Art of Ancient Greece The Greeks believed that Man was an ideal form. In their estimation, Man is the measure of all things. Their works reﬂect an interest in the naturalistic world. Art emphasizes the "ideal" ﬁgure. Kore (maiden) and Koros (youth) are terms to deﬁne the types of marble statues carved and produced in large numbers throughout the Archaic era. They were often funerary statues. Concerned more with geometry and symmetry than original expression.
Ancient Greek Philosophy Plato believed in a theory of ideal forms. All forms of this world are derived from an "ideal form in the spiritual world.” Therefore all that we experience is an "imperfect" copy of a greater ideal. Plato regarded artists as imitators of imitation. Aristotle disagreed with Plato. He believed that art was connected to and an expression of the human soul. Works like Myrons Discobolos (Discus Thrower) are not representations of the natural world, but a reinterpretation of it. Works like this helped in the formation of Aristotles opposition to Plato.
Ancient Greek Architecture: The building of the Parthenon, when Athens was at the height of her power, was the most ambitious enterprise in the history of Greek architecture. Dedicated to the goddess Athena Marble Perfect embodiment of Classical Doric Architecture Colonnades surrounded it
Hellenistic Art, 323‐331 BC Characterized by an emotional, active, dynamic style. Reﬂected the attitude of despair that Athenians shared after defeat at the hands of the Spartans around 432 B.C. Often copied by and for Romans who loved the style.
Ancient Roman Architecture The Romans worked on extensive building programs. They used concrete, an innovation that allowed for faster building, and a larger scale. The arch became the central tool in architecture, from it was derived the barrel vault. The Colosseum, 72‐80 AD. was dominated by Greek orders of columns.
Ancient Roman Architecture The Pantheon, 118‐125 AD
Medieval Art & Architecture,Gothic Cathedrals: Chartres, 1020
Gothic Art: Giotto’s Frescoes, “Lamentation of Christ,” 1305‐1306
The Middle Ages: 476‐1453 In 410, Rome was conquered and the Roman Empire fell. For the next 1,000 years, most of Europe was governed by feudal states. Most art was created for the Church for a mainly illiterate population. Drawings were renderings of Biblical stories. Artists were not concerned with form or depicting emotion. 1350: Black Plague killed 50680% of Europe’s population. The plague momentarily “stopped” the progress of Giotto and other artists of the early 14th century
Early Renaissance Began in Florence, Italy in the year 1500 Milan was trying to bring all of Italy under its rule, and the humanist leaders of Florence put up a vigorous and successful defense. Florence was free to rule itself because it gave the pope money; in turn, they were given freedom. Secular renderings of art began. Humanism: rediscovering of classical philosophical texts; emergence of the idea that humans could create and aspire toward godliness . Florence as the “new Athens” pushed the artists upon an ambitious campaign to ﬁnish the great artistic enterprises which were begun a century before, at the time of Giotto.
Early Renaissance Painting, Mossaccio:The Holy Trinity with the Virgin and St. John
Early Renaissance, 15th Century Botticelli: The Birth of Venus
Italian Renaissance “Renaissance,” literally meaning “rebirth,” describes the revival of interest in the artistic achievements of the Classical world. The artists of the Renaissance were determined to move away from the religion‐dominated Middle Ages and to turn their attention to the plight of the individual man in society. Individual expression and worldly experience are two of the main themes of art. The movement owed a lot to the increasing sophistication of society, characterized by political stability, economic growth and cosmopolitanism. Education blossomed at this time, with libraries and academies allowing more thorough research to be conducted into the culture of the antique world. In addition, the arts beneﬁted from the patronage of such inﬂuential groups as the Medici family of Florence.
Renaissance Leonardo da Vinci was the archetypal Renaissance man representing the humanistic values of the period in his art, science and writing. Michelangelo and Raphael were also vital ﬁgures in this movement, producing works regarded for centuries as embodying the classical notion of perfection. Renaissance architects included Alberti, Brunelleschi and Bramante. Many of these artists came from Florence and it remained an important centre for the Renaissance into the 16th century eventually to be overtaken by Rome and Venice. Some of the ideas of the Italian Renaissance did spread to other parts of Europe, for example to the German artist Albrecht Dürer of the Northern Renaissance. But by the 1500s Mannerism had overtaken the Renaissance and it was this style that caught on in Europe.
Leonardo’s Last Supper Found in Milan; totally a mess today (disintegrating) Famous because it shows a famous subject in Christian iconography—The Last Supper. Up until that point, an artist would have painted the disciples as individuals, but Leonardo painted the disciples in groups so that there is life, ﬂuidity. Disciples eat oﬀ of refractory tables of Monks: gives Monks impression that they have their meal while Christ has last supper. Brings the holy to the masses.
Michelangelo’s Contribution Sistine Chapel Ceiling, Pieta, David Diﬃcult personality; received education in classical culture education, learned mathematical systems of proportions used in classical art, preferred marble sculpture. Considered himself a sculptor. Believed that spirit was trapped in stone, only to be set free by the sculpture. Through this, he revolutionized the art of sculpture. He felt divinely inspired.
Mannerism: 16th CenturyMadonna With The Long Neck
Baroque Art: 1600‐1750 Characterized by a reaction against formulaic Mannerist style. Catholic Church was a big patron. A return to tradition and spirituality. Flourishing, ﬂowing style; artists fond of curbing forms full of movement.
Neo‐Classicism:1750‐1880 Originated as a reaction to the Baroque, a fanciful, ﬂourishing style that dominated from 1680‐1750. Sought to revive the ideals of ancient Greek and Roman art. Neoclassic artists used classical forms to express their ideas about courage, sacriﬁce, and love of country. Monticello is perfect architectural example in US
American Realism Courbet: under the impact of the revolutionary upheavals then sweeping Europe, had come to believe that the romantic emphasis on feeling and imagination was merely an escape from the realities of the time. He said “I cannot paint an angel if I have never seen one.” For Courbet, realism was akin to “naturalism”
Impressionism: Late 19th Century, Early 20th Century Name was derived from Claude Monet’s painting: “Impressionism, Sunrise.” Characterized by visible brush strokes and an open composition. Emphasis on light and the changing qualities of light reﬂecting the passage of time. Focus on ordinary subject matter. Paintings show movement and unusual vivid angles. Artists favored working in open air to captur changing light.
Post Impressionism Diﬀered from Impressionists in the artist’s desire to attain more form and structure as well as more expression and emotion into their paintings. The artists led away from the naturalistic approach. Similarities between Impressionism and Post Impressionsim include: both used a real‐life subject, distinctive brushstrokes, thick layers of paint and vivid colors. Still used short brush strokes of broken color.
Cubism 1907‐1914 Led by Picasso, also Duchamp. Characterized by rejecting a single viewpoint. 3‐dimensional subjects were fragmented and redeﬁned from several points of view simultaneously. New way of representing the world and new theories. Inﬂuenced by Einstein’s “theory of relativity.”
Surrealism: 1920‐1930’s Led by Dali, Duchamp, O’Keefe Artists’ interested in expressing imagination as revealed in dreams and beyond (sur=above) reality. Inﬂuenced by Freud’s idea of the subconscious self. Works show freedom of conscious control and reason. Loved the incongruous; familiar objects were presented in an unfamiliar manner.
American Social Realism 1930‐1950’s Inﬂuenced by French Impressionism, and Surrealism. Took as its subject the reality of American life. Depicts lonlieness and isolation of the time. Hopper’s Nighthawks (1942) depicts urban life reminsicent of the French Imprssionists, but the people are lost in thought, osolated, alone, while the barman carries on his work. Though they are out of the dark night, they don’t appear to be oﬀered any shelter. 61
Jacob LawrenceThe Migration Series/28, 1941 65
Abstract Expressionism 1940‐1960’s Jackson Pollock, Mark Rathko, deKooning. The painter expresses his feelings and subconscious thoughts through his work. Marked by the use of brushstrokes and texture. Massive canvases were employed to convey powerful emotions through the gloriﬁcation of the act of painting itself. Painter paints abstract forms which do not directly represent a speciﬁc object. Considered the “Golden Age” of American art.
Pop Art 1950‐1960’s Led by Warhol and Lichtenstein. Reﬂected a fascination with pop culture reﬂecting the aﬄuence of post‐war society. Direct descendant of Dadaism in the way that it makes fun of the art world.
Straight Photography Focus on realistic and objective photography Photojournalism, telling the truth through photos (Lange). “Posing is frbidden!” Adams shows light and shadows, natural landscapes.