A concise history of western art
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  • \n
  • Black figure pots :utilitarian, flat, one-dimensional, depict war scenes and everyday life\n
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  • Early Greek art shows movement and emotion. Based on the story of the Greeks defeating the Trojans\n
  • One of the first statues to be viewed in the round. Expression of anguish, perfect physical form, expression The Gauls were renowned for their fighting ability and this sculpture is a homage to the bravery of an enemy. Notice the blood near the wound on his right lung. He would have died in about 15 minutes.\n
  • Imperial portraits rendered in bronze and marble; Collosal Statue of Constantine \n
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  • The Pantheon-built 117-125 AD; marble, brick, concrete-constructed with a dome roof-entry portico derived from Greeks-based on sphere in interior-oculus (eye in Latin) in roof let in light\n
  • The Byzantine Empire refers to the spread of the Roman Empire, Churches, Manuscripts the Monks created, Byzantine Art: mosaics, large domes, gilded creations\n
  • Reims Cathedral, Chartres, Notre Dame, Florence Cathedral; Church’s dominance in society; medieval world: church manuscripts, monks created art; time-honored techniques, did not intend to represent reality in art; Gothic cathedrals reached toward heavens;\n\nChartres Cathedral (full name Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres) is located in the medieval town of Chartres, about 50 miles from Paris.Not only is Chartres Cathedral one of the greatest achievements in the history of architecture, it is almost perfectly preserved in its original design and details. Chartres' extensive cycle of portal sculpture remains fully intact and its glowing stained-glass windows are all originals. Chartres is thus the only cathedral that conveys an almost perfect image of how it looked when it was built.In addition to its architectural splendor, Chartres Cathedral has been a major pilgrimage destination since the early Middle Ages. Its venerable history, exquisitely preserved architecture, and centuries of fervent devotion make for an atmosphere of awe and holiness that impresses even the most nonreligious of visitors. \n
  • Large-scale frescoes (painted into the plaster) of religious scenes makes a powerful impact: we feel so close to the even that we feel a sense of participation rather than observation. The entire scene takes place in the foreground and the scene falls within the beholder’s eye-level. Giotto is the first to be aware of the relationship between the viewer and the picture. His forms are three-dimensional, reality so forceful that they seem as solid and tangible as sculpture in the round. PAGE: 344-Janson. He uses patches of tone and by varying them, create deeper illusions of space. Fresco is painting plaster while the plaster is still wet. Must be painted quickly. Illustrations of biblical events communicated sacred themes to a mainly illiterate world. Giotto’s work had spatial depth. Lamentation of Christ: gaze is directed to principal subject; figures are fully in the round, the lady in lower left can turn her back to the surface of the painting. Attempted to add depth into paintings.Brunelleshi discovers laws of perspective in his architecture. \n
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  • Style reminds us of Giotto’s art with its sense of large scale, compositional severity and sculptural volume, but for Giotto, body and drapery form a single unit, as if both had the same substance; Masaccio’s figures are “clothed nudes” their drapery falling like real fabric. The setting of the painting reveals new architecture (Brunelleschi) and a scientific perspective. (page 413, Janson) Rebirth of Roman ideals of classical architecture. Applies mathematical perspective to create an illusion of space. He wanted to create the impression that if one looked into a side chapel was part of the building itself. Space would continue into the image. He creates one-point perspective where all the vanishing points converge. \n
  • The Birth of Venus” the bodies are more attenuated and drained of all weight and muscular power. They seem to float even when they touch the ground. All this seems to deny the basic values of Early Renaissance Art, yet the picture does not look medieval: the bodies, ether though they may be, retain their voluptuallness and are genuine nudes who enjoy full freedom of movement. Around 1500, the Papacy was growing stronger. Columbus, artists were granted powers, divine powers, by popes. Rebirth: the Roman empire is reborn.The world can be seen through the eyes of human kind. Man was in control of his world and could work harmoniously with nature. Man is now the center of his universe. Idealized, scientific figures. Rejection of stiff formality and dogmatism, and toward experimentalism. It depicts a cold morning where Aphrodite has risen from the sea. Elegantly drawn women. This piece was comissioned. Painting shows how far renaissance ideals have come: elegant, scantilyy-clad women are acceptable. \n
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  • Painting is today a mess; frescoe is disintigrating\n
  • Most famous of Leonardo’s paintings. Probably the most reproduced piece of work Actually very small picture. Enigmatic smile; Significance as a milestone in history of art: it shows skill in two techniques: grading of areas of color into one another—smokefilled scene. Second: chiascurro: the modeling of form of light and shadows. Classic landscape background.\n
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  • David: idealization of human figure is brought to its highest peak. Symbol of the individual, heroic spirit of the Florentine Republic. David was a hero of the bible. The scultpture was put down low for all to see. Sculpture ignobles faults remaining accessible and monumental, superhuman, conveys an eternal image of spiritual courage posture is classical: counterpostural, thought and action are combined in a single sculpture that is self-sufficient and doesn’t need a real weapon.\n
  • Also designed the dome of the Vatican. Pope Julius proposed that Michelangelo paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Lay on scaffolding, flat on his back, fresco, God grants Adam life, spirit.Monumental work \n
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  • Pinnacle of Renaissance artists, combined the best part of Renaissance painters. Became the icon that 19th and 20th centuries would aspire to. \nSchool of Athens: intellectual pursuits of man; famous philosophers convey their thoughts by their gestures and facial figures. Return of classical architecture.\n
  • Mannerism was a reaction to the perfect form of the Renaissance form. Parmigianno made Jesus too large, Madonna’s hands too large. Classified by anticlassical style,distortion; still retained classical elements.\n
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  • Bernini and Borromini\n
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  • Uinson of body and spirit, of motion and emotion, there is an implied presence of Goliath; Bernini conveys David as “Half a Pair,” David’s entire action is focused on his adversary. The space around David belongs to the statue because it is charged with energy. \n
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  • The first canvas fully embodying his practical realism. Courbet asked two men he had seen working on the road to come into his studio to paint them. He painted them lifesized, solidly and matter-of-factly with no obvious pathos or sentiment. We can’t see their faces; obviously the old man is too old for such work and the young man is too young. “Endowed with the dignity of their symbolic status, they do not turn to us for sympathy.” This painting was destroyed in Dresden in 1945.\n
  • Criticized by Courbet for being too flat, Manet avoids all methods since Giotto for transmuting a flat surface into a pictoral space. The grey background looks as near to us as the figure and just as solid. It’s as if the fifer stepped out of the picture, her would leave a hole. Here, then, the canvas has been redefined: it is no longer a window, but a screen made up of flat patches of color, or “Color Patch,” which was an entirely new concept in painting.\n
  • Out of realism, the Impressionists sought to capture the world on canvas as they saw it. “Impressionsim” was coined in 1874 after a hostile critic viewed Moet’s “Impressionism: Sunrise.” Monet refused to accept the term to define his own work.Classified by:\nMonet, Manet, Renoir, Degas \n
  • Flooded with sunlight, so bright that conservative critics claimed it made their eyes hurt; in this flickering network of color patches, the reflections on the water are as real as the banks of the Seine. Were it not for the woman and the boat in the foreground, the picture could hand upside down with hardly any difference in effect. Instead of adding to the illusion of real space, it strengthens the unity of the actual painted surface. \n
  • Scenes from the world of entertainment were favorite subjects for the impressionist painters. Renoir’s filled his work with a singular happy temperment. The flirting couples dappled with the sunlight and shadow, radiate a human warmth that is utterly entrancing, even though the artist permits us no more than a fleeting glance at them. Our role is that of the casual stroller, who takes in this slice of life as he passes.\n
  • Who is The Thinker? Partly Adam, partly Prometheus and partly the brute imprisoned in by the passions of his own flesh. The Thinker, like the nudes of Michelangelo, is free from the subservience of the undressed model. Anonymous so as not to fit any preconceived idea. He is “everyman.”\n
  • Impressionist only in its shimmering, luminous colors. An oblique view, it is severe, almost geometric in design. The tub and the woman form a circle within a square and the rest of the rectangular format is filled by a shelf so sharply tilted that is almost shares the plane of the picture, yet the pitchers on the shlelf are hardly foreshortened at all. The tension between 3-D and 2-D comes close to the breaking point. \n
  • One of the first woman painters, broke the barrier for women; was allowed to only because she was independantly wealthy. Brought impressionism to the United States. The Bath had an oblique view, simplified colors and flat composition shows her debt to her mentors Degas and Manet.\n
  • Tanner was the first important black painter in America. The Banjo shows no sentimentality in similar subjects by other American painters, the scene is rendered with direct realism.\n
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  • The original German title given to the work by Munch was Der Schrei der Natur (The Scream of Nature). The Norwegian word skrik is usually translated as scream, but is cognate with the English shriek. Occasionally, the painting has been called The Cry.In a page in his diary headed Nice 22.01.1892, Munch described his inspiration for the image thus:“I was walking along a path with two friends — the sun was setting — suddenly the sky turned blood red — I paused, feeling exhausted, and leaned on the fence — there was blood and tongues of fire above the blue-black fjord and the city — my friends walked on, and I stood there trembling with anxiety — and I sensed an infinite scream passing through nature.”\nOne theory advanced to account for the reddish sky in the background is that Munch had observed a powerful volcanic eruption of Krakatoa in 1883: the ash that was ejected from the volcano left the sky tinted red in much of eastern United States and most of Europe and Asia from the end of November 1883 to mid February 1884.[3] This explanation has been disputed by scholars who note that Munch was an expressive, rather than descriptive painter, and was therefore not primarily responsive to literal rendering. Alternatively, it has been suggested that the proximity to the site of the painting of both a slaughterhouse and a madhouse may have offered inspiration.[4]The scene was identified as being the view from a road overlooking Oslo, the Oslofjord and Hovedøya, from the hill of Ekeberg. At the time of painting the work, Munch's manic depressive sister Laura Catherine was interned in the mental hospital at the foot of Ekeberg.In 1978, the Munch scholar Robert Rosenblum suggested that the strange, sexless creature in the foreground of the painting was probably inspired by a Peruvian mummy, which Munch could have seen at the 1889 Exposition Universelle in Paris. This mummy, which was crouching in a fetal position with its hands alongside its face, also struck the imagination of Munch's friend Paul Gauguin: it stood model for the central figure in his painting Human misery (Grape harvest at Arles) and for the old woman at the left in his painting Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?. More recently, an Italian anthropologist speculated that Munch might have seen a mummy in Florence's Museum of Natural History which bears an even more striking resemblance to the painting.[5][edit]Depersonalization disorderThe environment of The Scream is often compared to that of which an individual suffering from Depersonalization disorder experiences, such a feeling of distortion of the environment and one's self.[6] The image may represent the pain and agony experienced in organic diseases such as trigeminal neuralgia, a paralysing all encompassing pain\n
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  • Picasso’s self portrait; while his eyes are large, the rest is like a mask\n
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  • Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2Duchamp's first work to provoke significant controversy was Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2 (Nu descendant un escalier n° 2) (1912). The painting depicts the mechanistic motion of a nude, with superimposed facets, similar to motion pictures. It shows elements of both the fragmentation and synthesis of the Cubists, and the movement and dynamism of the Futurists\n
  • The Persistence of Memory is a painting by the famous Spanish surrealist artist Salvador Dali. The original title of this painting is "La persistencia de la memoria" and it depicts a fetus-like head lying on the ground, like a fish that was washed ashore and now decaying after a lost struggle gasping for air. There are four watches in this painting, three of which appear to be molten, as if made out of cheese. The only watch whose structure doesn't appear to be malformed - unlike other watches it is orange in color - is sitting on a desk-like object. The ants seem to have found a point of interest in the center of the orange watch.Without having seen this painting in person it is not difficult to think that the dimensions of this painting are bigger than what they really are. This minimalist painting is only 9 1/2 by 13" inch (24.1 x 33cm). Perhaps the reason for this illusion is that art enthusiasts often become familiar with this painting in the form of a wall poster.Rendered in Dali's hallmark faint brown, yellow and blue colors this painting has earned him world-wide recognition at age 27. The meaning of this painting is open to interpretation and is discussed in the text that follows.Dali's artistic genius lies in his ability to create ideas that lie on the edge between being disturbing and arousing curiosity. To further investigate this statement, Marilyn Manson - who had admittedly been influenced by the works of Salvador Dali - is known for creating art based on the shock factor. In comparison, Dali, however, doesn't go over the border to create visions based on disgust and shock value alone. Dali isn't trying to shock the viewer of his paintings, but to bewilder, to make the images speak for themselves. And in the case of Salvador Dali, it is difficult to tell what the questions are that the viewer should be asking looking at his paradoxical visual statements.The Persistence of Memory MeaningOne of the questions those who had shown interest in Dali's work ask is "What is the meaning of these paintings?". Whether there is certain meaning in Dali's work is not questionable. Any serious artist understands the meaning of his own work. Dali himself almost never explained his works to the public with seriousness, although one can be curious about Dali's influences.What is the meaning of The Persistence of Memory? The painting itself is named adequately, as it is hard to forget the feelings provoked by observing the contents of the painting. The landscapes in many of Dali's paintings, including The Persistence of Memory, resemble Port Lligat, the home of Salvador Dali. More than often Dali uses sandy beaches, corrupted by age sail boats, and other imagery he had been exposed to as a child in his home town.While the contents of this painting are enigmatic and open to interpretation, let's not forget that Dali was also a philosopher, beside being an artist, as most people know him. We also know that Dali had significant interests in science and psychology (He studied the works of Freud and Nietzsche, for example). The painting is nothing more than a collection of ideas, that are to do with the interpretation of dreams, perception of reality, time, birth, death and sexual desire. The ants, seemingly attacking the orange clock positioned on the rectangular table-like object perhaps indicate the anxiety associated with time. And what are the origins of our anxieties associated with time? Is it being too late for work? or is it not having completed or accomplished something before we die? Whether we are aware of it or not, it is reasonable to believe that we all understand, even if only on subconscious level that some day we are going to die. This psychology and understanding of the reality of death may configure our behavior.The Persistence of Memory may have many interpretations. Some are more meaningful, others remain elusive. Perhaps the images of the melting clocks are nothing more than ideas influenced by the Camembert cheese left for too long of a period of time on the table on a warm sunny day (as Dali had previously described his inspiration for this painting, this is noted by Dali himself in his book, conveniently titled Diary of a Genius. According to Dali, he was a self-proclaimed genius). But remember that Dali would often make up ridiculous explanations for his paintings to purposely mislead people. The Camembert is an example of just that. By doing this Dali not only opened the doors for discussion of multiple interpretations of his art, but also made criticizing his work nearly impossible for people he thought who possessed lesser intellect than that of himself. In a similar way, for example, and with the same intentions, Leonardo DaVinci wrote backwards and upside down in his journals, so that the meaning of his work could only be interpreted when looked at in a mirror's reflection by those who were clever enough to understand it.Painting Analysis\n
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  • Painted huge canvasas that were on the floor; often using house paint. See film\n
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Transcript

  • 1. A
Concise
History
of
 Western
Art:
Ancient
Greece‐American
 Modernism
  • 2. Ancient
Greece
600
BCE Black
Figure
Pots
  • 3. Art
of
Ancient
Greece The
Greeks
believed
that
Man
was
an
ideal
form.
In
their
 estimation,
Man
is
the
measure
of
all
things.
Their
works
reflect
 an
interest
in
the
naturalistic
world. Art
emphasizes
the
"ideal"
figure. Kore
(maiden)
and
Koros
(youth)
are
terms
to
define
the
types
of
 marble
statues
carved
and
produced
in
large
numbers
 throughout
the
Archaic
era.
They
were
often
funerary
statues. Concerned
more
with
geometry
and
symmetry
than
original
 expression.
  • 4. Kroisos
c.
525
BC
Marble
  • 5. Calf‐Bearer
c.
570
BC
Marble
  • 6. Ancient
Greek
Philosophy Plato
believed
in
a
theory
of
ideal
forms.
All
forms
of
this
world
 are
derived
from
an
"ideal
form
in
the
spiritual
world.”
Therefore
 all
that
we
experience
is
an
"imperfect"
copy
of
a
greater
ideal.
 Plato
regarded
artists
as
imitators
of
imitation. Aristotle
disagreed
with
Plato.
He
believed
that
art
was
 connected
to
and
an
expression
of
the
human
soul.
Works
like
 Myrons
Discobolos
(Discus
Thrower)
are
not
representations
of
 the
natural
world,
but
a
reinterpretation
of
it.
Works
like
this
 helped
in
the
formation
of
Aristotles
opposition
to
Plato.

  • 7. Myron:
The
Discus
Thrower
  • 8. Ancient
Greek
Architecture:
 The
building
of
the
Parthenon,
when
Athens
was
at
the
 height
of
her
power,
was
the
most
ambitious
enterprise
in
 the
history
of
Greek
architecture. Dedicated
to
the
goddess
Athena Marble Perfect
embodiment
of
Classical
Doric
Architecture Colonnades
surrounded
it
  • 9. The
Parthenon:
Athens
 448‐432
BC
  • 10. Hellenistic
Art,
323‐331
BC Characterized
by
an
emotional,
active,
dynamic
style. Reflected
the
attitude
of
despair
that
Athenians
shared
 after
defeat
at
the
hands
of
the
Spartans
around
432
B.C. Often
copied
by
and
for
Romans
who
loved
the
style.
  • 11. The
Nike
of
Samothrace,
200
BC
  • 12. The
Dying
Gaul
  • 13. Ancient
Roman
Art
  • 14. Ancient
Roman
Architecture The
Romans
worked
on
extensive
building
programs. They
used
concrete,
an
innovation
that
allowed
for
faster
 building,
and
a
larger
scale. The
arch
became
the
central
tool
in
architecture,
from
it
 was
derived
the
barrel
vault. The
Colosseum,
72‐80
AD.
was
dominated
by
Greek
orders
 of
columns.
  • 15. Ancient
Roman
Architecture
 The
Pantheon,
118‐125
AD
  • 16. Early
Christian
Art
  • 17. Medieval
Art
&
Architecture,Gothic
Cathedrals:
Chartres,
1020
  • 18. Gothic
Art:
Giotto’s
Frescoes,
“Lamentation
of
Christ,”
1305‐1306
  • 19. The
Middle
Ages:
476‐1453 In
410,
Rome
was
conquered
and
the
Roman
Empire
fell.
 For
the
next
1,000
years,
most
of

Europe
was
governed
by
 feudal
states. Most
art
was
created
for
the
Church
for
a
mainly
illiterate
 population.
Drawings
were
renderings
of
Biblical
stories. Artists
were
not
concerned
with
form
or
depicting
emotion. 1350:
Black
Plague
killed
50680%
of
Europe’s
population. The
plague
momentarily
“stopped”
the
progress
of
Giotto
and
 other
artists
of
the
early
14th
century

  • 20. The
Black
Plague
  • 21. Early
Renaissance
 Began
in
Florence,
Italy
in
the
year
1500 Milan
was
trying
to
bring
all
of
Italy
under
its
rule,
and
the
humanist
 leaders
of
Florence
put
up
a
vigorous
and
successful
defense. Florence
was
free
to
rule
itself
because
it
gave
the
pope
money;
in
turn,
 they
were
given
freedom. Secular
renderings
of
art
began. Humanism:
rediscovering
of
classical
philosophical
texts;
emergence
of
 the
idea
that
humans
could
create
and
aspire
toward
godliness
. Florence
as
the
“new
Athens”
pushed
the
artists
upon
an
ambitious
 campaign
to
finish
the
great
artistic
enterprises
which
were
begun
a
 century
before,
at
the
time
of
Giotto.
  • 22. Early
Renaissance
Painting,
Mossaccio:The
Holy
Trinity
with
the
Virgin
and
St.
John
  • 23. Early
Renaissance,
15th
Century Botticelli:
The
Birth
of
Venus
  • 24. Italian
Renaissance “Renaissance,”

literally
meaning
“rebirth,”
describes
the
revival
of
 interest
in
the
artistic
achievements
of
the
Classical
world.
 The
artists
of
the
Renaissance
were
determined
to
move
away
from
the
 religion‐dominated
Middle
Ages
and
to
turn
their
attention
to
the
 plight
of
the
individual
man
in
society. 
Individual
expression
and
worldly
experience
are
two
of
the
main
 themes
of
art.
 The
movement
owed
a
lot
to
the
increasing
sophistication
of
society,
 characterized
by
political
stability,
economic
growth
and
 cosmopolitanism.
Education
blossomed
at
this
time,
with
libraries
and
 academies
allowing
more
thorough
research
to
be
conducted
into
the
 culture
of
the
antique
world. In
addition,
the
arts
benefited
from
the
patronage
of
such
influential
 groups
as
the
Medici
family
of
Florence.
  • 25. Renaissance Leonardo
da
Vinci
was
the
archetypal
Renaissance
man
representing
 the
humanistic
values
of
the
period
in
his
art,
science
and
writing.
 Michelangelo
and
Raphael
were
also
vital
figures
in
this
movement,
 producing
works
regarded
for
centuries
as
embodying
the
classical
 notion
of
perfection.
Renaissance
architects
included
Alberti,
 Brunelleschi
and
Bramante.
Many
of
these
artists
came
from
Florence
 and
it
remained
an
important
centre
for
the
Renaissance
into
the
16th
 century
eventually
to
be
overtaken
by
Rome
and
Venice.
 Some
of
the
ideas
of
the
Italian
Renaissance
did
spread
to
other
parts
 of
Europe,
for
example
to
the
German
artist
Albrecht
Dürer
of
the
 Northern
Renaissance.
But
by
the
1500s
Mannerism
had
overtaken
 the
Renaissance
and
it
was
this
style
that
caught
on
in
Europe.
  • 26. Leonardo
da
Vinci’s 
Last
Supper
  • 27. Leonardo’s
Last
Supper Found
in
Milan;
totally
a
mess
today
(disintegrating) Famous
because
it
shows
a
famous
subject
in
Christian
 iconography—The
Last
Supper. Up
until
that
point,
an
artist
would
have
painted
the
disciples
as
 individuals,
but
Leonardo
painted
the
disciples
in
groups
so
that
 there
is
life,
fluidity. Disciples
eat
off
of
refractory
tables
of
Monks:
gives
Monks
 impression
that
they
have
their
meal
while
Christ
has
last
 supper.
Brings
the
holy
to
the
masses.
  • 28. Leonardo’s
Mona
Lisa 1503‐1506
  • 29. Michelangelo’s
Contribution Sistine
Chapel
Ceiling,
Pieta,
David Difficult
personality;
received
education
in
classical
culture
 education,
learned
mathematical
systems
of
proportions
 used
in
classical
art,
preferred
marble
sculpture. Considered
himself
a
sculptor.
Believed
that
spirit
was
 trapped
in
stone,
only
to
be
set
free
by
the
sculpture.
 Through
this,
he
revolutionized
the
art
of
sculpture.
He
felt
 divinely
inspired.

  • 30. Michelangelo’s
David
  • 31. The
Sistine
Chapel
Ceiling,
 Early
16th
Century
  • 32. Sistine
Chapel
  • 33. Raphael:
The
School
of
Athens 1510‐1511
  • 34. Mannerism:
16th
CenturyMadonna
With
The
Long
Neck
  • 35. Baroque
Art:
 1600‐1750 Characterized
by
a
reaction
against
formulaic
Mannerist
 style. Catholic
Church
was
a
big
patron. A
return
to
tradition
and
spirituality. Flourishing,
flowing
style;
artists
fond
of
curbing
forms
full
 of
movement.
  • 36. Baroque
Europe,
1600‐1750 Vermeer

  • 37. Caravaggio
  • 38. Rembrandt
  • 39. Baroque
Sculpture:
Bernini’s
David,
1623
  • 40. Neo‐Classicism:1750‐1880 Originated
as
a
reaction
to
the
Baroque,
a
fanciful,
 flourishing
style
that
dominated
from
1680‐1750.
 Sought
to
revive
the
ideals
of
ancient
Greek
and
Roman
art.
 Neoclassic
artists
used
classical
forms
to
express
their
ideas
 about
courage,
sacrifice,
and
love
of
country.
 Monticello
is
perfect
architectural
example
in
US
  • 41. Monticello
  • 42. American
Realism Courbet:

under
the
impact
of
the
revolutionary
upheavals
 then
sweeping
Europe,
had
come
to
believe
that
the
 romantic
emphasis
on
feeling
and
imagination
was
merely
 an
escape
from
the
realities
of
the
time.
 He
said
“I
cannot
paint
an
angel
if
I
have
never
seen
one.”
 For
Courbet,
realism
was
akin
to
“naturalism”
  • 43. Gustave
Courbet:
The
Stone
Breakers,
1849
  • 44. Manet:

The
Fifer,
1850
  • 45. Impressionism:
Late
19th
Century,
Early
 20th
Century Name
was
derived
from
Claude
Monet’s
painting:
 “Impressionism,
Sunrise.” Characterized
by
visible
brush
strokes
and
an
open
 composition. Emphasis
on
light
and
the
changing
qualities
of
light
 reflecting
the
passage
of
time. Focus
on
ordinary
subject
matter. Paintings
show
movement
and
unusual
vivid
angles. Artists
favored
working
in
open
air
to
captur
changing
light.
  • 46. Monet:The
River,
1868
  • 47. Renoir
Le
Moulin
de
la
Galette
  • 48. Rodin:
The
Thinker,
1879‐80
  • 49. Degas:The
Tub,
1886
  • 50. Mary
Cassatt:
The
Bath,
1891

  • 51. Henry
O.
TannerThe
Banjo
Lesson,
1893
  • 52. Post
Impressionism Differed
from
Impressionists
in
the
artist’s
desire
to
attain
 more
form
and
structure
as
well
as
more
expression
and
 emotion
into
their
paintings.
The
artists
led
away
from
the
 naturalistic
approach. Similarities
between
Impressionism
and
Post
 Impressionsim
include:
both
used
a
real‐life
subject,
 distinctive
brushstrokes,
thick
layers
of
paint
and
vivid
 colors.
Still
used
short
brush
strokes
of
broken
color.
  • 53. Van
GoghBedroom
at
Arles,
1887
  • 54. CezanneStill
Life
With
Peppermint
Bottle, 
1890‐94
  • 55. MunchThe
Scream,
1890‐94
  • 56. Cubism 1907‐1914 Led
by
Picasso,
also
Duchamp. Characterized
by
rejecting
a
single
viewpoint. 3‐dimensional
subjects
were
fragmented
and
redefined
 from
several
points
of
view
simultaneously. New
way
of
representing
the
world
and
new
theories. Influenced
by
Einstein’s
“theory
of
relativity.”
  • 57. PicassoSelf
Portrait
  • 58. Surrealism:
1920‐1930’s Led
by
Dali,
Duchamp,
O’Keefe Artists’
interested
in
expressing
imagination
as
revealed
in
 dreams
and
beyond
(sur=above)
reality. Influenced
by
Freud’s
idea
of
the
subconscious
self. Works
show
freedom
of
conscious
control
and
reason. Loved
the
incongruous;
familiar
objects
were
presented
in
 an
unfamiliar
manner.
  • 59. Duchamp:Nude
Descending
the
Stair
  • 60. Salvadore
DaliThe
Persistence
of
Memory
  • 61. American
Social
Realism 1930‐1950’s Influenced
by
French
Impressionism,
and
Surrealism. Took
as
its
subject
the
reality
of
American
life. Depicts
lonlieness
and
isolation
of
the
time. Hopper’s
Nighthawks
(1942)
depicts
urban
life
reminsicent
 of
the
French
Imprssionists,
but
the
people
are
lost
in
 thought,
osolated,
alone,
while
the
barman
carries
on
his
 work.
Though
they
are
out
of
the
dark
night,
they
don’t
 appear
to
be
offered
any
shelter. 61
  • 62. Grant
WoodAmerican
Gothic,
1930
  • 63. Edward
Hopper:Nighthawks,
1942 63
  • 64. Archibald
Motley: Nightlife,
1943 64
  • 65. Jacob
LawrenceThe
Migration
Series/28,
1941 65
  • 66. Abstract
Expressionism 1940‐1960’s Jackson
Pollock,
Mark
Rathko,
deKooning.
 The
painter
expresses
his
feelings
and
subconscious
 thoughts
through
his
work. Marked
by
the
use
of
brushstrokes
and
texture. Massive
canvases
were
employed
to
convey
powerful
 emotions
through
the
glorification
of
the
act
of
painting
 itself. Painter
paints
abstract
forms
which
do
not
directly
 represent
a
specific
object. Considered
the
“Golden
Age”
of
American
art.
  • 67. Jackson
Pollock:
#32 1950
  • 68. Mark
Rothko:
No.
10 1950 68
  • 69. Pop
Art 1950‐1960’s Led
by
Warhol
and
Lichtenstein. Reflected
a
fascination
with
pop
culture
reflecting
the
 affluence
of
post‐war
society. Direct
descendant
of
Dadaism
in
the
way
that
it
makes
fun
 of
the
art
world.
  • 70. Andy
Warhol
  • 71. Straight
Photography Focus
on
realistic
and
objective
photography Photojournalism,
telling
the
truth
through
photos
(Lange).
 “Posing
is
frbidden!” Adams
shows
light
and
shadows,
natural
landscapes.
  • 72. Ansel
Adams
  • 73. Dorthea
Lange
  • 74. Post‐Modernism 1960’s‐present Led
by
Jasper
Johns,
David
Hockney Characterized
by
a
move
away
from
high‐brow
art
and
 towards
a
more
eclectic
and
populist
approach.
  • 75. David
Hockney
  • 76. Jasper
Johns:
Flag,
1954‐55 76
  • 77. John’s
Ventriloquist,
1983 77
  • 78. 78