White Blue Pink Yellow Green Purple Grey (Silver) Red* Which colour(s) does your ... least favourite brand use? Black Orange White Blue Pink Yellow Green Purple Grey (Silver) Red17  * Whose logo am I? Smirnoff Jack Daniels Bacardi Baileys Jose Cuervo           Page  99  
  • 107. 18  * Whose logo am I? Moxilla Firefox Internet Explorer Apple Safari Netscape Google Chrome19  * Whose logo am I? Subway KFC Burger King McDonalds Pizza Hut20  * Whose logo am I? T-Mobile O2 Orange Three Vodaphone21  * Whose logo am I? Staples Costa Red Cross Xerox Argos           Page  100  
  • 108. 22  * Which brand am I? Mercedes Hummer Vauxhall Honda BMW23  * Which brand am I? Clinique Harajuku Lovers Dolce & Gabbana Jean-Paul Gaultier Chanel24  * Which brand am I? Adidas Puma Reebok Nike Converse           Page  101  
  • 109. 25  * Which brand am I? Apple Sony Samsung Blackberry Nokia26  * Which brand am I? Chanel Dolce & Gabbana Louis Vuitton Coach Burberry    27  * For the brand questions, did you … (please mark all that apply) - answer without using help (excluding the drop-down menu) - recognise all or most brands - if used another source, please list here:               Page  102  
  • 110. 28  * Overall, did you find having to give a brand for the colour to be difficult? Yes No29  * Overall, did you find having to match the brand with the logo to be difficult? Yes No30  * Overall, did you find having to match the brand with the package to be difficult? Yes No31  * How much do you agree with the general statement: “When buying products, I consider the …”… mood I am in. Strongly Agree Neither Agree / Disagree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree… brand of the product. Strongly Agree Neither Agree / Disagree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree… colours of the brand. Strongly Agree Neither Agree / Disagree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree… colours of the product. Strongly Agree Neither Agree / Disagree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree… design of the brand. Strongly Agree Neither Agree / Disagree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree… design of the product. Strongly Agree Neither Agree / Disagree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree… way the product is packaged. Strongly Agree Neither Agree / Disagree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree… amount the product costs. Strongly Agree Neither Agree / Disagree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree… warranty available for the product. Strongly Agree Neither Agree / Disagree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree… reviews from other sources. (includes peers or credited sources) Strongly Agree Neither Agree / Disagree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree           Page  103  
  • 111. … time I have to spend in the store. (time allowed to spend in store) Strongly Agree Neither Agree / Disagree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree… time I have to spend in the store. (limited time offer items) Strongly Agree Neither Agree / Disagree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree32  * Has your opinion on a product or brand ever changed (positively or negatively) due to …… Price (ex: is the item cheaper/more expensive than the product average?) Yes No Maybe N/A… Fashion (ex: is the item still in style?) Yes No Maybe N/A… Economy (ex: is now a good time to buy this? Can I currently afford this?) Yes No Maybe N/A… Brand Loyalty (ex: do you repeatedly purchase the same brand?) Yes No Maybe N/A… Brand Reputation (ex: are all your friends buying it?) Yes No Maybe N/A… Risk Management (ex: BP’s oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico or Toyota’s recall) Yes No Maybe N/A… Ethical Standards (ex: fair trade products) Yes No Maybe N/A… Corporate Social Responsibility (ex: giving back to the community) Yes No Maybe N/A           Page  4104   Page   5  
  • 112. Appendix  F:    Survey  Results  Spreadsheet     Zoomerang Survey Results Brand Design and its Effects on Consumer Purchasing: An International Study of Brands in the UK and US Markets Response Status: Completes Filter: No filter applied Jan 09, 2011 3:27 AM PST Thank you for taking the time to complete this survey. You will be helping to analyse the question "Why do people choose one product or brand over another?" Please know that all responses are anonymous. This survey may take anywhere between 10 - 15 minutes. All questions MUST have an answer. If you feel the question does not apply, then please feel free to click on "N/A" if the option is available. Thank you again! 1. If you would like to see the results of this study once the analysis has been completed, please fill in your information details below: 135 Responses 2. What is your age? Under 18 1 0% 19-24 72 30% 25-34 86 36% 35-44 42 17% 45-54 18 7% Over 55 22 9% Total 241 100%           Page  105  
  • 113. 3. Where are you currently living? United Kingdom 29 12% United States 175 73% Other 37 15% Total 241 100% 4. Where were you born? United Kingdom 18 7% United States 161 67% Other 62 26% Total 241 100% 5. Where have you spent the majority of your life? United Kingdom 17 7% United States 174 72% Other 50 21% Total 241 100% 6. As a profession, are you in the field of marketing? Yes 42 17% No 199 83% Total 241 100% 7. If you are in the field of marketing you are a ... I am not in the field of marketing 179 74% 1 0% Marketing           Page  106  
  • 114. Executive Marketing Assistant 11 5% Account Manager 4 2% Marketing Officer 1 0% Product Manager 2 1% Category Manager 0 0% Marketing Manager 3 1% Brand Manager 2 1% Marketing Director 1 0% Vice- President 1 0% Other, please specify 36 15% Total 241 100% 8. Purchasing Habits Top number is the count of respondent s selecting the option. Bottom % is percent of the total respondent s selecting Every 1- Every the option. Daily Weekly Monthly Yearly 3 Years 4+ Years Never N/A How often 2 3 34 133 53 15 1 0 do you purchase electronics ? 1% 1% 14% 55% 22% 6% 0% 0% How often 38 96 76 12 4 1 11 3 do you purchase soft drinks? 16% 40% 32% 5% 2% 0% 5% 1% How often 2 42 190 5 0 0 2 0 do you purchase h ygiene (bath/show 1% 17% 79% 2% 0% 0% 1% 0% er)           Page  107  
  • 115. products? 9. I have heard of this brand ... (please choose all that apply) Apple 239 99% Microsoft 239 99% IBM 233 97% Linux 183 76% Unix 123 51% None of the Above 1 0% 10. I have purchased this brand ... (please choose all that apply) Apple 165 68% Microsoft 229 95% IBM 61 25% Linux 14 6% Unix 7 3% None of the Above 5 2% 11. I have heard of this brand ... (please choose all that apply) Coca-Cola 241 100% Pepsi Cola 239 99% Virgin Cola 66 27% RC Cola 174 72% Red Bull Cola 174 72% None of the Above 0 0% 12. I have purchased this brand ... (please choose all that apply) Coca-Cola 228 95%           Page  108  
  • 116. Pepsi Cola 194 80% Virgin Cola 13 5% RC Cola 79 33% Red Bull Cola 49 20% None of the Above 9 4% 13. I have heard of this brand ... (please choose all that apply) Dove 240 100% The Body Shop 198 82% Bath & Body Works 195 81% Lush 87 36% Jergens 180 75% None of the Above 1 0% 14. I have purchased this brand ... (please choose all that apply) Dove 216 90% The Body Shop 119 49% Bath & Body Works 159 66% Lush 51 21% Jergens 116 48% None of the Above 7 3% 15. Name the first brand that immediately comes to mind for of the following colours:(Please list only one for each colour. If you cannot think of a brand immediately, please put "N/A" in the space provided.) 241 Responses           Page  109  
  • 117. 16. Which colour(s) does your ... Top number is the count of respondent s selecting the option. Bottom % is percent of the total respondent s selecting Grey the option. Black Blue Green (Silver) Orange Pink Purple Red White Yellow ... 45 46 19 20 4 13 13 52 25 4 favourite brand use? 19% 19% 8% 8% 2% 5% 5% 22% 10% 2% ... least 30 23 21 15 34 26 17 16 17 42 favourite brand use? 12% 10% 9% 6% 14% 11% 7% 7% 7% 17% 17. Whose logo am I? Smirnoff 32 13% Bacardi 168 70% Jose Cuervo 28 12% Jack Daniels 5 2% Baileys 8 3% Total 241 100% 18. Whose logo am I? Mozilla Firefox 12 5% Apple Safari 9 4% Google Chrome 204 85% Internet Explorer 10 4% Netscape 6 2% Total 241 100%           Page  110  
  • 118. 19. Whose logo am I? Subway 0 0% Burger King 0 0% Pizza Hut 0 0% KFC 0 0% McDonald s 241 100% Total 241 100% 20. Whose logo am I? T-Mobile 10 4% Orange 12 5% Vodafone 139 58% O2 78 32% Three 2 1% Total 241 100% 21. Whose logo am I? Staples 11 5% Red Cross 4 2% Argos 61 25% Costa 22 9% Xerox 143 59% Total 241 100% 22. Which brand am I? Mercedes 0 0% Honda 0 0% Hummer 239 99% BMW 0 0% Vauxhall 2 1%           Page  111  
  • 119. Total 241 100% 23. Which brand am I? Clinique 20 8% Jean-Paul Gaultier 113 47% Harajuku Lovers 29 12% Chanel 39 16% Dolce & Gabbana 40 17% Total 241 100% 24. Which brand am I? Adidas 4 2% Nike 1 0% Puma 4 2% Converse 229 95% Reebok 3 1% Total 241 100% 25. Which brand am I? Apple 205 85% Blackberry 8 3% Sony 5 2% Nokia 7 3% Samsung 16 7% Total 241 100% 26. Which brand am I? Chanel 1 0%           Page  112  
  • 120. Coach 11 5% Dolce & Gabbana 3 1% Burberry 2 1% Louis Vuitton 224 93% Total 241 100% 27. For the brand questions, did you ... (please mark all that apply) answer without using help (excluding drop-down menu) 160 66% recognise all or most brands 140 58% If used another source, please list here: 12 5% 28. Overall, did you find having to give a brand for the colour to be difficult? Yes 206 85% No 35 15% Total 241 100% 29. Overall, did you find having to match the brand with the logo to be difficult? Yes 70 29% No 171 71% Total 241 100% 30. Overall, did you find having to match the brand with the package to be difficult? Yes 60 25% No 181 75%           Page  113  
  • 121. Total 241 100% 31. How much do you agree with the general statement: "When buying products, I consider the ... Top number is the count of respondent s selecting the option. Bottom % is percent of the total Neither respondent Agree s selecting Strongly /Disagre Disagre Strongly the option. Agree Agree e e Disagree 36 129 34 25 17 ... mood I am in." 15% 54% 14% 10% 7% ... brand of 75 134 20 8 4 the product." 31% 56% 8% 3% 2% ... colours 6 19 90 80 46 of the brand." 2% 8% 37% 33% 19% ... colours 35 104 58 31 13 of the product." 15% 43% 24% 13% 5% ... design 29 96 66 37 13 of the brand." 12% 40% 27% 15% 5% ... design 91 111 24 11 4 of the product." 38% 46% 10% 5% 2% ... way the 22 102 68 40 9 product is packaged." 9% 42% 28% 17% 4% ... amount 166 66 8 1 0 the product costs." 69% 27% 3% 0% 0% ... warranty 31 101 68 39 2 available for the product." 13% 42% 28% 16% 1% ... reviews 76 119 34 9 3 from other sources." (includes peers or credited sources) 32% 49% 14% 4% 1% ... time I 31 103 66 31 10 have to purchase the 13% 43% 27% 13% 4% product."           Page  114  
  • 122. (time allowed to spend in store) ... time I 29 123 57 23 9 have to purchase the product." (limited time offer items) 12% 51% 24% 10% 4% 32. Has your opinion on a product or brand ever changed (positively or negatively) due to ... Top number is the count of respondent s selecting the option. Bottom % is percent of the total respondent s selecting the option. Yes Maybe No N/A Price (ex: 187 42 12 0 is the item cheaper/m ore expensive than the product average?) 78% 17% 5% 0% Fashion 111 79 50 1 (ex: is this item still in style?) 46% 33% 21% 0% Economy 171 46 23 1 (ex: is now a good time to buy this? Can I currently afford this?) 71% 19% 10% 0% Brand 149 65 26 1 Loyalty (ex: do you repeatedly purchase the same brand?) 62% 27% 11% 0% Brand 100 84 56 1 Reputation (ex: are all your friends buying it?) 41% 35% 23% 0%           Page  115  
  • 123. Risk 72 94 71 4 Manageme nt (ex: BPs oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico or Toyotas recall) 30% 39% 29% 2% Ethical 98 97 43 2 Standards (ex: fair trade products) 41% 40% 18% 1% Corporate 70 103 66 2 Social Responsibi lity (ex: giving back to the community ) 29% 43% 27% 1% 1. If you would like to see the results of this study once the analysis has been completed, please fill in your information details below: Questio Question Questio n 1: 1: Responden n 1: Email Commen t# Name Address ts 1 Not provided to protect identity. 2 Not provided to protect identity. 3 Not provided to protect identity. 4 Not provided to protect identity. 5 Not provided to protect identity. 6 Not provided to protect identity. 7 Not provided to protect identity. 8 Not provided to protect identity. 9 Not provided to protect identity. 10 Not provided to protect identity. 11 Not provided to protect identity. 12 Not provided to protect identity. 13 Not provided to protect identity. 14 Not provided to protect identity. 15 Not provided to protect identity. 16 Not provided to protect identity.           Page  116  
  • 124. 17 Not provided to protect identity. 18 Not provided to protect identity. 19 Not provided to protect identity. 20 Not provided to protect identity. 21 Not provided to protect identity. 22 Not provided to protect identity. 23 Not provided to protect identity. 24 Not provided to protect identity. 25 Not provided to protect identity. 26 Not provided to protect identity. 27 Not provided to protect identity. 28 Not provided to protect identity. 29 Not provided to protect identity. 30 Not provided to protect identity. 31 Not provided to protect identity. 32 Not provided to protect identity. 33 Not provided to protect identity. 34 Not provided to protect identity. 35 Not provided to protect identity. 36 Not provided to protect identity. 37 Not provided to protect identity. 38 Not provided to protect identity. 39 Not provided to protect identity. 40 Not provided to protect identity. 41 Not provided to protect identity. 42 Not provided to protect identity. 43 Not provided to protect identity. 44 Not provided to protect identity. 45 Not provided to protect identity. 46 Not provided to protect identity. 47 Not provided to protect identity. 48 Not provided to protect identity. 49 Not provided to protect identity. 50 Not provided to protect identity. 51 Not provided to protect identity. 52 Not provided to protect identity.           Page  117  
  • 125. 53 Not provided to protect identity. 54 Not provided to protect identity. 55 Not provided to protect identity. 56 Not provided to protect identity. 57 Not provided to protect identity. 58 Not provided to protect identity. 59 Not provided to protect identity. 60 Not provided to protect identity. 61 Not provided to protect identity. 62 Not provided to protect identity. 63 Not provided to protect identity. 64 Not provided to protect identity. 65 Not provided to protect identity. 66 Not provided to protect identity. 67 Not provided to protect identity. 68 Not provided to protect identity. 69 Not provided to protect identity. 70 Not provided to protect identity. 71 Not provided to protect identity. 72 Not provided to protect identity. 73 Not provided to protect identity. 74 Not provided to protect identity. 75 Not provided to protect identity. 76 Not provided to protect identity. 77 Not provided to protect identity. 78 Not provided to protect identity. 79 Not provided to protect identity. 80 Not provided to protect identity. 81 Not provided to protect identity. 82 Not provided to protect identity. 83 Not provided to protect identity. 84 Not provided to protect identity. 85 Not provided to protect identity. 86 Not provided to protect identity. 87 Not provided to protect identity. 88 Not provided to protect identity.           Page  118  
  • 126. 89 Not provided to protect identity. 90 Not provided to protect identity. 91 Not provided to protect identity. 92 Not provided to protect identity. 93 Not provided to protect identity. 94 Not provided to protect identity. 95 Not provided to protect identity. 96 Not provided to protect identity. 97 Not provided to protect identity. 98 Not provided to protect identity. 99 Not provided to protect identity. 100 Not provided to protect identity. 101 Not provided to protect identity. 102 Not provided to protect identity. 103 Not provided to protect identity. 104 Not provided to protect identity. 105 Not provided to protect identity. 106 Not provided to protect identity. 107 Not provided to protect identity. 108 Not provided to protect identity. 109 Not provided to protect identity. 110 Not provided to protect identity. 111 Not provided to protect identity. 112 Not provided to protect identity. 113 Not provided to protect identity. 114 Not provided to protect identity. 115 Not provided to protect identity. 116 Not provided to protect identity. 117 Not provided to protect identity. 118 Not provided to protect identity. 119 Not provided to protect identity. 120 Not provided to protect identity. 121 Not provided to protect identity. 122 Not provided to protect identity. 123 Not provided to protect identity. 124 Not provided to protect identity.           Page  119  
  • 127. 125 Not provided to protect identity. 126 Not provided to protect identity. 127 Not provided to protect identity. 128 Not provided to protect identity. 129 Not provided to protect identity. 130 Not provided to protect identity. 131 Not provided to protect identity. 132 Not provided to protect identity. 133 Not provided to protect identity. 134 Not provided to protect identity. 135 Not provided to protect identity. 7. If you are in the field of marketing you are a ... Responden Respons t# e 1 N/A 2 Intern 3 n/a 4 Student study marketin g 5 services business 6 Grad Student - Pastor 7 Back of house supervis or 8 None 9 Aspiring student 10 na 11 Creative Planner 12 NA 13 Academ ic 14 Lecturer in Marketi           Page  120  
  • 128. ng 15 Enginee r 16 Lecturer in Marketi ng 17 n/a 18 Not in marketin g 19 Sales 20 Finance 21 Student 22 n/a 23 Business owner - marketin g is part of what has to be done 24 still looking for a job 25 student 26 Student 27 Brand Strategy Consulta nt 28 NA 29 homema ker 30 NA 31 Writer & Designe r (former Marketi ng Coordin ator) 32 educatio n 33 n/a 34 Not in the marketin           Page  121  
  • 129. g field 35 Law 36 educatio n and training 15. Name the first brand that immediately comes to mind for of the following colours:(Please list only one for each colour. If you cannot think of a brand immediately, please put "N/A" in the space provided.) Questio Questio Questio Question n 15: Question Questio Questio Questi Questio Responden n 15: n 15: 15: Grey 15: Question n 15: n 15: on 15: n 15: t# Black Blue Green (Silver) Orange 15: Pink Purple Red White Yellow 1 Adidas Barclay Lloyds Apple Orange T- Pampers Target Nike McDona s TSB Mobile lds 2 Nike HP Fairy Mac Orange Barbie TokiDo Coke BBC Cadbury Liquid (apple) (phone ki company (clothin ) g/art) 3 guinness milky sprite apple N/A barbie N/A red bull apple N/A way 4 N/A N/A N/A Centru Tropican Breast N/A Coca- N/A N/A m a Cancer Cola 5 N/A N/A N/A Apple N/A Victoria N/A N/A N/A N/A s Secret 6 Lynx n/a Maybelli n/a n/a Maybelli Tigi n/a Dove n/a ne ne 7 Dell Pepsi Garnier Wilkins Orange T mobile Jelly Ferrari N/A La Poste on Bean 8 Jack IBM Toyota Honda N/A Victoria N/A Coca- Progres N/A Daniels s Secret Cola sive 9 Mini N/A N/A Apple orange hello N/A swiss Apple the kitty pocket yellow knives pages 10 Pepe Milka Trident Apple Berska Pimkie Trident Coca- Eee Iced Tea Jeans cola 11 Coke iTunes Publix Diet Nike Sweet LA Coca NA Livestro Zero Coke and Low Lakers Cola ng 12 NA IBM NA Apple NA NA NA NA NA NA 13 N/A NIVEA bp N/A Orange N/A N/A Coca N/A shell Cola 14 dell N/A lush dell nike victorias N/A gap best DHL secret buy 15 Apple N/A starbuck n/a home Victoria N/A Target N/A N/A s depot Secrete 16 N/A Pepsi N/A Toyota N/A Victoria N/A Coke N/A Post-It s Secret 17 dell addidas lacoste N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A           Page  122  
  • 130. 18 North Chelsea Irish Longch Sunkist Kitchen Welchs n/a n/a Dole Face Spring amp Aid 19 Apple Sprite Irish Apple Fanta Victoria N/A Coca- Apple Google Spring s Secret Cola 20 n/a Levi n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Coke Dove n/a 21 Lindt Dolce & Springfie Apple Orange Lacoste N/A Coca- Dove N/A Gabann ld cola a 22 dell secret n/a window arm&ha victoria n/a n/a apple best buy s mmer secret 23 N/A Pepsi 7 UP Lexus Orange N/A Barney Coca N/A N/A Crush Cola 24 coca red bull sprite je sais orange pimkie je sais ferarie je sais ebly cola pas pas pas 25 Coca- Finnair N/A Apple Orange N/A Jules Coca- Apple N/A Cola Cola 26 Guinnes Tesco n/a Volksw Orange T- Cadbury Royal n/a Marie s agen Mobile Mail Curie Cancer Care 27 Blckberr Pepsi N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Virgin Apple McDona y ld 28 Nike Pepsi NA Diet Orange NA Lakers Utah Northe Oil of Pepsi Crush Utes rn Olay Tissue 29 n nivea n n orange n n coca n n 30 N/A Dove Veolia N/A N/A Accesso N/A Coke N/A Yellow rize pages 31 N/A Dasani N/A Apple N/A Victoria N/A Delta N/A N/A Secret 32 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 33 adidas puma N/A red bull kellys fa N/A N/A dove N/A 34 Chanel Pepsi simple, apple orange benefit N/A Coke Dove Mc body mobile Donald shop 35 Nike N/A N/A Under N/A Victoria N/A Coca N/A Burts Armour s Secret Cola Bees 36 Mercede Pepsi Lush BMW Tropican Victoria NA Coca- Hershe NA s-Benz a s Secret Cola ys 37 Nissan IBM Survey Brandw Virgin Victoria Delta Coca Dove Pontiac Monkey are s Secret Sigma Cola Pi 38 Axe Selsun Garnier Dell Herbal Victoria Bath and Old Apple N/A deodora Blue Fructis Essences Secret Body Spice nt Works 39 n/a dove body Renault Orange n/a london Coca apple mac shop (Cars) (mobile met! cola donald phone) 40 N/A N/A N/A N/A Tide Victoria N/A N/A N/A N/A s Secret           Page  123  
  • 131. 41 razor - nike n/a IBM Shout n/a DSP :)_ red bull n/a n/a cant - cant think of think of brand another 42 n/a microso john toyota kubota susan g delta pizza n/a mc ft deere komen sigma pi hut donalds 43 Batman Wal- Boston Wii N/A Mary Prince Coke GA GA Mart Celtics Kay Tech Tech 44 Black & N/A N/A N/A N/A Victoria N/A N/A N/A N/A Decker Secret 45 n/a pepsi starbuck n/a universit susan G. n/a coke n/a n/a s y of Komen texas 46 n/a Tiffany John n/a n/a Victoria n/a n/a n/a Burts s Deere s Secret Bees 47 Coca None The None Mandari Victoria None Coca Apple None Cola Body na Duck s Secret Cola Shop 48 n/a n/a n/a GAP Southwe Victoria n/a n/a White n/a st s Secret House Black Market 49 Spencer Ralp Coach Nike Home Babys R Macys Victoria Black Pac Sun s Lauren Depot Us Secret and White Market 50 Jack Lonely Greenpe N/A Easyjet Volaris London Red Apple Expedia Daniels Planet ace Met Cross 51 Dr. Pepsi N/A N/A Sunkist Victoria N/A Coca- Dove N/A Pepper s Secret Cola Cherry 52 guinness faceboo perrier, N/A orange pimkie london coca signal post , mango k, nestlé badoit met cola, office h&m 53 Johnny Powera Nyquil Hershe N/A Victoria N/A Fredrick MacInt Dole Walker de y s Secret s of osh Hollyw ood 54 Sephora IBM Unilever Virgin at&t Victoria N/A Coca N/A N/A Air s Secret Cola 55 Coca- Microso Yuenglin Dell N/A Victoria N/A Coca- Kleene Mayfiel Cola ft g Secret Cola x d 56 Nike M&Ms Herbal Touch Sunkist TelaFlor n/a Target Progres n/a Essence of Grey al sive Insuran ce 57 NA Dial Irish Ralph Home Victoria N/A Old Listeri N/A Spring Lauren Depot s Secret Spice ne X 58 Boss N/A WWE Merced Orange Sanrio N/A Coke N/A N/A es Benz 59 Coke IBM Publix Dell Home Victoria N/A Coke N/A Hertz Zero Depot s Secret           Page  124  
  • 132. 60 n/a delta palmoliv n/a orange victorias n/a target dove chicketa e dish crush secret soap bananas soap 61 Axe Nautica Irish NA Fanta NA NA Old NA NA Spring Spice 62 Levi Dove Hugo Merced N/A Barbie N/A Coca N/A Lambor Strauss Boss es Cola ghini 63 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a la coste n/a n/a n/a tetlley 64 Coke Powera Animal N/A Jaffa N/A N/A N/A N/A Banana de cakes 65 Oakland Deloitte NY Jets Rolls Tropican Anythin Barney Coca N/A Big Bird Raiders Royce a g Susan the Cola Koman Dinosau r 66 Samsun Nokia N/A Apple Hartwall Hello N/A Coca- Apple N/A g Jaffa Kitty Cola (Finnish soft drink) 67 puma ibm timberla Amtrak Crush Susan B Fruit of Coca- Dove Kodak nd Kolmen the Cola Loom 68 n/a pepsi sprite n/a slice peptobis n/a coca n/a old navy noll cola 69 N/A N/A Nature N/A Orange N/A N/A Coca N/A Hertz House cola 70 America N/A TrueGre N/A Sunkist Crystal Minneso Cardinal N/A Yellow n en Lite ta s Tail Express Vikings 71 Lexus Blue Fidelity Merced Tyco Yoplait Crown Coca Xerox N/a Cross es Electroni Royal Cola Blue cs Shield 72 Sony Citi BP Merced Orange N/A N/A Vodafo Apple Lambor Bank es Benz ne ghini 73 Black IBM Zipcar Honda ING Victoria N/A Honda Dove N/A and s Secret Decker 74 N/A Lush Pringles N/A Walkers Cath Johnson Neutrog N/A Vaseline Kitson s Body ena Care 75 coca pepsi 7up merced tango n/a n/a mcdonal the acqua di cola es benz ds white parma compa ny 76 Axe Nivea Healthy N/A Big Lots N/A N/A N/A Dove Dial Choice 77 Coke N/A N/A N/A N/A Victoria N/A Coke N/A N/A s Secret 78 IBM cadbury N/A Ford Crush Bubble n/a Coca n/a n/a s soft gum Cola drink           Page  125  
  • 133. 79 Black swave jolly n/a tropicana n/a Stone Red Dove egg forrest mt soap green Hill Bull beaters ham giant concord wine 80 Coke Dove Williams Americ Tropican Victoria N/A Coca N/A N/A Zero Sonoma an a s Secret Cola Airlines 81 IBM Microso Greenpe Toshiba Orange Victoria N/A Red Colgat Hertz ft ace s Secret Bull e 82 hersheys n/a zest n/a tropicana victoria n/a coke crest aveno secret 83 Jack Dove Perrier Ivory Orangica Juicy NA Coca Coca Yella Daniels Soap Cola Cola Wood Whiskey 84 Coke Pepsi Body Diet Planet Victoria Nalgene Arbys Breyer McDona Zero Shop coke Smoothi Secret s lds e 85 n/a Sherwin Perkins n/a n/a Victoria n/a McDon Dove McDona William Secret alds lds s 86 N/A Pepsi Gain Draino N/A N/A N/A Old Crest N/A Cola Spice 87 iPhone N/A Green iPod N/A Nair N/A Twizzle St. Ives Tropica Giant r na 88 N/A N/A N/A Ford Soda N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 89 n/a Ajax n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a LOreal Panten n/a El Vive e shampo o& conditio ner; colour 90 n/a pepsi mountai red bull florida victoria n/a coke n/a n/a n dew orange secret juice 91 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 92 Red Crest Suave Sony Tropican Victoria Vogue Coca Apple Dole Bull (Toothp (Shampo a s Secret Cola (fruit aste) o) (Orange compan Juice) y) 93 Dodge Gerber Tide Absolut KFC N/A N/A McDon Dove N/A alds 94 Johnnie IBM John NA Orange NA Ribena Virgin NA Ikea Walker Lewis 95 Selfridg Dell Oxfam Apple Orange NA NA Virgin NA Disney es 96 N/A Gap Ryanair N/A Easy Jet N/A London Virgin The Yellow Metropo White Pages litan Compa Universi ny ty 97 Apple Downy Irish N/A Tropican Huggies Oil of Dentyne Cotton Volksw ipad soap a olay elle agen           Page  126  
  • 134. 98 Coca Dove Body N/A Fanta N/A Milka Coca N/A N/A Cola Shop Cola Zero 99 Guinnes Paypal n/a n/a Orange T- Yahoo Ask Apple IMBD s Mobile 100 America n/a BP n/a n/a Susan Delta n/a n/a n/a n Komen Sigma Express Pi 101 n/a lowes publix n/a home victorias n/a Coke n/a mcdonal depot secret ds 102 Coca- N/A N/A N/A Fanta Victoria N/A Coca- Apple McDona Cola Secret Cola lds 103 Adidas Pepsi N/A N/A ING Cancer N/A Netflix N/A N/A Researc h 104 Coke Jet Blue BP Porsche Orange Eden N/A Coca Apple Renault Zero Park Cola 105 N/A Pepsi M&Ms Coors Crush N/A N/A Coke Mac N/A 106 N/A Pepsi N/A N/A Fanta Victoria Crown Coke Apple Burts s Secret Royal Bees 107 Bath N/A Clinique Vizio N/A Victoria N/A N/A Dove Chiquita and Secret Body Works 108 IBM Microso R.E.I. Logitec KTM N/A Crown Target Apple Best ft h Royal Buy 109 Dell Windex Comet Rouge Tide Cover N/A Coco Dove Green Girl Cola Giant 110 N/A IBM The Apple Orange T- N/A Vodafo Tesco Aviva Body Mobile ne Shop 111 Sony N/A Irish N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Dove N/A Spring 112 Axe Pepsi Sprite Apple ING Victoria n/a Coca Dove n/a s Secret Cola 113 Coach Pepsi NA Apple Fanta Pink - NA Coca Wii Yoohoo VS Cola Nitend Drink o 114 na na na diet na victoria na bath and na na pepsi secret body works 115 n/a Dove n/a Gillette Orange T mobile n/a coca n/a n/a cola 116 Harley Head Guiness Tiffany N/A Victoria N/A N/A N/A N/A Davidso and & Secrets n Shoulde Compa rs ny 117 n/a n/a n/a n/a tennesse owen n/a n/a n/a n/a e corning football insulatio n 118 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Coke N/A N/A           Page  127  
  • 135. 119 BMW Pepsi Bank of Dell dont Victoria dont Coca Apple dont America know Secret know Cola know 120 N/A Tesco N/A N/A N/A N/A Cadbury Argos N/A N/A s 121 Johnnie Pepsi Mountai Brother Home Barbie Crown Coca- Apple n/a Walker n Dew (printer Depot Royal Cola s) 122 Harley Pepsi Mountai Honda Libbys Pepto Victoria Marlbor Nike Cheerio Davidso n Dew Bismol s Secret o s n 123 Sony Dove Andes Honda Fanta Victoria Willy Coca Aquafr Tic Tac s Secret Wonka Cola esh 124 Sony Vaselin Bath & Mabelli Clinique Victoria New Target Colgat Pine Sol e Body ne s Secret York & e Works Co. 125 Pepsi N/A N/A Dove Suave N/A N Red N/A N/A Bull 126 N/A Zaxbys Green Smirnof Lindt Susan G. N/A Coke Apple N/A Giant f Koman Compu Breat ters Cancer endorsed stuff 127 N/A n/a n/a hershey n/a breast Deltasig Coke Scott spongs s cancer tissue ribbons 128 N/A Dr. Green N/A N/A N/A N/A Coke N/A N/A Brown Giant cola 129 Polo Selsun n/a n/a Cingular n/a n/a Coke n/a n/a Black Blue 130 AXE Jet Blue Seventh n/a n/a n/a Milka Target n/a BVB deodora Generati Chocola Borussia nt on te Dortmu nd 09 131 armani dolce N/A Duct Mobile Pinkberr Limited Victoria estee sunkist black and Tape Phone y Too Secret lauder code gabbana Service linen blue perfum e 132 toshiba apple gatorade window minute snapple n/a coca n/a bath and s maid cola body works 133 HTC n/a n/a n/a Big K Victoria n/a Fredrick Mac Yellow Orange Secret s of Pages Hollyw ood 134 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Coke Dove NA 135 Sony Nextel Jergens Nintend Valve Jergens Electron Apple Linux Chevrol o ic Arts et 136 Lenovo n/a America n/a ING Victoria n/a Coca Dove Best n s Secret Cola Buy Express           Page  128  
  • 136. 137 White Gap J. Crew Nordstr Hugo Thomas N/A N/A White Banana House om Boss Pink House Republi Black Black c Market Market 138 Coke Aquafin NA Diet Tropican Victoria NA red bull Crest NA Zero a Coke a Orange s Secret whiteni Juice ng 139 N/A IBM N/A Honda Sunkist Kool- Dell Red Head Kellogg Aid Bull and s Should ers 140 N/A biologic watsons N/A orangina N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A al products 141 Harley Bud N/A Coors Home Breast N/A Coca N/A McDona Davidso Light Depot Cancer Cola lds n 142 N/A Pepsi Mountai Coors Wise Victoria Welches Coca- N/A Mayfiel n Dew Cheez Secret cola d Doodles 143 McCor Windex Green Centriu Office Cover Welchs Office Ivory Frenchs micks Giant m Depot Girl Grape Dedpot/ Mustard pepper Peas Silver Juice Coca Cola 144 Acura Pepsi Hidden Reynol Simply Victoria Fanta Coca- Domin McDona Valley ds Orange s Secret Cola o lds Wrap Sugar 145 coca N/A N/A Merced N/A N/A N/8A Coca DOVE PORSC cola es cola HE 146 N/A IBM Samsung N/A N/A N/A N/A Coca- N/A Sprint Cola 147 AXE PEPSI N/A Dove FRESC VICTO N/A OLD N/A N/A Body A SOFT RIAS SPICE Wash DRINK SECRE for T MEN 148 coke jello Mt. Dew N/A OJ Roses N/A Beef N/A Cake 149 Zero Old N/A Quick Banna Victoria N/A Coca New Gucci Navy Silver Republic Secret Cola Balanc e 150 label dove sprtie toyota sunkist victoria na coke soap na secert 151 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Minute n/a Coca n/a n/a Maid Cola Lemona de 152 Nike America Polo Americ Abercro Polo Polo Polo Polo America n Eagle an mbie and n Eagle Eagle Fitch 153 Black & Jet Blue BP N/A Dodge Pepto N/A Red N/A Yellow Decker Neon Bismal Camel Pages 154 Harley Coppert St. Jude Honda Universit Breast N/A Coca Boeing Yellow Davidso one Children y of TN Cancer Cola Pages n s Knoxvill Awarene Research e ss           Page  129  
  • 137. Hospital 155 n/a Ford christma n/a ING n/a n/a Coke n/a Lance s Direct Armstro ng 156 Hefty America Starbuck Mustan N/A Victoria N/A Chick- Dove N/A n Eagle s g s Secret fil-a 157 N/A Pepsi Garnier n/a n/a Body n/a Coca Dove n/a Shop Cola 158 AXE Verizon Irish Cars Tropican Victoria N/A Coke N/A N/A Spring a s Secret 159 n/a pepsi fedex n/a n/a n/a n/a Coke Dove n/a 160 blackber N/A Vichy N/A Orange Mattel N/A Coca- Apple Twimin ry (as cola gs (not beauty sure of product) the spelling sorry but I meant the tea brand) 161 Logitech IBM Body KLM Tropican N/A London Coca- Kleene Sprint Shop a Met cola x 162 n/a pepsi moutain pepsi crush n/a smucker heinz n/a n/a dew s 163 Green & BA 7 up Audi Orange Breast n/a Coke Apple Hertz Black Mobile Cancer Chocola tes 164 Nike N/A Starbuck Renault Orange Jennyfer N/A Levis Marlbo Mc s Coffee ro Donnald s 165 northfac polo na na na na na gap na na e 166 Microso HP BP Merced Orange Barbie yahoo OTTO Dr.Pep Lambor ft es per ghini 167 Kamen Sega Microsof Sony N/A N/A N/A Super N/A N/A Rider t Sentai 168 nike blue n/a lowes home victoria babies r wells n/a mcdonal cross depot secret us fargo ds blue shield 169 N/A Pepsi 7-Up Diet Sunkist Pepto N/A Coca N/A Sprite Coke Bismal Cola 170 Micheli IBM Skoda N/A Orange N/A N/A Cocacol Nike Yellow n a pages 171 mercede pepsi TBS twining Orange vanish Cadbury Coca Dove M&Ms s s (French Cola brand of detergen t)           Page  130  
  • 138. 172 samsung domino n/a n/a barrs irn nivea thomas coca colgate n/a galaxy es pizza bru deodrant sabo cola toothpa (mobile (bracelet ste phone) ) 173 COCA Proctor LIZ CHAR TROPIC TARGE SKILCR OCEAN DOVE BOUNC COLA and CLAIBO MIN ANA T AFT SPRAY E Gamble RNE SHEET S 174 Porsche AT&T Giant Centru ING Komen Team in America Dove Livestro Food m Bank Cancer Training n Heart ng Fund Lympho Associat ma ion Society 175 Coke Pepsi Sprite Diet Sunkist NA NA Coke Dove NA Coke Classic 176 black Cisco miracle marlbor tropicana dannon sharpie BIC micros chiquita and grow o oft decker 177 Black & IBM Turbotax Pontiac Black & Mr. Crown Coca- Dove N/A Decker Decker Bubble Royal Cola 178 NA NOKIA NA NA ORANG NA NA SOCIE NA ORAN E TE GINA GENER ALE 179 Under Pepsi Ben and Merced Sunkist Mattel/B n/a McDon Dove n/a Armour Jerrys es arbie alds 180 N/A N/A N/A N/A Hugo Pink London Red N/A N/A Boss Ribbon Metropo Bull litan Universi ty 181 Blackbe Pespi The Apple Orange Barbie Milka The Red Dove The rry Body Cross Yellow Shop Pages 182 Giorgio Bjorg Lacoste Stella Orange Pimkie Swatch H&M Apple Selfridg Armani McCart es ney 183 Coke Pepsi Skoda Apple Orange T- N/A Coke Apple N/A Mobile 184 N/A IBM John N/A Home Breast N/A Coca Dove Caterpill Deer Depot Cancer Cola ar Awarene ss 185 Jack ATT N/A AmEx Mercer Susan B. grape Coke N/A N/A Black Komen jelly, Kroger 186 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A THE N/A N/A N/A N/A CANCE R PRODU CTS 187 apple pepsi 7up n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a dove n/a 188 Express America Bath & Apple ATT Victoria NA NA Sephor Best n Eagle Body s Secret a Buy Works           Page  131  
  • 139. 189 Dell Apple Nintendo Red Huddle Susan G. ? Coca Dove Dial (my i- (Magens Bull House Komen Cola (Soap) pod is new DS (foundat this is this ion-not color) color) brand) everythi ng! 190 Axe Downy Irish Tag ING N/A N/A Coca Winde N/A Spring Heuer Cola x 191 Dell Dell Apple Apple Na Apple Apple Apple Apple Na 192 Playstati convers xBox rolex Home Victoria tarte Target wii ikea on e Depot s Secret 193 America IBM H&R N/A N/A Yoplait N/A Kool- N/A DHL n Block Aide Express 194 N/A America N/A Honda Home Victoria Bed Target Dove McDona n Eagle Depot s Secret Bath and lds Beyond 195 Axe Tide Jergens Omni Herbal Bath and Bath and Levi Bannan Chiquita Essence Body Body a Republ ic 196 Axe johnson n/a n/a Fanta n/a johnson coke n/a capri and and sun Johnson johnson 197 Samsun Windex N/A Dell Dole Victoria Bath and Kraft Crest Chiquita g s Secret Body Works 198 lush radox sprite n/a n/a n/a n/a coca dove lipton cola ice tea 199 Coke Aquafin Irish NA Tropican Victoria Claires Coca Dove NA Zero a Springs a Orange s Secret Cola Juice 200 N/A N/A N/A Nissan Universit N/A N/A Coca N/A N/A y of Cola Texas 201 na na na na na na na Coke na Best Buy 202 Coke Pepsi N/A Coors Sunkist Hello N/A Coca Ivory Frenchs Zero Light Kitty Cola 203 Sony RM Oxfam apple orange race for Aussie coca Apple n/a the cure cola 204 N/a n/a m&m bmw sunkist barbie n/a coca apple n/a cola 205 alienwar hp n/a apple n/a evian n/a hsbc n/a twinnin e gs 206 Cadillac Chep N/A N/A N/A Victoria N/A Colgate Downy N/A s Secret 207 nike RC cola Gum shoes Fanta pepto clothing big red shirts laundry bismol detergen t 208 Express Abercro Apple Apple Axe Victoria America Coca- Dove Minute mbie s Secret n Cancer Cola Maid and           Page  132  
  • 140. Fitch Society 209 coke jergens greenwo hyundai orange lady kotex coke dove yellawo rks (color (cleaner) spirit (? od (cleaning of my - products car) deodora ) nt?) 210 n/a microso n/a merced orange juicy n/a chick- n/a n/a ft es julius couture fil-a 211 N/A Head Irish N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A and Spring Shoulde rs 212 N/A Aqua N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Velva 213 N/A N/A Mountai N/A N/A N/A N/A Coca- N/A N/A n Dew Cola 214 Arbonne Pepsi N/A Diet N/A Mary N/A Coke Apple N/A Coke Kay 215 revlon not your biofreeze ceramic Sunkist dove jilbere riveting crest yankee mascara daughte pain tools soap de paris reds toothpa candle rs jeans relieving hair hair color ste gel comb rollers replenis hing shampo o 216 BMW N/A N/A N/A ING N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 217 blackber n/a n/a honda at&t victorias n/a chick apple mcdonal ry secret fila comput ds er 218 Apple pepsi Publix n/a minute n/a claires coca- n/a Gatorad maid cola e 219 fila n/a mapco n/a fanta hello n/a chic-fil- n/a n/a kitty a 220 Puma Leslies Aveda N/A that Victoria N/A Coca- N/A Suntrust Pools yogurt s Secret Cola smoothie place 221 monster pepsi mountai diet na victoria na na dove juicy drinks n dew coke secrets soap fruit gum 222 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 223 Pepsi Lowes Body Macys Home Victoria JcPenne Coca Target Best Shop Depot Secret y Cola Buy 224 N/A Geico N/A N/A N/A Victoria N/A N/A N/A N/A s secret 225 NA NA Whole NA NA Hello NA Coke Apple NA Foods Kitty 226 N/a N/a N/a Apple N/a Victoria N/a Red bull Apple N/a 227 nike powerad the body apple n/a victorias n/a n/a sephor national e shop secret a geograp hic           Page  133  
  • 141. 228 Axe Downey Irish N/A Sunkist Victoria Victoria Coca Dove Joy Spring s Secret s Secret Cola 229 Axe Oreo Turtle N/A Tropican Victoria Kotex Campbe N/A Pledge Wax a Secret lls Soup 230 tux sky hybrid dollar crush flamingo rain rover album Saturn 231 n/a delta natural jareds n/a macys n/a red n/a n/a cross 232 Blackbe Sky Garnier Gillette Neutroge Barbie Ribena Virgin Dove Yellow rry na Pages 233 Bang & Fazer Guinness N/A Fanta Hubba Silk Cut Coca N/A Orangin Olufsen Bubba Cola a 234 Coca Pepsi Body Coca Jaffa Muumi Muumi Coca Pentik Alepa Cola Shop Cola limu metsäma Cola Zero Light rja limu 235 coca- Fazer Body Nokia Orange N/A N/A coca- Apple Lush cola Shop cola 236 First na Body na Orange na Silk Cut Virgin na Yell Direct Shop phones cigarette etc s 237 axe dove garnier N/A N/A victoria N/A coca- apple N/a fructis secret cola 238 Dove Nivia Bissell Puma Rachel NA NA Bath Apple NA for Men Ray and Cookwar Body e Works 239 n/a Old n/a Silver n/a Victoria Purple Gap n/a n/a Navy jeans s Secret Haze Beer 240 Porsche Samsun Land Centru Easyjet Cancer n/a coca- dove yellow g Rover m Charity cola tail 241 na pepsi sprite coors crush double na coke charmi mello bubble n yellow 27. For the brand questions, did you ... (please mark all that apply) Responden Respons t# e 1 google! 2 spouse 3 Guess 4 Guessed for several. 5 friends 6 friends 7 Google           Page  134  
  • 142. 8 Didnt use another source, just guessed on the ones I didnt know 9 I wouldnt have got Louis Vitton, but saw the LV in picture 10 I had a difficult time answeri ng 11 sister 12 son           Page  135  
  • 143. Appendix  G:    Survey  Objectives  Analysis  Sheet    Objectives   Analyse      1. Gain  insight  into  the  world  of   • COMPLETED  THROUGH  LITERATURE  REVIEWS   brand  creation,  maintenance,     and  expiration.        2. Investigate  correlations              General  Statements  …  (design  of  brand)  –  #31   between  the  design  of  a  brand   • General  Statements  …  (ALL  8  –  products  only)  –  #31   and  how  it  affects  consumer-­‐ • Favourite  (&  Least)  Brand  Colour  –  #16   purchasing  habits.      3. Examine  the  sensory  features  of   • Top  5  colours  listed  for  each  –  #15  (Other  Sheet)   brand  design.   • Favourite  (&  Least)  Brand  Colour  –  #16     • Logos  (ALL  5)  –  #17-­‐21   • Brand  Packaging  (ALL  5)  –  #22-­‐26   • Difficult/Easy  Brand  Questions  –  #27   • Overall,  brand  recognition  difficulty  …  (ALL  3)  –  #28-­‐30        4. Identify  consumer-­‐purchasing   • I  have  heard  …  (ALL  3)  –  #9,  11,  13   habits/trends  in  the  UK  and  US.   • I  have  purchased  …  (ALL  3)  –  #10,  12,  14     • Opinions  Changed  …  (ALL  8)  –  #32   • How  often  …  (ALL  3)  –  #8   • General  Statements  …  (ALL  8  –  products  only)  –  #31  versus   Currently  Living  –  #3         Demographic  Information   • Marketing  Professional  –  #6     • Field  of  Marketing  …  (Including  Other)  –  #7   • Age  –  #2   • Currently  Living  –  #3   • Where  Born  –  #4   • Most  of  Life  –  #5               Page  136  
  • 144. Appendix  H:    Survey  Demographic  Charts                     Page  137  
  • 145.                 Page  138  
  • 146.             Page  139  
  • 147. Appendix  I:    Graphs  Mentioned  –  Quantitative  Analysis      Chart  1:  Design  of  brand  …  mood  I  am  in.      Chart  2:  Design  of  brand  …  colours  of  the  product.               Page  140  
  • 148. Chart  3:  Design  of  brand  …  design  of  the  product.        Chart  4:  Design  of  brand  …  amount  the  product  costs.                 Page  141  
  • 149. Chart  5:  Design  of  brand  …  warranty  available  for  the  product.        Chart  6:  Design  of  brand  …  reviews  from  other  sources.                 Page  142  
  • 150. Chart  7:  Design  of  brand  …  time  I  have  to  purchase  the  product  (time  allowed  to  spend  in  store).      Chart   8:   Design   of   brand   …   time   I   have   to   purchase   the   product   (limited   time   offer  items).               Page  143  
  • 151. Chart  9:  Design  of  brand  …  colour  of  favourite  brand.        Chart  10:  Design  of  brand  …  colour  of  least  favourite  brand.                 Page  144  
  • 152. Chart  11:  Favourite  (and  Least)  Brand  Colours      Chart  12:  Whose  logo  am  I?  –  Bacardi               Page  145  
  • 153. Chart  13:  Whose  logo  am  I?  –  Google  Chrome      Chart  14:  Whose  logo  am  I?  –  McDonalds               Page  146  
  • 154. Chart  15:  Whose  logo  am  I?  –  Vodaphone      Chart  16:  Whose  logo  am  I?  –  Xerox               Page  147  
  • 155. Chart  17:  Which  brand  am  I?  –  Hummer      Chart  18:  Which  brand  am  I?  –  Jean-­‐Paul  Gaultier               Page  148  
  • 156. Chart  19:  Which  brand  am  I?  –  Converse      Chart  20:  Which  brand  am  I?  –  Apple               Page  149  
  • 157. Chart  21:  Which  brand  am  I?  –  Louis  Vuitton        Chart  22:  Use  of  Additional  Resources               Page  150  
  • 158. Chart  23:  Difficulty  Thinking  of  a  Colour      Chart  24:  Difficulty  Matching  Logo  with  Brand               Page  151  
  • 159. Chart  25:  Difficulty  Matching  Packaging  with  Brand      Chart  26:  I  have  heard  of  this  brand  …  computer  systems.               Page  152  
  • 160. Chart  27:  I  have  purchased  this  brand  …  computer  systems.      Chart  28:  I  have  heard  of  this  brand  …  soft  drinks.               Page  153  
  • 161. Chart  29:  I  have  purchased  this  brand  …  soft  drinks.      Chart  30:  I  have  heard  of  this  brand  …  hygiene  products.               Page  154  
  • 162. Chart  31:  I  have  purchased  this  brand  …  hygiene  products.      Chart  32:  Purchasing  Habits               Page  155  
  • 163. Chart  33:  Has  your  opinion  changed  on  a  product  or  brand?      Chart  34:  Currently  living  …  mood  I  am  in.               Page  156  
  • 164.  Chart  35:  Currently  living  …  colours  of  the  product.        Chart  36:  Currently  living  …  design  of  the  product.               Page  157  
  • 165.  Chart  37:  Currently  living  …  amount  the  product  costs.        Chart  38:  Currently  living  …  warranty  available  for  the  product.               Page  158  
  • 166.  Chart  39:  Currently  living  …  reviews  from  other  sources.      Chart   40:   Currently   living   …   time   I   have   to   purchase   the   product   (time   allowed   to   spend  in  store).               Page  159  
  • 167.  Chart   41:   Currently   living   …   time   I   have   to   purchase   the   product   (limited   time   offer  items).                 Page  160  

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