Dove and New Media


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This is a project I worked on with a group for my "New Media Marketing" module for the masters in International Marketing Communication and Strategy.

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Dove and New Media

  2. 2. NEW  MEDIA  MARKETING         DOVE     Introduction       In   this   essay,   social-­‐media   activities   of   Unilever’s   “Dove”   brand   (   -­‐   US   site)   will  be  analyzed  in  the  context  of  recent  and  future  developments  in  new  media  marketing.       Dove’s   social-­‐media   activities   are   clearly   targeted   to   women   only;   there   is   no   community   on   the   Dove   men   website.   What   seems   at   first   glance   as   an   incomplete   online   approach   can   also  be  seen  as  a  very  strategic  move.  Men  and  women  interact  differently  online.  According   to  a  study  conducted  by  the  University  of  Southern  California  (Associated  Press,  2010)  men   are   showing   signs   of   “networking   fatigue”,   whereas   women   are   more   prevalent   in   online   interaction.  That  is,  67  %  of  women  (only  38  %  of  men)  under  40  feel  as  strongly  about  their   online   communities   as   they   do   their   offline   communities   –   in   2007   the   numbers   were   reverse.       Men   value   different   aspects   online   than   women,   mainly   short   time,   straight   to   the   point   information,   and   a   high   level   of   individuality   “every   man   for   himself”   (brandingstrategyinsider,   2010).   “…   Women   are   finding   deeper   connections   to   Web   communities   because   many   of   them   go   there   for   social   reasons   rather   than   to   find   information   about   hobbies...”   (Associated   Press,   2010)   This   essay   will   therefore   focus   only   on  “Dove  women”.     The  General  Growing  Importance  of  Social  Media   Social   media   has   become   increasingly   important   (Nielsen,   2010:   Appendix   1)   in   people’s   lives.  This  trend  has  started  invading  organisations  as  well.  More  than  being  a  tool  for  people   to  keep  in  touch  and  build  a  network,  social  media  has  been  identified  by  organisations  as   being   an   opportunity   to   increase   their   interactivity   with   the   market;   it   can   constitute   a   source   of   knowledge   and   e-­‐learning   from   the   companies’   points   of   view   (Van   Zyl,   2009;   Kane,  Robinson-­‐Combre,  Berge,  2010).     This  movement  has  contributed  to  the  evolution  of  marketing.  According  to  Kotler  and  Doyle   (Phillimore,  2010:  Lecture  1,  Slides  17-­‐18)  marketing  has  moved  from  a  “distribution,  sales,   brand   management,   individual   customer   relationship”   to   a   more   “conversational,   serendipity,   consumer   participation,   community   building.”   In   other   words,   the   marketing   scope   has   expanded   and   social   media   has   brought   additional   dimensions   to   the   marketing   activities  and  the  way  marketing  considers  consumers.  The  question  of  the  balance  of  power   between   brands   and   customers   in   the   brands’   creation   will   be   answered   later   on   in   this   paper.1   1  See  strategic  analysis  of  website.   1
  3. 3. NEW  MEDIA  MARKETING         DOVE     Looking   deeper   into   social   media,   people   spend   more   time   on   social   networking   websites:   “Across  the  globe  in  2008  activity  in  ‘Member  Communities’  accounted  for  one  in  every  15   online   minutes   –   now   it   accounts   for   one   in   every   11.”   (Nielsen,   2009)   It   can   be   seen   throughout   the   different   Nielsen   reports   that   the   social   networks   vary   from   country   to   country   (Appendix   2).   However,   the   two   main   networks   remain   Facebook   and   Twitter.   Facebook   has   more   than   400   million   active   users   (Facebook,   2010)   while   Twitter   was   expecting  18  million  users  to  join  at  the  end  of  2009  (Mashable,  2009).   Dove  and  the  Social  Media     When   Dove   entered   the   realm   of   social   media   using   their   ‘Campaign   for   Real   Beauty’   (CFRB-­‐   launched   by   Unilever   (2003),   this   may   have   been   what   created   the   turnaround   for   the   brand,   increasing   its   popularity   and   positive   social   reputation   (Simmons,   2006).   The   first   stage   of   the   campaign   began   with   a   series   of   interactive  billboard  advertisements.  These  spots  showcased  photographs  of  regular  women   and  invited  passers-­‐by  to  debate  "What  is  beautiful?”  and  vote  whether  a  particular  model   was   "Fat   or   Fab"   or   "Wrinkled   or   Wonderful"   with   the   results   of   the   votes   dynamically   updated  and  displayed  on  the  billboard  itself.       Accompanying   the   billboard   advertisements   was   the   publication   of   the   results   from   a   10-­‐ country   global   study   about   beauty   perception   called   "Dove   Report"   (Simmons,   2006).   According   to   the   Wikipedia   (unknown   date),   this   initiative   was   a   success   and   “received   significant   media   coverage   from   talk   shows,   magazines   and   mainstream   news   broadcasts   and   publications,   generating   media   exposure   which   Unilever   has   estimated   to   be   worth   more  than  30  times  the  paid-­‐for  media  space.”     In  2006,  further  to  the  accomplishment  of  this  first  initiative,  the  advertising  agency,  Ogilvy   &  Mather,  wanted  to  extend  the  campaign  further,  by  creating  viral  videos  to  be  placed  on   the   CFRB   website.   The   first   of   these,   Daughters,   was   an   interview-­‐style   piece   of   which   Evolution   (a   video   showing   the   transformation   of   a   normal-­‐looking   girl   into   a   stunning   model)   and   became   a   hit   throughout   YouTube   (Dove   Evolution   Video,   2006).   As   the   campaign  unfolded,  Unilever  learned  how  to  use  the  Internet,  and  particularly  social  media   networks  like  YouTube,  to  manage  the  controversy  it  had  created.  "Unilever  positions  itself   as   a   company   that   has   fully   integrated   digital   into   its   thinking,   so   much   so   it's   merging   its   digital  division  into  its  communications  planning  team."  (NMA  2008,  p.  21)     Until   today,   the   success   of   the   campaign   has   been   based   on   how   it   has   entered   popular   culture  and  gone  beyond  conventional  media  coverage.  As  Stuart  Bruce  (2006)  puts  it,  “the   whole   campaign   was   about   engendering   debate   and   inspiring   action.   It   persuaded   opinion   formers   to   get   talk   about   a   soap   brand,   which   is   quite   an   achievement.”   Once   the   debate   2
  4. 4. NEW  MEDIA  MARKETING         DOVE   had   begun   it   was   important   that   Dove   continued   to   be   part   of   the   debate   and   act   as   a   thought   leader   and   an   advocate   for   female   self-­‐esteem.   This   meant   commentating   on   controversial   issues   such   as   fashion   designers   refusing   models   who   were   ‘too   fat’   and   the   Madrid  Fashion  Week  banning  size  zero  models.     As   a   result,   UK   sales   not   only   rose   by   25%   from   2004-­‐200   (Simms,   2007),   but   more   importantly   that   women   have   begun   connecting   with   the   Dove   brand   and   feel   as   a   participant   to   its   aim   of   making   consumers   feel   better   about   themselves.   Using   Edelman’s   Framework  (figure  below  –  Phillimore,  2010:  Lecture  1,  Slides  17-­‐18)  it  is  possible  to  see  how   with  the  creation  of  this  campaign,  Unilever  has  gone  from  controlled  communication  using   basic   advertising   to   a   conversational   collaboration   between   the   brand   and   its   audience.   Online,  “The  employee  is  the  new  credible  source  for  information  about  a  company,  giving   insight   from   the   front   lines.   The   consumer   has   become   a   co-­‐creator,   demanding   transparency   on   decisions   from   sourcing   to   new-­‐product   positioning.”   (Phillimore,   2010:   Lecture  1,  Slides  17-­‐18)         Participation Line     Conversational   Conversational Conversational   Communication Collaboration     Conversational Line Public relations     Controlled Controlled Communication Collaboration     Controlled Advertising   Communication Collaboration   Talk Action Continuum     Strategic  Analysis  of  Internal  Elements     Website2   The   website   is   clearly   a   commercial   organization   website   that   can   be   analysed   through   deconstruction   (Media   Awareness   Network,   2010).   To   compete   with   other   cosmetics,   Unilever   differentiates   itself   by   engaging   women   on   “an   emotional   level”   (Simmons,   2006).   Main   goals   of   the   online   campaign   were   to   bring   awareness   to   the   new   product  line,  generate  debate  about  the  definition  of  beauty,  receive  media  attention,  gain   market  coverage,  allow  consumer  interaction  with  the  brand,  and  call  to  join  the  self-­‐esteem   program   partnership.   (Simmons,   2006)   The   original   CFRB   was   originally   developed   with   an   2  The  website  mentioned  is  the  primary  Dove  brand  and  does  not  include  a  breakdown  analysis  of  their  French  and  Canadian  ‘Go  Fresh’   websites  due  to  access  restrictions  and  their  non-­‐globalized  process.   3
  5. 5. NEW  MEDIA  MARKETING         DOVE   “ongoing   local   adaptation   and   implementation   of   above   and   below-­‐the-­‐line   communications,  media,  and  public  relations.”  (Waldron,  2005)     The   main   source   of   information   for   Dove   is   through   Unilever’s   brand   managers:   “Unilever   feels  very  strongly  about  the  power  of  a  360-­‐degree  approach.  We  had  [all  levels  of  staff]  sit   down   at   the   table   at   a   very   early   stage   and   all   think   about   the   entire   marketing   communication   architecture,   not   just   our   channels.”   (Koffler   in   Simmons,   2006)   The   basis   of   the  campaign  was  a  research  study  to  provide  the  audience  with  credible  and  authoritative   sources  of  information  that  facilitated  in  “creating  a  concept  where  public  relations  served   as  a  glue  [and]  the  campaign  as  a  dialogue,  and  to  use  real  people  as  brand  ambassadors”   (Koffler  in  Simmons  2006).    Buchanan  (2008)  explains  how  it  has  created  “a  very  real,  very   passionate  conversation”.     However,   the   ‘freedom   of   speech’   is   not   actually   free   when   looking   at   the   Dove   website’s   code  of  conduct:  “Microsoft  and  Unilever  reserves  the  right,  at  its  sole  discretion,  to  review   and   remove   user-­‐created   services   and   content   at   will   and   without   notice,   and   delete   postings  or  ban  participants  that  are  deemed  objectionable.”  When  evaluating  the  website   map,   Dove   takes   into   account   both   experiential   (blogs,   columns,   discussions,   videos,   interactive   experiences,   quizzes,   etc)   and   goal-­‐directed   behaviours   (product   information,   offers,   articles,   tips,   expert’s   advise,   etc).     With   the   traditional   website   “there   is   the   community  site  the  user  can  jump  off  to”  “and  as  corporate  communities  go,  this  one's  far   more   distinct   and   stylish   than   most”   (imediaconnection,   2008).   Therefore,   “the   model   constructs   can   be   used   as   first   step   in   evaluating   website   in   terms   of   the   extent   to   which   they  deliver  these  two  types  of  experience”.       There   are   various   success   criteria   for   customer   optimal   experience.   Measurement   is   done   through   flow   opportunities   “the   state   occurring   during   network   navigation   which   is:   (1)   characterized  by  a  seamless  sequence  of  responses  facilitated  by  machine  interactivity;  (2)   intrinsically   enjoyable;   and   (3)   accompanied   by   a   loss   of   self-­‐consciousness,   and   (4)   self-­‐ reinforcing.”  (Novak  et  al.,  2000)     Dove’s   website   compiles   the   necessary   playfulness   (call   for   imagination,   originality,   inventiveness,  creativity)  and  positive  affect  (pleasing,  satisfying  and  contenting).  The  brand   tries  to  produce  “interest  and  success  because  it  touches  on  a  universal  need  for  almost  all   women”   (Buchanan,   2008)   and   look   for   their   approval   as   it   calls   for   a   non-­‐judgemental   message   “‘we’re   going   to   celebrate   you   for   being   you.’   Do   you   know   how   powerful   that   is?”   (Buchanan,   2008)   Dove’s   website,   as   advised   by   Novak   et   al.   (2000),   provides   “enough   challenge  to  arouse  the  consumer  but  not  so  much  that  she  becomes  frustrated  navigating   through  the  site  and  logoff.”     4
  6. 6. NEW  MEDIA  MARKETING         DOVE     Figure  1:  Hoffman  &  Novak  (1996)  revised  conceptual  model  from  (Novak  &  al.  2000).  Analysis  and  comments  for  the  Dove  website  from   the  students  point  of  view  based  on  Doug  Schumacher,  president  and  creative  director,  Basement,  Inc.  in  imediaconnection  2008  and   Kofler,  in  Simmons,  2006.       Strategic  Analysis  of  External  Elements     Dove’s  Current  External  Social  Media  Tools   Dove   is   prominently   seen   and   featured   throughout   Twitter   and   Facebook   capitalizing   on   the   social  media  tools  to  connect  and  relate  to  their  consumers.  This  essay  focuses  on  Dove  for   Women.3   In   order   to   appropriately   analyze   how   Dove   uses   these   media   tools,   it   is   necessary   to  look  at  the  theoretical  process  behind  each  strategic  move.     According   to   Hoffman   and   Novak   (1996),   the   consumer-­‐firm   relationship   has   evolved   from   a   traditional   mass   media   to   a   “new   ‘interactive   media.’”   Essentially,   this   demonstrates   that   firms  are  no  longer  just  sharing  information,  but  instead,  are  engaging  and  interacting  with   their  consumers  through  connected  media  tools.  Using  Hoffman  and  Novak’s  theory,  Twitter   and  Facebook  will  be  assessed  accordingly.     Twitter   has   a   unique,   real-­‐time   and   asynchronous   display.   When   visiting   the   Dove   Twitter   page,  it  is  obvious  when  a  new  ‘tweet’  is  written,  as  it  just  appears  at  the  top  of  the  screen;   however,  for  every  visit  made  to  this  page,  previous  ‘tweets’  are  visible  and  can  be  seen  as   3  Dove  recently  launched  a  prominent  campaign  for  their  men’s  product  line;  however,  this  target  demographic  does  not  fit  with  the  flow   and  theme  of  our  report.  See  introduction.   5
  7. 7. NEW  MEDIA  MARKETING         DOVE   far   back   in   the   beginning   as   the   conception   of   the   page.   The   way   this   tool   is   designed   presents   an   easy   flow   with   limited   customizable   features.   One   hindrance   to   this   customizing   action  is  displaying  a  distracting  background;  Dove’s  current  background  has  not  fallen  into   this  trap,  however,  they  provide  links  within  their  background  that  are  not  clickable  and  are   difficult  to  read.  The  true  links  posted  within  the  page  are  nearly  all  common  and  standard   for   any   Twitter   page   (following,   followers,   lists,   tweets,   favorites,   message,   block,   etc),   except   for   the   main   website   featured   on   the   company’s   profile   box.   Additionally,   the   format   of  the  page  is  standardized  and  follows  the  pattern  of  all  Twitter  pages.  Even  though  their   background  links  are  not  clickable,  it  is  good  to  see  that  Dove  has  considered  what  type  of   visitor  would  be  perusing  their  Twitter  page.  (Dove  on  Twitter,  2010)     It   is   difficult   to   expand   outside   the   realm   of   standard   within   twitter   in   that   multimedia   tools   cannot   be   applied,   however   through   the   process   of   ‘tweeting’,   other   external   sources   (videos,   documents,   coupons/offers)   can   be   distributed.   Dove   itself   is   running   their   page   with  a  ‘personal  touch’,  as  demonstrated  by  having  what  could  be  considered  ‘few  followers’   and   having   only   entered   Twitter   this   year   (11   January   2010).   Dove   takes   a   very   proactive   approach   in   their   personal   connections   with   their   followers.   Once   someone   is   following   Dove,   it   is   not   but   10-­‐15   minutes   later   that   Dove   returns   the   favor.   With   the   design   of   interaction,  Dove  is  able  to  use  a  goal-­‐oriented  and  experiential  motivation  as  to  have  a  two-­‐ way   conversation   with   their   consumers.   This   promotes   product   awareness   to   the   consumers,   but   also   allows   consumers   to   provide   feedback   on   their   products.   Then,   the   opportunity  is  once  again  switched  over  to  Dove  so  as  to  respond  and  determine  the  ‘why’   of  the  provided  feedback.  (Dove  on  Twitter,  2010)     Similar   to   Twitter,   Facebook   also   displays   a   combination   of   real-­‐time   and   asynchronous   information,  which  can  be  seen  on  the  Dove  ‘wall’,  discussion  boards,  or  throughout  video   and   photo   comments.   Facebook   is   structured   through   a   variety   of   means   and   may   be   considered  too  cluttered.  However,  the  benefit  of  the  way  it  is  currently  organized  is  being   able  to  separate  content  and  information  into  various  sections  through  the  page  itself.  There   are   multiple   boxes   on   the   top   header   bar,   as   well   as   provided   Dove   website   links   on   the   left   sidebar.   In   addition,   there   are   all   of   the   standard   Facebook   links   within   the   page   (like,   suggest   to   friends,   etc).   An   added   benefit   to   Facebook   that   Twitter   lacks   is   the   use   of   multimedia  tools.  Facebook  provides  viewing  space  for  videos,  photos,  standard  messaging,   audio  podcasts,  and  webcasts.  (Dove  on  Facebook,  2010a/b)     Another  tool  that  Dove  utilizes  is  an  application  feature  in  which  consumers  may  add  a  ‘Dove   badge’   on   their   personal   profiles   that   signifies   their   efforts   in   supporting   the   Self-­‐Esteem   Fund.  While  all  of  this  information  can  be  easily  computed  by  machine,  and  probably  was,   Dove   once   again   displays   their   ‘personal   touch’   by   directly   responding   to   any   questions   posted  on  their  main  wall  as  well  as  directing  certain  product  offers  to  targeted  consumers   in  Facebook  ads,  which  are  seen  on  personal  profiles.  (Dove  on  Facebook,  2010a/b)   6
  8. 8. NEW  MEDIA  MARKETING         DOVE     The   Dove   Facebook   page   follows   the   same   navigation   patterns   as   all   Facebook   pages;   however,  it  is  unique  to  see  the  wide  variety  of  information  available  through  external  links   through   advertisement   imagery.   It   is   not   overwhelming   and   is   organized   appropriately   by   topic   and   by   product.   Dove’s   interaction   with   the   consumers   is   once   again   through   a   two-­‐ way  conversation  with  their  consumers  in  using  a  goal-­‐oriented  and  experiential  motivation.   Consumers   are   being   connected   to   the   firm   through   an   exchange   of   information   (i.e.   consumer  providing  feedback  and  the  company  responds).  Additionally,  the  purpose  of  the   Facebook  page  is  to  share  information  with  their  consumer  about  new  products,  offers,  new   campaigns,   etc.   and   ultimately   help   direct   people   where   to   go   to   find   out   more   information.   (Dove  on  Twitter,  2010a/b)     Dove’s  Potential  External  Social  Media  Tools   The  Internet,  representing  a  power  shift  from  producer  to  consumer  (as  the  consumer  is  free   to  choose  what  content  is  wanted),  can  be  described  as  a  pull-­‐mechanism.  With  the  addition   of  mobile  Internet,  especially  the  use  of  mobile  phone  applications,  the  power  shift  can  be   slightly  reversed.  Once  a  consumer  decides  to  download  a  brand’s  application,  more  push-­‐ elements   can   be   attributed   to   the   marketing   efforts   of   the   chosen   brand.   “Beauty   and   skincare   brands   have   done   little   with   mobile   marketing”   was   stated   in   2008.   (,   2008)   This   decision   may   have   been   due   to   the   mobile   networks   discouraging   action   in   charging  the  public  with  costs  it  doesn’t  fully  understand  (,  2008).  However,  with   mobile   Internet   on   the   increase   (Ingram,   2010)   –   in   5   years,   the   mobile   Internet   will   have   taken   over   landline   access   –   this   issue   seems   resolved   resulting   in   possibilities   to   increase   exponentially.   Industry   expert   Mary   Meeker   explains   user’s   willingness   to   pay   for   mobile   content  with  its  easy  use,  small  amounts  of  charge,  and  level  of  personalization  among  other   factors.       Dove,   as   of   now,   does   not   use   the   mobile-­‐online   tool.   This   can   be   seen   as   a   clear   lack   in   the   social   media   effort   of   the   brand,   diminishing   the   flow   (Hoffmann   &   Novak,   1996)   of   the   holistic  experience.  In  order  to  anticipate  future  needs  and  keep  the  consumer  experience   on   a   high   level,   Dove   could   add   a   smartphone   application   to   its   social   media   activities.   A   mobile  browser  friendly  site  would  need  to  be  created.  (Appendix  3  for  detailed  uses)       All  suggestions  are  made  in  order  to  keep  the  challenge  at  a  congruent  level  with  the  skills  of   the   users   (Hoffmann   &   Novak,   1996)     (A   mere   price-­‐check   may   leave   the   customer   unsatisfied).   For   the   use   of   features   such   as   the   community   and   the   personalization   “my   products”,   an   experiential   motivation   is   assumed,   whereas   information,   price-­‐check   and   availability  a  goal-­‐oriented  motivation  is  assumed  (Hoffmann  &  Novak,  1996).       Dove  is  an  inactive  participant  in  the  YouTube-­‐network.  Dove  advertising  can  be  found  when   entering  correct  key  words.  This  cannot  be  seen  as  a  strategic  approach.  After  the  start  of   7
  9. 9. NEW  MEDIA  MARKETING         DOVE   the   viral   marketing   campaign   for   real   beauty   and   its   success,   Dove   should   have   created   a   brand’s   own   YouTube   channel,   where   not   only   the   spots   could   have   been   shown,   but   through  which  a  consistent  image  of  the  effort  would  be  displayed.  Through  other  sites,  such   as  or,  the  ranking  and  distribution  of  the  spots  could  possibly  have  been   increased.  For  the  future,  the  creation  of  a  Dove-­‐YouTube-­‐Channel  is  highly  recommended.   The   efforts   of   the   recent   “go   fresh”   deodorant   campaign,   for   example,   would   be   clearly   linked   to   Dove   and   both   parties   would   benefit   from   the   increased   level   of   attention   each   party  creates.     Recommendations  and  Conclusion     The  Social  Media  data  as  well  as  the  analysis  of  Dove  both  lead  to  the  conclusion  that  Dove’s   image   has   highly   benefited   from   Dove’s   users   and   stakeholders.   Dove   was   a   well-­‐known   brand   before   Social   Media   appeared.   However,   as   seen   throughout   this   paper   Dove   as   we   know  it  today  was  for  the  biggest  part  built  by  users  and  by  the  fact  that  Dove  had  the  ability   to   use,   listen   to   and   learn   from   this   new   tool.   Therefore,   the   main   advice   which   could   be   made   to   Dove   would   be   to   take   into   considerations   the   six   recommendations   mentioned   above  in  order  to  improve  its  use  of  Social  Media  and  to  keep  up  with  its  growth.   - Personalize  thank  you  and  welcome  messages  to  new  Twitter  followers.   - Utilize  the  ‘favorites’  feature  so  as  to  ‘star’  any  and  all  positive  media  involving  Dove.   - Respond  to  discussion  posts  on  Facebook  that  are  relevant  to  conflicts  (i.e.  boycotting   efforts  because  of  the  Dove  affiliation  with  Axe  and  Unilever’s  mixed  message).   - Creation  of  a  smartphone  application  to  remain  competitive.   - Create  a  Dove  YouTube  Channel  to  attract  and  relate  to  younger  target  audiences.     - Maintain  a  commitment  to  utilizing  online  tools  as  a  way  to  interact  with  consumers   and  keep  the  future  online  strategy  as  consistent  and  authentic.4         4 “Building   communities   around   brands   can   be   a   daunting   challenge,   but   Dove   has   done   this   quite   well”   (imediaconnection,   2008).   However,  the  credibility  in  organizations  and  more  precisely  in  brands  can  be  diluted  very  fast  (Appendix  4).  “Commitment  and  trust  are   key  elements  for  any  relationship  as  they  are  needed  for  maintenance  of  the  relationship  encouraging  a  long-­‐term  view  as  opposed  to  a   short  term  one…”  (Jahansoozi,  2006)     8
  10. 10. NEW  MEDIA  MARKETING         DOVE   References     Associated  Press  (AP),  (2010) BLdjMcAD9ETLG080)  [Accessed  20  April  2010]     brandingstrategyinsider  (2010)­‐to-­‐ men.html?utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium=twitter  [Accessed  21  April  2010]     Buchanan.  H.  2008.  May  16.  Is  Dove’s  “Campaign  for  Real  Beauty”  Real?,  Future  now  market   better;­‐doves-­‐campaign-­‐for-­‐real-­‐beauty-­‐ real/  [Accessed  April  21,  2010]     Dove  Evolution  Video  (2006)  “Evolution”   [Accessed  on  21  April  2010]     Dove  on  Twitter  (2010)  “Dove  Company”  [Accessed  on  19   April  2010]     Dove  on  Facebook  (2010a)  “Dove  Company”  [Accessed  on   19  April  2010]     Dove  on  Facebook  (2010b)  “Dove  Self-­‐Esteem  Fund”  [Accessed  on  19  April  2010]     Facebook  (2010)  [Accessed  22  April   2010]     Hoffman,  D.  and  Novak,  T.  (1996),  "Marketing  in  hypermedia  computer-­‐mediated   environments:  conceptual  foundations",  Journal  of  Marketing,  Vol.  60  pp.50-­‐68.     Imediaconnection  (31  October  2008)  “Dove  delivers  a  real  beauty  wakeup  call”,  CREATIVE   SHOWCASE;  [Accessed  21   April  2010]     Ingram  (2010)  Presentation  by  Mary  Meeker,  published  12  April  2010­‐meeker-­‐mobile-­‐internet-­‐will-­‐soon-­‐overtake-­‐ fixed-­‐internet  [Accessed  19  April  2010]     Kane,  K.,  Robinson-­‐Combre,  J.,  Berge,  Z.  L.  (2010)  Tapping  into  social  networking:   Collaborating  enhances  both  knowledge  management  and  e-­‐learning,  VINE,  vol.40,  Iss.   1,  Emerald  Group  Publishing  Limited,  p.62-­‐70.  http://0-­‐ 9
  11. 11. NEW  MEDIA  MARKETING         DOVE;jsessioni d=81B4652AA3B56E423F43ADA0A6C901C6?contentType=Article&contentId=1839200   [Accessed  21  April  2010]     Marshall,  B.  (2009)  Making  Sense  of  Mobile  Marketing.  [Accessed  20  April   2010]     Mashable  (2009)  18  million  Twitter  Users  by  end  of  2009­‐2009-­‐stats  [Accessed  22/04/10],  (12  November  2008) mobile_to_exceed_200m_users_by_2013%2C_claims_research_.html  [Accessed  19   April  2010]  (18  November  2009)­‐ fold_increase_in_response_rates_through_mobile_coupons%2C_claims_survey_.html   [Accessed  21  April  2010]     Nielsen  (2009a)  Social  Networking’s  New  Global  Footprint,  09/03/09­‐networking-­‐new-­‐global-­‐footprint/   [Accessed  21/04/10]   Nielsen  (2009b)  Global  Faces  and  networked  places:  A  Nielsen  report  on  Social  Networking’s   New  Global  Footprint,  March  2009,  The  Nielsen  Company.   Nielsen  (2010)  Led  by  Facebook,  Twitter,  Global  Time  Spent  on  Social  Media  Sites  up  82%   Year  over  Year,  22/01/2010.­‐by-­‐ facebook-­‐twitter-­‐global-­‐time-­‐spent-­‐on-­‐social-­‐media-­‐sites-­‐up-­‐82-­‐year-­‐over-­‐year   [Accessed  22/04/10]  (2008);­‐focus-­‐beauty/38995.article;   accessed  20.4.2010     Novak,  Thomas  P.,  Donna  L.  Hoffman,  and  Yung  Yiu-­‐Fai.  (2000)  "Measuring  the  Customer   Experience  in  Online  Environments:  A  Structural  Modeling  Approach."  Marketing   Science  19,  no.  1:  22.  Business  Source  Premier,  EBSCOhost  [Accessed  21  April  2010]   Phillimore,  M.  (2010)  lecture  1,  Change  in  the  balance  of  power  between  consumers  and   organisations?,  12/04/10,  ESCEM,  slides  17-­‐18.   Simmons,  T.  (2006)  August  8.  “Real  women,  real  results:  A  look  at  Dove's  best  of  Silver  Anvil-­‐ winning  campaign”,  PRSA;   10
  12. 12. NEW  MEDIA  MARKETING         DOVE at_Dove_s_best_of_S  (accessed  April  20,  2010).     Unknown  (2010)  “Knowing  What’s  What  and  What’s  not,  the  5  W’s  (and  1  ‘H’)  of   Cyberspace”,  Media  Awareness  Network­‐ s/5Ws_of_cyberspace.cfm  [Accessed  20  April  2010]     Van  Zyl,  A.  S.  (2009)  The  impact  of  Social  Networking  2.0  on  organisations,  The  Electronic   Library,  vol.  27,  Iss.  6,  Emerald  Group  Publishing  Limited,  p.  906-­‐918.  http://0-­‐;jsessioni d=81B4652AA3B56E423F43ADA0A6C901C6?contentType=Article&contentId=1827226   [Accessed  21  April  2010]     Waldron,  A.  2005.  “A  case  study  in  integration:  The  Dove  Campaign  For  Real  Beauty”­‐case-­‐study-­‐in-­‐integration-­‐ the-­‐dove-­‐campaign-­‐for-­‐real-­‐beauty-­‐1098    [Accessed  21  April  2010]     Williams,  N.  2008.  March  1.  “Beyond  Dove”,  Strategy  bold  vision  brand  new  ideas;       11
  13. 13. Appendix  1  –  Global  Web  Traffic  to  Social  Networking  Sites           Nielsen  (2010)  Led  by  Facebook,  Twitter,  Global  Time  Spent  on  Social  Media  Sites  up  82%   Year  over  Year,  22/01/2010.­‐by-­‐ facebook-­‐twitter-­‐global-­‐time-­‐spent-­‐on-­‐social-­‐media-­‐sites-­‐up-­‐82-­‐year-­‐over-­‐year/   [Accessed  22/04/10]      
  14. 14. NEW  MEDIA  MARKETING         DOVE   Appendix  2  –  Popular  Social  Media  Sites       Nielsen  (2010)  Led  by  Facebook,  Twitter,  Global  Time  Spent  on  Social  Media  Sites  up  82%   Year  over  Year,  22/01/2010.­‐by-­‐ facebook-­‐twitter-­‐global-­‐time-­‐spent-­‐on-­‐social-­‐media-­‐sites-­‐up-­‐82-­‐year-­‐over-­‐year/   [Accessed  22/04/10]       Nielsen  (2009)  Global  Faces  and  networked  places:  A  Nielsen  report  on  Social   Networking’s  New  Global  Footprint,  March  2009,  The  Nielsen  Company.  
  15. 15. NEW  MEDIA  MARKETING         DOVE   Appendix  3  –  Benefits  and  Uses  for  Smartphone  Applications     Detailed  benefits  and  uses  for  smartphone  application:   - Access  to  the  Dove  Community  including  information  and  interaction;   - Downloadable   music   (i.e.   Dove   “go   fresh”   campaign   song   as   ringtone,   other   ringtones,   etc  (Marshall,  2009);   - Videos  (link  to  YouTube-­‐Channel)  for  advertising  and  campaigns  such  as  “go  fresh;”   - Link  to  in-­‐store  access  points  (scan  a  code,  get  a  coupon  or  an  instant  free  present);   - SMS-­‐subscription   - Games  (Marshall,  2009)   - Compile  a  personal  file  (e.g.  ‘my  products’),  recommend  complimentary  products;   - Price  and  availability  check  (online  vs.  offline);   - Coupons  (i.e.  Coupons  delivered  and  redeemed  via  mobile  phones  are  forecast  to  be   used   by   some   200   million   mobile   subscribers   globally   by   2013.   (,   2008)  More  than  3  million  consumers  have  now  used  mobile  coupons  in  the  UK.  The   redemption   rate   for   traditional   paper   coupons   is   typically   1%   or   less,   but,   based   on   their  survey,  mobile  coupons  offer  6  times  higher.  (,  2009));  and   - Daily  news  from  the  Dove  Self-­‐Esteem  Fund  (i.e.  How  to  teach  your  children  about  self-­‐ esteem  or  daily  facts  on  “boost  your  self-­‐esteem  with  the  Dove  self-­‐esteem  fund”).  
  16. 16. NEW  MEDIA  MARKETING         DOVE   Appendix  4  –  Importance  of  Trust  and  Reputation       From  (Edelman  trust  barometer,  2009)  
  17. 17. NEW  MEDIA  MARKETING         DOVE   From  (Edelman  trust  barometer,  2009)   Jahansoozi,  J.2006.  “Relationships,  transparency  and  evaluation:  the  implications  for  public   relations”  in  L’Etang,  J.,  &  Pieczka,  M.  (Eds)  2006.  Public  Relations:  Critical  Debates  and   Contemporary  Practice,  LEA.    P.69.     Edelman  trust  barometer.  2009.      
  18. 18. NEW  MEDIA  MARKETING         DOVE   Appendix  5  –  Variables  Used  in  the  Flow  Survey    
  19. 19. NEW  MEDIA  MARKETING         DOVE  
  20. 20. NEW  MEDIA  MARKETING         DOVE   Appendix  6  –  Desk  Research:    Print  Screens  of  Group  Blog
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