Art Appreciation: Prehistoric & Ancient Mediterranean

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A brief overview of art history from prehistoric through the Roman empire. Based on the "Gateways to Art" textbook (2012).

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Art Appreciation: Prehistoric & Ancient Mediterranean

  1. 1. Prehistoric & Ancient Mediterranean Art Appreciation T,R, 9:30-10:50AM Professor Paige Prater
  2. 2. Map it!
  3. 3. Black horse, 27,000–19,000 BCE. Painting on top of finger tracings. Cosquer Cave, France • 1985, Henri Cosquer discovered it.
  4. 4. The Dordogne: Lascaux Cave • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UnSq0c7jM-A • 600 animals drawn, multi-cave composition • This is an exact replica
  5. 5. Çatalhöyük, Anatolia – 6150 BCE • Landscape with volcano eruption, detail of watercolor copy of a wall painting from Level VII, Çatalhöyük, Turkey, c. 6150 BCE. Wall painting: Ankara Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Turkey. Watercolor copy: Private collection
  6. 6. Cyclades 3000-2000 BCE • Sea-faring, agriculture, herding, crafts, and trade (Egypt and Near East) • Lots of white marble available! (Naxos & Paros) • Low quality clay (since 6000 BCE) • Gravetop sculptures (lying on top) • Obsidian scrapers and chisels • Emery polishing stones
  7. 7. Cycladic Figures • Geometric • Hand-held size • May have laid on back • Fertility • More females than males found Reclining female figure of the Late Spedos variety, Cyclades, 2500–2400 BCE. Island marble, 23⅜” high
  8. 8. Palace of Knossos, Greece • 1900 CE - Sir Arthur Evans; restoring Minoan palace using his own funds • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oYS2DUr3C8g (from 1:50) • 1300 + rooms! Bull-leapers, from Palace of Knossos, Crete, Greece, c. 1450–1375 BCE. Archaeological Museum, Heraklion, Crete, Greece
  9. 9. Drawing of Knossos Palace Complex
  10. 10. Mesopotamia • Tigris & Euphrates rivers • Fertile crescent • Sumerians: great power, cuneiform • Akkadians: conquered Sumerians; divine rulers • Assyrians • Babylonians
  11. 11. Sumerian • Standard of Ur, Early Dynastic III, c. 2600– 2400 BCE; War (top) and Peace (bottom). Wood inlaid with shell, lapis lazuli, and red limestone, 7⅞ × 18½”. British Museum, London, England
  12. 12. Head of an Akkadian Ruler: 2300-2200 BCE • Earliest known major work of hollow-cast copper sculpture in the Ancient Near East • Theft: ancient & 2003
  13. 13. Assyrian • 1400BCE-600BCE – by end of 9th century, they controlled most of Mesopotamia • Slave labor built palace at Nimrud • Hunting & battle scenes depicted Assurnasirpal II Killing Lions, 850 BCE
  14. 14. Assyrian • Lamassu – Mind of man – Strength of lion – Sight of eagle Human-headed winged lion (lamassu), from gateway in Ashurnasirpal II’s palace in Nimrud, Mesopotamia, Neo-Assyrian, 883–859 BCE. Alabaster (gypsum), 10’3½” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
  15. 15. Babylonian: The Code of Hammurabi (1792-1750 BCE)
  16. 16. Babylonian • Ishtar Gate from Babylon (Iraq), reign of Nebuchadnezzar II (605–562 BCE), Vorderasiatisches Museum, Staatliche Museen, Berlin, Germany
  17. 17. Ancient Egypt
  18. 18. Ancient Egypt: Key Highlights • Polytheistic • After-life: Mastaba to Pyramid • Twisted perspective • Static sculpture • Hieroglyphs • Hieratic/hierarchic scale
  19. 19. Great Pyramids & Sphinx, Giza, Egypt, 2558–2532 BCE
  20. 20. Menkaure & a Queen • ruled 2490-2472 BCE • static
  21. 21. Twisted Perspective/ Hieroglyphs
  22. 22. Rosetta Stone – translation of hieroglyphs possible • 1822 - Jean- François Champollion – Carving of edicts by Ptolemy V – Written in three languages • Hieroglyphic, Demotic, and Greek
  23. 23. Funerary mask of Tutankhamun, 1333–1323 BCE • 1922 – royal tomb discovered by Howard Carter • Minor king, richest tomb discovered
  24. 24. Ancient Greece • “Man is the measure of all things” – Protagoras, Greek philosopher • Polytheistic • Acropolis as city center Reconstructive Drawing of Greek Acropolis in Athens, early 4th century BCE
  25. 25. • Dedicated to Athena • Exterior columns: Doric • Interior frieze columns: Ionic Parthenon, Athens, Greece, 447– 432 BCE
  26. 26. Washington, D.C.
  27. 27. Columns: 3 Orders
  28. 28. Metope frieze from exterior of Parthenon • Now in British Museum • Lord Elgin: • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= uKZ_ilKcsEM
  29. 29. Greek Pottery • Amphora: long body, 2 handles • Black-figure vs. Red-figure – Slip: watered-down clay; used to outline figures – Incised designs • Getty: Making Greek Vases http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WhPW50r07L8&feature=youtu.be
  30. 30. Andokides Painter, Achilles and Ajax Playing Dice, c. 525–520 BCE. Black figure and red figure (bilingual) two-handled jar (amphora), 21” high. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA.
  31. 31. Greek Sculpture • Archaic (600-480BCE) • Classical (480-323BCE) • Hellenistic (323-30BCE) COMPARE Statue of a kouros (youth), Naxian, c. 590– 580 BCE. Marble, 6’4⅝” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
  32. 32. Kora figures: Athens, 530 BCE • Gravemarkers • Clothed • Archaic smile
  33. 33. Greek Sculpture • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=88gX WW3qN7o • Contrapposto! Roman version of the Doryphoros (Spear-bearer) of Polykleitos,120–50 BCE, after a bronze original of c. 460 BCE. Marble, 6’6” × 19” × 19”. Minneapolis Institute of Arts
  34. 34. • More expressive • Idealized • Influenced Renaissance artists Hellenistic Sculpture Laocoön and his Sons, copy of bronze original probably made at Pergamum c. 150 BCE. Marble, 6’½” high. Vatican Museums, Vatican City, Rome.
  35. 35. ROMAN ART • Influenced by Greek (especially Corinthian order) • Absorbed cultures/gods • FORUM (marketplace) = center city district • Art focused on emperors/civic leaders (vs. gods) • Valued age, life-like portraits
  36. 36. Pompeii • Mt. Vesuvius erupted in 79CE • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dn14wkg0mhM Alexander the Great Confronts Darius III at the Battle of Issos, 310BCE, floor mosaic, Pompeii
  37. 37. Roman Sculpture • Verism • Death masks • Patricians vs. Plebeians • Clothed Patrician carrying death-masks of his ancestors, c. 80 BCE. Marble, life-size. Barberini Museum, Rome, Italy
  38. 38. CONCRETE: arches, vaults, and domes Arch of Titus, 81 CE
  39. 39. Pantheon • Completed under Emperor Hadrian, 125 CE
  40. 40. Pantheon: Interior View • Dome/oculus
  41. 41. Arch of Constantine:312-315 CE

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