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Pollinator Conservation on Small Farms by Nancy Adamson at CFSA12 on 26-28 Oct 2012 (cfsa12)


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Pollinator Conservation on Small Farms

Presenter Nancy Lee Adamson, Pollinator Conservation Specialist of the Xerces Society & NRCS East National Technology Support Center (at CFSA12)

This workshop highlights the role of native bees in fruit and vegetable crop pollination, a few of the most common crop pollinators, and ways to support bees and other beneficial insects on farms. The key components of supporting pollinators are providing nectar and pollen through the growing season, nesting sites, and protection from pesticides. Organic growers prize diversity; enhancing plant diversity for pollinators is an effective way to meet National Organic Program requirements to improve natural diversity. Common bee crop pollinators will be on display throughout the conference in the exhibit area.

NANCY LEE ADAMSON studied native bee crop pollinators in Virginia while earning a doctorate in entomology. Nancy has long been involved in ecological restoration, propagating native plants, and promoting ecologically-minded landscaping in the mid-Atlantic US. The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation works closely with the NRCS to support pollinators and other beneficial insects by promot- ing “farming for bees.” Nancy supports farmers and others interested in pollinator conservation through planting habitat, minimizing pesticide use, and increasing awareness of the importance of native bees in crop pollination.

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Pollinator Conservation on Small Farms by Nancy Adamson at CFSA12 on 26-28 Oct 2012 (cfsa12)

  1. 1. Pollinator Conservation on Small Farms (Part I) Nancy Lee Adamson Pollinator Conservation Specialist Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation & USDA-NRCS East National Tech Support CenterPhoto: Nancy Adamson
  2. 2. What is the Xerces Society?Since 1971, the Society has worked to protectwildlife through the conservation ofinvertebrates and their habitat. Xerces blue butterfly (Glaucopsyche xerces), the first U.S. butterfly to go extinct due to human activities. Photos: California NRCS and Ed Ross
  3. 3. Pollinator Conservation ProgramConservation, education, research, andadvocacy for pollinators and their habitat. Photos: Paul Jepson; Matthew Shepherd; Heidi Ballard
  4. 4. What is the Xerces Society?Endangered species Pollinator conservationAquatic conservation Butterfly conservation Photos: Joel Sartore, Matthew Shepherd, Carly Voight, David Funk
  5. 5. Pollinator Conservation on Small Farms OutlinePart I: Importance ofPollinator Conservation•  Importance of pollinators•  Native bee diversity•  Other benefits of enhancing biodiversity: predators & parasitoidsPart II: Managing Farmsfor Pollinators (& OtherBeneficials)•  Pollinator habitat and conservation•  Protecting our insect allies in sustainable farm systems•  Planting & maintenance tips•  Additional resources sunflower bee Photo: Nancy Adamson on oxeye sunflower
  6. 6. The Importance of Pollinators Photo: Nancy Adamson
  7. 7. Pollination and Human Nutrition Food that depends on insect pollination •  35% of crop production, worldwide •  Over $18 to $27 billion value of crops in U.S. ($217 billion worldwide) •  One in three mouthfuls of food and drink we consumeMorse RA, Calderone NW. 2000. The value of honey bees as pollinators of U.S. crops in 2000. Bee Culture 128: 1–15.Klein et al. 2007. Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. Proc. R. Soc. B 274: 303-313. Photo: USDA-ARS/Peggy Greb
  8. 8. Annual Values of Insect Pollinated Crops•  Alfalfa seed & forage = > $7 billion•  Apple = Over $1.5 billion•  Almond = Over $1.1 billion•  Berries = Over $2.5 billion•  Canola, soybean, cotton = ??? Photo: Sarah Greenleaf
  9. 9. PollinationPollination is the transfer of pollen grains from the anther (male) tostigma (female) of the same or another flower. •  Self-pollination: transfer within a flower or flowers of the same plant •  Cross-pollination: transfer between plants bumble bees, •  Self-fertile: don’t require Bombus impatiens on squash cross-pollination, but quality and yield improve with cross-pollination Photo: Nancy Adamson
  10. 10. Importance of Pollinators: SC Agriculture* South Carolina crop production •  Peaches 2nd biggest US producer $98 mill. •  Soybeans & cotton $235 mill. •  Tomatoes & watermelon in top 10 US producers (with other fruits & vegetables > $150 million) * 2010 NASSPhoto: Nancy Adamson
  11. 11. Importance of Pollinators: NC Agriculture* long-horned bee Melissodes bimaculata on cucumber High value crops Improved yield with pollinated by bees cross-pollination •  Blueberries $66 mill. •  Soybeans $469 mill. •  Strawberries $27 mill. •  Cotton $451 mill. •  Apples $27 mill. •  Cotton seed $66 mill. •  Cucurbits $10 mill. •  Tomatoes $53 mill.Photo: Nancy Adamson * 2011 NASS
  12. 12. Importance of Pollinators: Georgia Agriculture*Georgia crops dependingon insect pollination:•  Blueberries $93 mill.•  Watermelon $88 mill.•  Cucumbers $36 mill.•  Cantaloupe $31 mill.•  Peaches $31 mill.Crops with improved yield:•  Cotton $1 bill.•  Cotton seed $161 mill.•  Soybeans $35 mill.* 2011 NASS Photos: Steve Javorek (Agriculture Canada); Scott Bauer (USDA ARS)
  13. 13. Bugs Drive the SystemBenefits to OtherWildlife:•  Pollinator-produced fruits and seeds comprise 25% of the global bird and mammal diets•  Pollinators are food Photo: Nancy Adamson for wildlife Photo: Nancy Adamson•  Pollinator habitat is Mace Vaughan directly compatible with the needs of other wildlife, such as songbirds © Sierra Vision Stock Photo: Nancy Adamson
  14. 14. Insect Pollinators Are Ecological Keystones More than 85% of flowering plants require an animal, mostly insects, to move pollen.Ollerton, J., R. Winfree, and S. Tarrant. 2011. How many flowering plants are pollinated by animals?Oikos 120: 321-326. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2010.18644.x.Potts, S.G., J.C. Biesmeijer, C. Kremen, P. Neumann, O. Schweiger, and W. E. Kunin. 2010. Globalpollinator delines: trends, impacts and drivers. Trends in Ecology and Evoluntion. 25(6): 345-353. Photo: Eric Mader
  15. 15. Meet the Pollinators: Butterflies © Douglas Tallamy (Unv of Delaware)
  16. 16. Meet the Pollinators: Butterflies Photo: Jennifer Hopwood
  17. 17. Meet the Pollinators: Moths Photo: MJ Hatfield
  18. 18. Meet the Pollinators: Flies Photo: Mace Vaughan (Xerces Society)
  19. 19. Meet the Pollinators: Beetles © David Inouye
  20. 20. Meet the Pollinators: Wasps great golden digger wasp on dogbane Photo: Nancy Adamson
  21. 21. Bees: The Most Important PollinatorsBees are the most agriculturally important pollinators•  Bees actively collect and transport pollen•  Bees exhibit flower constancy•  Bees regularly forage in area around nest mining bee, Andrena sp., on apple Photo: Nancy Adamson
  22. 22. Honey Bees: Colony Collapse DisorderAnnual losses…Pre-CCD (1995-2006): 15% - 22% per yearPost-CCD (2006-today): 29% - 36% per year Photo: Nancy Adamson
  23. 23. Some Bumble Bees in Decline Franklin’s Yellowbanded Likely due to introduced disease: Four sister species of bumble bees in decline © Peter Schroeder © Leif Richardson Western Rusty patchedEvans, E.,R. Thorp, S. Jepsen, and S.Hoffman Black, 2009. Status Review of ThreeFormerly Common Species of Bumble Bee inthe Subgenus Bombus. Xerces Society.Cameron et al. 2011. Patterns of widespreaddecline in North American bumble bees.PNAS.Colla and Packer. 2008. Evidence for declinein Eastern North American bumble bees(Hymenoptera: Apidae), with special focus onBombus affinis Cresson. Biodivers Conserv. © Pat Michaels © Jen Knutson
  24. 24. Bumble Bee Citizen Monitoring Project © Leif RichardsonThe yellow banded bumble bee has declined from many parts of its historic range inthe past decadeXerces citizen monitors have contributed 7 confirmed records of this species
  25. 25. Bumble Bee Citizen Monitoring Project © Jen KnutsonThe rusty-patched bumble bee has declined dramatically from its historic rangeXerces citizen monitors contributed 12 confirmed records of this species, includingrecords at the edges of its range in Minnesota and Massachusetts
  26. 26. Pollination and Crop SecurityWhat does all this mean forthe sustainability of croppollination? Photo: Business Week
  27. 27. Pollination and Crop Security Even as bees decline, crop acreage requiring bee pollination grows From 1961 to 2006 percent of global cropland requiring bee pollination rose 300% in total acreage (world population grew from 3 to 7 billion)Aizen, M. A. and L. D. Harder. 2009. The global stock of domesticated honey bees isgrowing slower than agricultural demand for pollination. Current Biology 19(11):915-918. Photo: Nancy Adamson
  28. 28. Crop Pollination: Important to DiversifyFewer honey bees available•  Important to support diverse pollinators for agriculture•  Important to strengthen habitat and pesticide protection for bees(honey & native) bumble bee on squash Photo: Nancy Adamson
  29. 29. The Economic Value of Native Bees Hundreds of species of native bees contribute significantly to crop pollination. •  $3 billion/yearLosey, J. and M. Vaughan. 2006. The Economic Value of EcologicalServices Provided by Insects. Bioscience 56 (4). Photos: USDA-ARS/Scott Bauer & Edward McCain
  30. 30. Native Bee Diversity in AgricultureDiverse native bees pollinating crops: bumble bee on blueberry•  100+ species visit apples in GA, NY and PA•  100+ species visit blueberry in Michigan•  100+ species visit WI cranberries•  80+ species visit berry crops in New England•  60+ species visit CA tomato, sunflower, or watermelon Photo: Nancy Adamson
  31. 31. Native Bees Providing All Pollination Needs In 90% of farms studied in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, wild native bees provided all pollination needed for watermelon.Winfree, R. et al.. 2008. Wild bee pollinators provide the majority of crop visitation across land-use gradients inNew Jersey and Pennsylvania, USA. Journal of Applied Ecology 45:793-802. Photo: Rachael Winfree
  32. 32. Native Bee Abundance in Crops SW VA Study 2008–9: Three quarters of flower visitors were native bees –Adamson, N.L., T. H. Roulston, R. D. Fell, D. E. Mullins. 2012. From April to August—wild bees pollinatingcrops through the growing season in Virginia, USA. Environmental Entomology 41 (4):813–821. Photos: Nancy Adamson
  33. 33. Native Bee DiversityNorth America is home to about4,000 species of native bees;~700 in the east in 66 genera. sweat bee on blue vervain, Verbena hastata Photo: Nancy Adamson
  34. 34. Benefits of Native Bees in CropsNative bees are very efficient:• Active earlier & later in the day• Collect both pollen & nectar• Buzz pollinate mining bee on blueberry Photo: Nancy Adamson
  35. 35. Native Bee Efficiency in Crop Pollination Example: Blue Orchard Bee •  250 to 750 females/acre vs. 1 to 2.5 hives of honey bees (~10,000 bees/hive)/acre •  Make contact with anther and stigma on almost every visit •  Active at low light levels and low temperatures •  33+ hours foraging in 5 days •  15+ hours by honey beesBosch, J. and W. Kemp. 2001. How to Manage the Blue Orchard Bee as an OrchardPollinator. Sustainable Agriculture Network. Beltsville, MD. 88 pp. . Photo: Eric Mader
  36. 36. Native Bee Crop Specialists Squash Bees •  Ground-nesting directly at the base of squash plants •  Active in early morning hours (before sunrise) •  Pollinate flowers before honey bees begin foraging1 •  67% of 87 sites studied across the U.S. had all pollination needs met by squash bees21.  Tepedino, V. J. 1981. The pollination efficiency of the squash bee (Peponapis pruinosa) and the honey bee (Apis mellifera) on summer squash (Cucurbita pepo). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 54:359-377.2.  Jim Cane (USDA ARS Logan Bee Lab). 2011. Personal communication Photo: Eric Mader Photo: Nancy Adamson
  37. 37. Pollination of Complex Flowers Native bees and alfalfa •  Honey bees learn to bypass the pollination mechanism •  Most seed production by leafcutter and alkali bees •  Wild bees trip over 80% of alfalfa flowers visited; leafcutter bees and honey bees trip only 25% Brunet , J. and C. M. Stewart. 2010. Impact of Bee Species and Plant Density on Alfalfa PollinationPhoto: Eric Mader and Potential for Gene Flow. Psyche
  38. 38. Buzz Pollination by Native Bees Example: Cherry tomatoes When native bees were present, Sungold cherry tomato production almost tripled. Photos: Nancy Adamson Greenleaf, S. S.,and C. Kremen. 2006. Wild bee species increase tomato production and respond differently to surrounding land use in Northern California. Biological Conservation 133:81-87.Photo: Anne Berblinger
  39. 39. Buzz Pollination Video ClipView buzz pollinationvideo on YouTube at [or search onthe terms “Adamsonpollination” withinYouTube to find]There is another videohighlighting native beesvisiting crop flowers insouthwest at
  40. 40. Buzz Pollination Video ClipView buzz pollination video on YouTube at[or search on the terms “Adamson pollination” within YouTube to find]A longer version highlights native bees visiting crop flowers in southwest at . Photo: Nancy Adamson
  41. 41. Three Broad Groups of Native Beesground-nesting bees (solitary) bumble bees (social) polyester bee, Colletes inaequlis orchard mason bee, Osmia lignariawood-nesting bees (solitary) Bombus impatiens Photos: Elaine Evans, Steve Javorek, Eric Mader
  42. 42. Bumble Bees: Excellent Crop Pollinators•  Pollinators of red clover, Bombus ternarius on blueberry, tomato, cucurbits Vaccinium sp.•  More efficient than honey bees for blueberry, cranberry, cucurbits (squash, melon)•  Active in cool and wet weather & “buzz” pollinateBombus impatiens& B. griseocollison squash Photos:, Nancy Adamson, Steve Javorek (AgCanada)
  43. 43. Life Cycle of a Bumble Bee Colony Winter: Hibernating queen Fall: Mated queens seek overwintering sites Spring: Nest establishment and egg layingFall: Newqueensleave thenest andmateFall: Old queen dies Summer: Colony peak Illustration: David Wysotski
  44. 44. Bumble Bees, Bombus spp. •  Social colonies founded by single queen •  Annual colonies--last only one season •  Nests have ~100-400 workers •  Nest in abandoned rodent burrows or under lodged grasses Conserve brush piles, unmown areasBombus impatiens Bombus vagans on cloveron scarlet runner bean Photos: Elaine Evans, Nancy Adamson, Eric Mader
  45. 45. Ground-Nesting Solitary BeesRoughly 70% of bee spp.nest underground•  Resemble ant & ground beetle nests from above•  May aggregate nests (some nest communally, but forage alone)•  Nest chambers lined with waxy glandular secretions that resist flooding Scout for nests, conserve sandy soil & bare ground mining bee Andrena barbara Photos: Jim Cane, Dennis Briggs, Nancy Adamson
  46. 46. Lifecycle of Solitary BeesMining bee (Andrena sp.); a year inits underground nest as egg, larva,and pupa before emerging tospend a few weeks as an adult. Photos: Dennis Briggs
  47. 47. Ground Nesting: Mining or Digger Bees Andrena•  Early spring (generally)•  Nest in well-drained soils, aggregate•  Important for tree fruit and berries Scout for & conserve nesting sites apple males often smaller than females blueberry Photos:Nancy Adamson, Eric Mader, Jim Cane, International Pollination Services.
  48. 48. Ground Nesting: Squash Bees Peponapis pruinosa, Xenoglossa strenua & yellow X. kansensis “nose” • Specialize on cucurbit pollen: summer & winter on male squash, melon, cucumber •  Nest in or near crop •  Active early a.m., summer Avoid deep tilling whenever possiblemale long tongue female ground nesting—but males sleep in squash flowers Photos: Nancy Adamson
  49. 49. Ground Nesting: Southeastern Blueberry Bee Photos: Jolie DollarHabropoda laboriosa male female• Apidae family yellow “nose”• Blueberry specialist,on male activeearly spring• Looks like small bumble bee• Coastal plain distribution• Gregarious nesting pale face patch Scout for & conserve nesting sites long antennae male on redbud, Cercis canadensis Photo: Nancy Adamson
  50. 50. Ground Nesting: Long-Horned BeesMelissodes, Eucera, Svastra•  Long antennae (males)•  Hairy, with conspicuous hairy legs (scopa)•  Some are aster family pollen specialists, incl. sunflowers Conserve nesting sites & avoid deep tilling scopa long “horns” scopa Photos: T’ai Roulston, Nancy Adamson
  51. 51. Ground Nesting: Green Sweat Bees Agapostemon, Augochlora pura*, Augochlorella, Augochloropsis •  Generalists, short-tongued, buzz •  Some nest communally, but each female builds and provisions her brood cells *Augochlora also nests in rotting woodConserve nesting sites tomato & avoid deep tilling blueberry Photos: Nancy Adamson
  52. 52. Ground Nesting: Sweat Bees swamp rose, Rosa palustris Halictus & Lasioglossum/Dialictus •  Small, black, dark green, dark blue, with bands of white on abdomen •  Solitary, communal (aggregate nests) to semi- social (daughters help care for young) •  Many generalists, active all season Conserve nesting sites & avoid deep tillingHalictus ligatus on yarrow, melon serviceberry,Achellia millefolium Amelanchier sp. Photos: Nancy Adamson
  53. 53. Ground Nesting: Polyester, Plasterer, Cellophane Bees Colletes spp. C. inaequalis •  Line brood cells with waterproof cellophane-like secretion •  Heart-shaped face, short tongue •  Small to medium, pale banded •  Many are pollen specialistsConserve bare ground Photo: Steve Javorek, Agriculture Canada & avoid deep tilling heart-shaped face C. inaequalis C. latitarsis, specialist on groundcherry, Physalis short tongue T’ai Roulston at UVA’s Blandy Experimental Farm marks and recaptures study bees Photos: Nancy Adamson
  54. 54. Cavity or Tunnel Nesting Solitary Bees Roughly 30% of native species nest in hollow plant stems, or old beetle borer holes •  Nest tunnel partitions constructed of mud, leaf pieces, or sawdust •  Artificially managed for some crops © Edward Ross Conserve snags, brush piles & pithy- stemmed plantsPhoto: Matthew Shepherd Photo: Nancy Adamson
  55. 55. Tunnel Nesting Bees Hollow stem example: Cross-section of silk cocoonsPollen mass Egg Mud wall Larva Pupa Adult Silk cocoons with dormant bees inside Mud cap closure
  56. 56. Cavity Nesting: Mason or Orchard Bees Osmia •  Small to medium size, robust build •  Usually metallic blue or green •  Wide bodies and heads •  Scopa on underside of abdomen •  Active in spring and early summer Conserve snags, brush piles &scopa pithy-stemmed plants O. collinsiae on oxalisPhoto: T’ai Roulston (UVA) O. virga on apple scopa O. cornifrons or O. taurus (introduced spp.) Photos: Nancy Adamson on blueberry and male cleaning
  57. 57. Cavity Nesting: Leafcutter BeesMegachile•  Small to large size•  Wide bodies and heads•  Dark, typically with pale stripes•  Scopa on underside of abdomen•  M. rotundata intro’d for alfalfa seed Conserve snags, brush piles & M. mendica on pithy-stemmed plants blackberrryblanket flower, scopaGaillardia Photos: Eric Mader, Edward S. Ross, Jennifer Hopwood, Nancy Adamson
  58. 58. Cavity Nesting: Large Carpenter Bees Xylocopa virginica & X. micans • Large size (largest of all insect eggs, 1/2 mom’s body size!) • Usually excavate nest • Long lived, overlapping generations for short times • Shiny abdomen, scopa on legs • Males with white patch, territorial passion flower, Passiflora incarnata Photo: John Pickering, perennial pea, Lathyrus sp. smoothwhite patch abdomen on male scopa blueberry Photos: Nancy Adamson
  59. 59. Cavity Nesting: Small Carpenter BeesCeratina• Small size, shiny body, dark metallic blue or green• Usually excavate nest in pithy stems (box elder, elderberry,sumac, sunflower, blackberry…)• Abdomen somewhat squared off• Active all season blackberrycucumber raspberry blueberry smooth abdomen Photos: Nancy Adamson Photos: Nancy Adamson
  60. 60. Cuckoo Bees: Nest Parasites (Cleptoparasites)Coelioxys Sphecodes Triepeolus Nomada Adults feed on pollen & nectar, lay eggs in host nest •  Slender, wasp-like •  Small to medium size •  Bodies not hairy, no scopa •  Coloration highly variable •  May have spiky projections •  Use sent to locate and evade host Photos: Lloyd Spitalnik, David Gordon, Nancy Adamson
  61. 61. Pollinator Habitat: Enhancing BiodiversityDiverse farms support predators and parasitoids of crop pests,as well as pollinators, through the growing season Photo: Matthew Shepherd, Xerces Society
  62. 62. Pollinator Habitat: Enhancing BiodiversityUSDA Organic certificationrequires farms to enhancebiodiversity“A production system that is managed…by integrating cultural, biological, &mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecologicalbalance, and conserve biodiversity” (Organic Food Production Act, 1990) Photo: Nancy Adamson
  63. 63. Predators and Parasitoids of Crop Pests“The greatest single factor in preventing insects from overwhelming therest of the world is the internecine warfare which they carry out amongthemselves.” Robert Metcalf, entomologist tomato hornworm larvae parasitzed by a braconid wasp, Cotesia congregatus Photo: VegEdge, UMN
  64. 64. Economic Value of Predators and Parasitoids The estimated value of biocontrol by natural enemies is $4.5–12 billion for U.S. crops and $100 billion worldwide (Pimental et al. 1997, Losey and Vaughan 2006) mottled tortoise beetle with Chalcid parasitoid waspLosey & Vaughan. 2006. The Economic Value of Ecological Services Provided by Insects. Bioscience 56 (4).Pimental et al. 1997. Economic and Environmental Benefits of Biodiversity. BioScience:47 (11) Photo © Margy Green,
  65. 65. Predators: Predatory Bugs Many adult predators depend on nectar as well as prey assassin bug eatingtwice-stabbed stink bug on raspberry Photo: Nancy Adamson
  66. 66. Predators: Predatory BeetlesBoth larvae & adult ladybugseat crop pests Photo: David Cappaert Photo: SABeebe (
  67. 67. Predators: FliesAdult syrphid fly feeding on pollen and nectar Photo: Mace Vaughan (Xerces Society)
  68. 68. Predators: FliesSyrphid fly larvae are voracious predatorsof aphids and other crop pests Photo: Mario Ambrosino
  69. 69. Predators: FliesAdult robber flies and larvae are predators, but adultsalso feed on nectar and pollen. Some adults mimicbumble bees. Larvae are soil dwellers. Photos: Nancy Adamson
  70. 70. Predators: Mantids (Praying Mantis)Habitat adjacent to crops provides harborage forpredators when annual crops are harvested praying mantis on perennial sunflower Photo: Mace Vaughan (Xerces Society)
  71. 71. Predators: SpidersPrey rebounds more quickly than predators, so habitat refuge is vitalfor supporting predators in new crops (following harvest/disturbance) lynx spider with sweat bee on rosinweed Photo: Nancy Adamson
  72. 72. Predators: Predatory NematodesSupporting beneficial nematodes is part of maintaining healthy soil Photo:
  73. 73. Predators: WaspsMost adult wasps depend on nectar, and feed prey to their younggreat golden digger waspsipping wingstem nectar Photo: Nancy Adamson
  74. 74. Parasatoids: Parasitic Wasps Adult parasitic wasps feed on nectar; their young eat pests from the inside out!Losey & Vaughan. 2006. The Economic Value of Ecological Services Provided by Insects. Bioscience 56 (4).Pimental et al. 1997. Economic and Environmental Benefits of Biodiversity. BioScience:47 (11) Photo: Alex Wild
  75. 75. Parasatoids: Parasitic FliesAdult parasitic flies also feed on nectar,while their young eat their hosts!tachinid fly, Trichopoda pennipes, sipping goldenrod nectar Photo: Michael Oliver (Wikimedia Commons)
  76. 76. Questions?(Managing Farms for Pollinators in Part II) Photo: Nancy Adamson
  77. 77. Pollinator Conservation on Small Farms (Part II)Part I: Importance ofPollinator Conservation•  Importance of pollinators•  Native bee diversity•  Other benefits of enhancing biodiversity: predators & parasitoidsPart II: Managing Farmsfor Pollinators (& OtherBeneficials)•  Pollinator habitat and conservation•  Protecting bees in sustainable farm systems•  Planting & maintenance tips•  Additional resources bumble bee on great blue lobelia, Photo: Nancy Adamson Lobelia siphilitica
  78. 78. Habitat Needs Photo: Nancy Adamson
  79. 79. Diverse Habitat for Pollinators & Natural Enemies Crop pollination by wild bees and natural enemy activity is greater in landscapes with diverse habitats (Forehand et al. 2006, Winfree et al. 2008, Bianchi et al. 2011)Bianchi, F. J. J. A., C. J. H. Booij, and T. Tscharntke. 2011. Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a reviewon landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control. Proc. R. Soc. B 273: 1715-1727.Forehand, L. M., D. B. Orr, and H. M. Linker. 2006. Insect communities associated with beneficial inset habitat plants inNorth Carolina. Environmental Entomology 35 (6): 1541-1549.Winfree, R., N. M. Williams, H. Gaines, J. S. Ascher, C. Kremen. 2008. Wild bee pollinators provide the majority of cropvisitation across land-use gradients in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, USA. J. Applied Ecology 45(3): 793-802. Photo: Jennifer Hopwood
  80. 80. How much habitat is needed?The amount of natural habitat on orclose to the farm has a directinfluence on pollinator diversity andabundance. Photos: Matthew Shepherd, Bruce Newhouse
  81. 81. How much habitat is needed? Example: Canola in Canada In the absence of honey bees, canola growers make more money on their land if 30% is in natural habitat, rather than planting it all.Morandin, L., and M. Winston. 2006. Pollinators provide economic incentive to preservenatural land in agroecosystems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 116:289-292. Photo: Mace Vaughan
  82. 82. How much habitat is needed? 2.4 km 2.4 km Photo: Mace VaughanSlide courtesy of Lora Morandin
  83. 83. How much habitat is needed? 2.4 km 2.4 kmSlide courtesy of Lora Morandin
  84. 84. Distance MattersDistance to crops: Small bees may fly less than 500 ft.,bumble bees up to 1 mile Photo: Toby Alexander (VT NRCS)
  85. 85. Distance MattersIn PA apple pollination study, apple trees adjacent to natural habitatfully pollinated by native bees. Photo:
  86. 86. Does pollinator habitat attract pests? Larger wildflower plantings support greater biological control without increasing herbivore density (Blaauw & Isaacs 2012) pollinator planting at vineyard in western NCBlaauw, B. R. and R. Isaacs. 2012. Larger wildflower plantings increase natural enemy density, diversity, and biological controlof sentinel prey, without increasing herbivore density. Ecological Entomology. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.2012.01376.x. Photo: Glenn Carson, NC NRCS
  87. 87. Pollinator Habitat: FoodBees and other beneficial insects need alternative foragewhen crops aren’t in bloom or after harvest Photo: Nancy Adamson
  88. 88. Pollen and Nectar Before and After Crop Bloom Flight periods of native bees in relation to blueberry bloomTAXA APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEP OCTPlaster Bees (Colletesinaequalis, validis)Mining Bees (Andrenaspp.)Green Sweat Bees(Augochlora pura)Green Sweat Bees(Augochlorella striata)Sweat Bees (Halictusspp.)Sweat Bees(Lasioglossum spp.)Mason Bees (Osmiaspp.)Bumble Bees (Bombusspp.) © Data from Steve Javorek, Agriculture Canada
  89. 89. Pollen and Nectar Through the Growing SeasonPollinators need a succession of bloom: spring, summer, and fall Photos: Elaine Haug NRCS, Matthew Shepherd; Mace Vaughan, Eric Mader, Jeff McMillan NRCS, Berry Botanic Garden
  90. 90. Bloom Time SuccessionInclude at least 3 species in bloom for each season (spring, summer, & fall) Photo: Eric Mader
  91. 91. Floral Diversity Insect diversity increases with plant diversity.Carvell, C., W. R. Meek, R. F. Pywell, D. Goulson and M. Nowakowski. 2007. Comparing the efficacy of agri-environmentschemes to enhance bumble bee abundance and diversity on arable field margins. J of Applied Ecology 44: 29-40.Potts, S. G., B. Vulliamy, A. Dafni, G. Ne’eman, and P. G. Willmer. 2003. Linking bees and flowers: how do floralcommunities structure pollinator communities? Ecology 84:2628-2642.Tscharntke, T. A., A. Gathmann, and I. Steffan-Dewenter. 1998. Bioindication using trap-nesting bees and wasps and theirnatural enemies and interactions. J of Applied Ecology 35:708-719. Photo: Eric Mader
  92. 92. Native Plants Locally native plants support more abundant and species-rich insect communities. In disturbed landscapes, bees will visit non-native plants but prefer native flowers. Hidden benefits: supporting other beneficial insects.Williams et al. 2011. Bees in disturbed habitats use, but do not prefer, alien plants. Basic and Applied Ecology. doi:10.1016/j.baae.2010.11.008 Photo: Steve Hendrix
  93. 93. Shelter Photo: Mace Vaughan (Xerces Society)
  94. 94. Shelter for Ground-Nesting Solitary BeesRetain or create bare soil:Access to bare, sandy soil •  Keep areas of bare groundAreas without deep mulch,landscape fabric, or plastic •  Maximize untilled areas •  Clear away some plants from well drained slopes •  Experiment with no-till farming techniques •  Plant native bunch grasses Photos: Mace Vaughan Photo: Mace Vaughan (Xerces Society)
  95. 95. Protect Ground-Nesting Bees: Avoid DeepTilling Reduce tillage No-till farms hosted three times more native squash bees than did conventional farmsShuler, et al. 2005. Farming Practices Influence Wild Pollinator Populationson Squash and Pumpkin. Journal of Economic Entomology. 98(3):790-795 Photos: USDA-NRCS, Bob Hammond, CO Coop Ext
  96. 96. Alternatives to Tilling For Weed ControlPollinator-friendly alternatives:•  Annual cover crops (dual benefit!)•  Horticultural vinegar•  Flame weeders•  Drangen weeding tractors•  Shallow disking = ok!•  Tine weeding = ok! Photo: Matthew Shepherd
  97. 97. Shelter for Cavity-Nesting BeesStumps, brush piles, plants with pithy stems(elderberry, blackberry, sumac…)Another ecology story: Many bees depend onwood-boring beetles for habitat! blackberry Photos: Don Keirstead, Nancy Adamson
  98. 98. Shelter for Cavity-Nesting BeesRetain snags or provide tunnels• Place in bright, indirect sunlight• Bees orient to large landmarks• Irregular lengths and diameters• Irregular surfaces (orientation) Photos: Mace Vaughan; Katharina Ullman, Lloyd Crim, Jennifer Hopwood
  99. 99. Shelter for Bumble BeesConserve undisturbed or unmowed areas;protect possible overwintering sites for queens• Cavities such as old rodent holes• Under brush piles & overgrown areas• Under bunch grasses Artificial nests ineffective little bluestem (but mouse pee helps!) Photos: Mace Vaughan, Matthew Shepherd, Bonnie Carruthers, Nancy Adamson
  100. 100. Protection from Pesticides Photo: Regina Hirsch
  101. 101. Avoid Pesticide PoisoningPesticides cause significantdamage to beneficial insectpopulations•  Use active ingredients with least impact on bees•  Consider formulation•  Label guidelines only apply to honey bees•  Don’t spray on plants in bloom•  Spray at night and when dry
  102. 102. Organic-Approved ≠ Safe Organic-approved pesticides not safe: •  Rotenone = Dangerous for bees! •  Pyrethrins = Dangerous for bees! •  Spinosad = Dangerous for bees! •  Beauveria bassiana = Dangerous! Okay when not directly applied to bees (i.e. non-blooming crops or at night): •  Insecticidal soap •  Horticultural oil •  NeemPhoto: NRCS/Toby Alexander
  103. 103. Keep Pesticides on Target•  Spray at night•  Calibrate equipment annually•  Control drift•  Avoid temperature inversions•  Construct buffer strips•  Add thickening agents Photos: USDA-ARS
  104. 104. Safer Pest Management Options •  Bt •  Insect repellents (e.g. garlic or citrus oils) •  Kaolin clay barriers (Surround) •  Pheromone traps •  Mating disruptors Photo: David Biddinger (Penn State University )
  105. 105. Organic Alternatives to Pesticides•  Manage for natural enemies of pests•  Floating row covers•  Fruit bagging•  Crop rotation and diversity•  Resistant varieties•  Sanitation Photo: NRCS/Toby Alexander
  106. 106. Conservation BiocontrolMany of the same flowering plantsthat support pollinators alsosupport predatory and parasiticinsects. Soldier beetle Syrphid fly drinking raspberry nectar Parasitoid wasp Ladybird beetle Photos: Mace Vaughan, Paul Jepson, Mario Ambrosino
  107. 107. 2008 Farm Bill Pollinator Habitat Provisions•  Makes pollinators a priority for all USDA land managers & conservationists•  Encourages inclusion of pollinators in all USDA conservation programs•  Identifies pollinator habitat as a priority for EQIP•  Requires that pollinators are considered in the review of Practice Standards Photo: Nancy Adamson
  108. 108. Farm Bill Support for Pollinator HabitatUSDA Natural ResourcesConservation Service (NRCS) Pollinator Hedgerowhttp://www.nrcs.usda.govPractices for Pollinators • Tree/Shrub Establishment • Conservation Cover • Hedgerow Planting • Field Border • Restoration and Management of Cover Crop Rare or Declining Habitats • Range Planting • Upland Wildlife Habitat Management Conservation • Pest Management Cover • Early Successional Habitat Development/ Management Field Border
  109. 109. Tree & Shrub Establishment/Hedgerows•  Reduce erosion•  Protect water quality•  Screen agricultural fields•  Prevent pesticide drift•  Support pollinators Photo: Katharina Ullmann, Xerces Society
  110. 110. Conservation Cover Cover for erodible slopes Permanent vegetation on highly erodible sites Massachusetts Cranberry Farm Photos: Plymouth County NRCS
  111. 111. Field Borders or Filter StripsUse pollinator plants to control run-off, over septic drain fields, in ditches Photo: Jennifer Hopwood
  112. 112. Establishing New Habitat: Keys to SuccessThe 6 Critical Elements of Establishing New Habitat:1.  Remove ALL perennial weeds prior to planting (full year prep!)2.  Do not disturb dormant weed seed3.  Make a clean seed bed/planting area4.  Use appropriate planting technology for the site5.  Plant perennial seed in the fall or winter (dormant seeding)*6.  Manage annual and biennial weeds for two years after planting*NWTF experimenting with early fall using winter wheat for cover and wildlife Photo: Paul Jepson, OSU IPPC
  113. 113. Remove ALL Perennial Weeds Prior to PlantingPerennial plantings need longer site prep thanannual plantings—a full growing season!For Organic Farms:• Repeat shallow cultivation (4to 6 week intervals), orshallow cultivation followedby a smother crop ‾  Buckwheat ‾  Sudan grass• Solarization (clear plastic):At least 1 year on previouslycropped land• Horticultural vinegar(expensive) Photo: Matthew Shepherd
  114. 114. Solarization (Full Year is Best!)•  UV stabilized plastic•  Mow closely pre-install•  Install following rain or water just prior to install•  Dig in edges•  Stabilize as needed•  Care in keeping tear free and/or repairing quickly Photo: Nancy Adamson
  115. 115. Create a Clean Seed BedSeed Bed Preparation:• Burn or rake off debris, or very lightdisk or harrow to smooth surface• Do not to bring more weed seeds tothe surface! Photos: Jessa Guisse Not ready for planting! Ready for planting! Photos: Don Keirstead Photos: Don Keirstead
  116. 116. Appropriate Planting TechnologyNative Seed Drills:• Multiple seed sizes• Plant directly in stubble (no till)• Tye, Truax, Great Plains(common manufacturers)Brillion Drop Seeders:• Made for sowing turf andpasture grasses, also alfalfa andclover• Works with native seed (changeseed box agitators)• Requires smooth, cultivatedseed bed (not like this photo!) Photos: Jessa Guisse
  117. 117. Seeding: Appropriate Technology Hand Seeding/Broadcasters • Mix seed with sand for even distribution • Requires clean, firm, exposed seed bed • Seed on soil surface – Do not bury the seed Photo: Nancy Adamson Photo: Don KeirsteadPhoto: Nancy Adamson Photo: Jessa Guisse Photo: Matthew Shepherd
  118. 118. Seeding: Post PlantingPost Seeding:• Roll with cultipacker or lawn roller• Mow perennial seeded areasduring the first year (before annualweeds produce seed) Photos: Mace Vaughan, Jessa Guisse
  119. 119. Appropriate Planting TechnologyTransplants:•  Supplemental irrigation•  Animal guards•  Mechanical transplanters •  Tree planters •  Vegetable transplanters Photos: Mace Vaughan, Matthew Shepherd
  120. 120. Establishing New Habitat: Post-PlantingPost Seeding: Mow perennial seeded areas first and second year,before annual and biennial weeds produce seed1st year - Keep mowed in spring to 6–8” up to 10-12” in summer(as often as needed) to let light reach new seedlings w/o smothering2nd year - Repeat depending on establishment Photos: Nancy Adamson
  121. 121. The Finished Product! New Hampshire Blueberry FarmBe patient: May take 3 years to look this nice! Photos: Don Keirstead, NH NRCS
  122. 122. Long-term Management of Pollinator HabitatPost-planting weed control:•  Mowing and spot-weedingMaintaining earlysuccessional habitat:•  Rotational mowing, burning, grazing, brush cutting (no more than 1/3 per year)Other:•  Mulching shrubs, deer fencing, vole cages pollinator planting at vineyard in western NC Photo: Glenn Carson, NC NRCS
  123. 123. Long-Term Habitat Management: Limit Disturbance Mowing, grazing, burning, disking are best at infrequent intervals •  Disturb no more than 1/3 of habitat area each year •  Time management for when most effective against target, or during dormant season •  Early successional habitat is ideal; too much disturbance favors grasses over forbs Photos: USDA-ARS, Audubon California
  124. 124. Forb vs Grass Plantings Photo: Nancy Adamson
  125. 125. Seeding Rates to Help Keep Costs ReasonableTarget seeding rate should be inseeds/square foot (vs. lbs/acre forgrasses)•  Drill seeding: 25-35 seeds/sq ft•  Broadcast: 40-60 seeds/sq ft Photos: Don Keirstead (NH NRCS)
  126. 126. Forb vs Grass PlantingsUse seed calculator to determine seed mix •  Order pure live seed (PLS) whenever possible •  Avoid pre-emergent herbicides used for grassland plantings
  127. 127. Plant Selection: SC NRCS Resources
  128. 128. Further Information: Native Plant DatabaseLady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center: &
  129. 129. Further Information: Native Plant DatabaseLady Bird Johnson WildflowerCenter Recommended Species: Collections •  Butterflies and MothsValue to Beneficial Insects •  Special Value to Native Bees •  Special Value to Bumble Bees •  Special Value to Honey Bees •  Provide Nesting Materials/Structure for Native Bees Click on those, then narrow to state, habit, light & soil conditions, etc.
  130. 130. Especially for Bumble BeesIn Conserving Bumble Bees: Guidelines forCreating and Managing Habitat for America’sDeclining Pollinators (new Xerces Societypublication)
  131. 131. Spring Blooming PlantsNative* trees:•  Acer, maple•  Amelanchier, serviceberry•  Crataegus, hawthorn•  Diospyros, persimmon•  Gleditsia, honey locust•  Ilex, holly•  Liriodendron, tulip tree•  Malus, crab apple•  Nyssa, black gum•  Prunus, cherry, plum, peach•  Robinia, black locust•  Salix, willow•  Sassafras, sassafras•  Tilia, basswood*non-native relatives sweat bee onalso excellent serviceberry Photo: Nancy Adamson
  132. 132. Spring Blooming Plants mining bee on blueberryNative shrubs/small trees:•  Amelanchier, serviceberry•  Amorpha, leadplant•  Ceanothus, New Jersey tea•  Cercis, redbud•  Gaylussacia, huckleberry•  Halesia, silverbell•  Ilex, holly•  Photinia, chokeberry•  Physocarpus, ninebark•  Prunus, cherry, plum, peach•  Rhododendron, azalea•  Vaccinium, blueberrysoutheastern blueberry beeon redbud Photos: Nancy Adamson
  133. 133. Spring Blooming Plants bumble bee on Native perennials: Dutchman’s breeches •  Aquilegia, wild columbine •  Baptisia, wild indigo •  Dicentra, Dutchman’s breeches •  Geranium, wild geranium •  Lupinus, wild lupine •  Penstemon, beardtongue •  Polemonium, Jacob’s ladder anthophorid bee on •  Salvia, sage beardtongue •  Tradescantia, spiderwort sweat beelyre-leaved sage wild lupine Photos: Nancy Adamson wild columbine
  134. 134. Summer Blooming PlantsNative shrubs & trees: spirea•  Amorpha, leadplant chokeberry•  Aralia, devil’s walkingstick•  Baccharis, groundsel bush•  Cephalanthus, buttonbush•  Clethra, sweet pepperbush•  Ilex, holly•  Oxydendrum, sourwood•  Photinia, chokeberry wild cherry•  Physocarpus, ninebark wasp on elderberry•  Prunus, cherry, plum, peach•  Rhus, sumac•  Rosa, wild rose•  Sambucus, elderberry•  Spiraea, spirea Photos: Nancy Adamson
  135. 135. Summer Blooming PlantsNative perennials: sweat bee on milkweed•  Agastache, hyssop•  Asclepias, milkweed sweat bee on•  Chamaecrista, partridge pea (annual) coneflowerr•  Chelone, turtlehead bumble bee on bergamot•  Cimicifuga, black cohosh•  Echinacea, coneflower•  Eupatorium, Joe-pye, boneset bumble bee on•  Hibiscus, rose mallow milkweed•  Liatris, blazing star•  Monarda, wild bergamot bumble bee•  Pycnanthemum, mountain mint coming out of turtlehead•  Verbena, vervain zebra swallowtail on milkweed mountain mints (with a predatory wasp, right) blazing star Photos: Nancy Adamson
  136. 136. Fall Blooming PlantsNative perennials: bumble bee on•  Cirsium, thistle great blue lobelia•  Eupatorium, Joe-pye, boneset•  Helianthus, sunflower•  Helenium, Helen’s flower•  Liatris, blazing star sweat bee•  Lobelia, lobelia, cardinal flower on thistle•  Pycnanthemum, mountain mint clear wing sweat bee on•  Solidago, goldenrod moth on goldenrod•  Symphyotrichum, aster Joe-pye•  Verbena, vervain•  Vernonia, ironweedsweat bee on aster Photos: Nancy Adamson
  137. 137. Native Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.)common milkweed,A. syriaca •  High quality nectar source for pollinators •  Obligate host plants for monarch caterpillars •  Top species for attracting beneficial insects in western US vineyards butterfly milkweed, A. tuberosaJames, D.G. 2010. Attraction of beneficial insects to flowering endemic perennial plants in the Yakima Valley. IrrigatedAgriculture Research and Extension Center, Washington State University. Unpublished raw data. Photos: Nancy Adamson & Eric Mader
  138. 138. Native Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) •  ~80% decline in monarch butterflies since ~2000 in corn/soybean ag regions (~60% decline in milkweeds) •  Tremendous diversity in milkweeds--great potential to expand use purple milkweed, A. purpurascens swamp milkweed, A. incarnata poke milkweed, A. exaltata green milkweed, A. viridiflora fourleaf milkweed, A. quadrifoliaPleasants, J. M., Oberhauser, K. S. 2012.Milkweed loss in agricultural fields because of herbicide use: effect onthe monarch butterfly population. Insect Conservation and Diversity. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-4598.2012.00196.x. Photos: Nancy Adamson
  139. 139. Non-native Bee Plants cosmos •  Red clover (esp. mammoth red) •  White clover (esp. Ladino) •  Alfalfa borage buckwheat •  Buckwheat •  Basil •  Borage •  Hairy vetch •  Catmint •  Cosmos sunflower •  Annual sunflower •  Oregano •  Russian sage •  Siberian squillclover Photos: Mace Vaughan, Eric Mader, Nancy
  140. 140. Additional Resources bumble bee on silverbell Photo: Nancy Adamson
  141. 141. Further Information: NRCS Resources Your Local USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Office: •  Information about Farm Bill programs •  New state pollinator technology notes •  Revised EQIP/WHIP standards for pollinator plantings •  Farming for Pollinators brochure •  Organic conversion assistancePhoto: USDA-ARS
  142. 142. Further Information: USDA-NRCSUSDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service•  State and regional Technical Notes•  Farming for Pollinators brochure•  Agroforestry Notes•  PLANTS Database•  NRCS Plant Material Centers
  143. 143. NRCS WV Pollinator Handbook Comprehensive guide •  WV native bee & butterfly diversity •  Pollinator biology & habitat •  Pollinator conservation & farm planning •  On-going management •  Plants, plant mixes, & sources •  Common bees of WV Online at uploads/2009/11/WVPH-SEC.pdf
  144. 144. Further Information: the Xerces Society•  Xerces Society publications•
  145. 145. Further Information: Resource Center Pollinator Conservation Resource CenterRegion-specific Information fromXerces, Cooperative Extension,USDA-NRCS, NGO, and othersources, including:•  Regional plant lists•  National plant lists•  Conservation guides•  Nest construction guides•  Links to identification guides•  Pesticide guidelines•  Native plant nursery directory resource-center
  146. 146. Further Information: PublicationsPublished in February 2011 Attracting Native Pollinators belongson the bookshelf of everyone whovalues the future of the naturalworld.- Douglas W. Tallamy, researcher and author ofBringing Nature Home Precise, elegant and thoughtful, therecommendations offered by theXerces Society will become essentialto advancing a healthy and diversefood production system.- Gary Nabhan, author of The Forgotten Pollinatorsand Renewing America s Food Traditions Nancy has copies at CFSA
  147. 147. Remember: Plant flowers… …as native as possible. Reduce pesticide use. southeastern blueberry bee Habropoda laboriosa Photo: Nancy Adamson
  148. 148. Thank You! Photo: Nancy Adamson
  149. 149. Thank You!Many excellent scientists,conservationists, and farmersFinancial support from  Xerces Society Members  NRCS: West & East National Tech Centers, Ag Wildlife Conservation Center  Turner Foundation  CS Fund  Sarah K. de Coizart Article TENTH Perpetual Charitable Trust.  Dudley Foundation  Bullitt Foundation  Disney Wildlife Conservation Fund  Richard and Rhoda Goldman Foundation  Panta Rhea Foundation  Gaia Fund  Bill Healy Foundation  Bradshaw-Knight Foundation andrenid bee on apple  Wildwood Foundation  Organic Valley  & many others… Photo: Nancy Adamson
  150. 150. Questions? links to pollinator program) Photo: Nancy Adamson
  151. 151. long-tailed skipper office 336-370-3443 cell 336-404-0151 Photo: Nancy Adamson