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Pollination
 

Pollination

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Honeybee Pollination

Honeybee Pollination

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    Pollination Pollination Presentation Transcript

    • “TO BEE OR NOT TO BEE” THAT IS THE QUESTION? HARRY R. FULTON BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY MISSISSIPPI DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE & COMMERCE
    • Beekeeping, No MatterWhere, Involves a ComplexEnvironmental Interaction ofMany Living Organisms and Situations
    • But, if You Don’t Make Money Just Think!!!! USDA RESEARCH FROM THE1970’S SHOWS THAT EACH HIVEDOES ABOUT $2,000 WORTH OF POLLINATION!!!!!!!!!!!
    • No. bees and/or colonies suggested to enhance pollination of crops(From Insect Pollination o Cultivated Crop Plants, Agriculture Handbook No. 496)Fruit Orchards-Melons/Cucurbits-Clover (Seed)-Cotton-Blueberry-Strawberry-Pumpkins/squash-Blackberry-Vetch-Soybeans-Cole Crops-Onions
    • SIGNS OF ADEQUATE POLLINATION! General Look!– Symmetrical fruit– Seed pods filled.– Tight clusters of fruit/seed.
    • FEMALE MALE MALE ZUCCHINISQUASH FEMALE
    • Cotton and SoybeansAt least 1 colony per 5 acres.
    • Importance of Bees in Pollination CottonIs Mostly Self Pollinated with 5% natural CrossingPollen Grains are Large/Sticky- 81 to 143microns; therefore cotton is not Wind Pollinated!Pollen is transported mechanically from anthersto stigma!According to Literature the presence of largenumbers of honey bees can increase productionas up to 50% or even more!Just because a plant is touted to be self-pollinated it doesn’t mean pollinating insectsdon’t play a major role in pollinating the plant!!!!
    • SIGNS OF ADEQUATE POLLINATION! COTTON!All stigma tips are well coated with pollen by noon!Flower petals are changing from white to pinkand the corolla is closed into tunnel-like tubeby mid-afternoon.Is adequate if flowers are white at sunset.
    • COTTON POLLINATION Cotton Bloom Cotton Bloom • Stigma much higher than anthers• Stigma and Anthers close to same height! • Some Round-Up Ready Varieties• Most Standard Varieties?
    • THE FEAR!!! How Far are Bees safe From Cotton??Depends Upon the Pesticide Used!Damage May Occur up to 2 miles or more!I Have bees 50 feet from a 10 acreexperimental field and have had nodamage!
    • Importance of Bees in Pollination Soybeans – Very Good Nectar Producer if: Hot/Dry! Soil Ph high! Variety of Choice! – Up to 20% increase in Yields if: Adequate bee population present! Good fertility! Variety Is attractive to bees!
    • VetchOne colony per 3-5 acres.
    • BlackberryOne bee/100 blossoms or 1 colony/ acre.
    • Fruit OrchardsOne bee/1000 blossoms or 1colony per acre.
    • SIGNS OF ADEQUATE POLLINATION!! Apples!!- Most of apples developing from primary (king) flowers.
    • BlueberryMore than 1 colony/acre.
    • STRAWBERRY1 COLONY PER 2 ACRES
    • Pumpkins/squash/Cucumber At least 1 colony/acre.
    • MALEFEMALE PUMPKIN
    • Melons/CucurbitsOne Pollinator/100 blossoms atmidmorning or 1 colony per 2-3acres.
    • WATERMELON
    • CUCUMBER FEMALEMALE FLOWER
    • SIGNS OF ADEQUATEPUMPKIN POLLINATION! CANTELOPE MELONS & CUCURBITS!! CUCUMBER WATERMELON SQUASH 2 + symmetrical fruits near base of plant
    • Clover (Seed) 1 or 2 colonies/acre.
    • SIGNS OF ADEQUATE POLLINATION! Clover/Alfalfa!!Fields have uniform “rustygreen” appearance. Not a spotty look!
    • COLE CROPS (BRASSICA SPP.) Two colonies per acre REQUIRE INSECT POLLINATIONBROCCOLIBRUSSELS SPROUTSCABBAGECAULIFLOWERKALEKOHLRABI
    • ONION AND LEEKTwo colonies per acre8-10 TIMES INCREASE IN YIELD WITH INSECT POLLINATION
    • Nectar Secretion Requires:Sunshine =PhotosynthesisSugar Production
    • Amount and Quality of Nectar Available to the bee is Determined by:Amount of Sugar Produced in PlantAtmospheric Pressure (Lower the Best)Temperature (Depends on Species ofPlant)Humidity (The Higher the Better withoutRain)Transpiration Rate of Plant (Osmosis)Precipitation Within the Last Few Hours
    • Soil Conditions Affect Nectar Secretion How?FertilityAvailable MoistureAcidity
    • GETTING ATTENTION- ADVERTISING!NOT A BEEHIVE?????