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2007 AACTE presentation -
Networking and Learning Among New Teachers
10:30–11:45 a.m., Concourse B, Concourse Level
Electronically Networking to Develop Accomplished Professional Teachers (ENDAPT)
Christopher Ryan Gareis and Sheryl Nussbaum-Beach, College of William and Mary

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  • Give a sense for what virtual room looks like
    Preview of flow… novice weighs in… Novice– 2 mentors- another novice and different mentor (plc)
  • Mentors distinguised .. Lots of diversity (geographical)
    7-10 minutes
  • Mentors: (1,7,9) (25,25,35,35,44) (56,64,71)
    Novices (0,0,0,0) (3,4,5,7) (20,20,20) (34,40)
  • Mentors talk to each other
    Novices talk to each other
    BOTH evenly divided between Group (“to broadcast”) and Specific (“to novice” + “to mentor”)
    Highlights advantages of “Group” mentoring—multiple directions of conversations, multiple sources of support & information
  • 3/4 of all NOVICE posts directly seek support and guidance: Direct Questions & Describing a Problem (37% + 39% = 76%)
    NOVICES have at least 3 different ways of seeking support and guidance: Sharing Experiences, Direct Questions, Describing a Problem
    MENTORS describe their own practice (Modeling) more than giving direct advice (Guided Advice).
    MENTORS tended to Ask Questions or Prompt Reflection less than we might hope.
    NOVICES give advice!
    BOTH are very polite (see “Acknowledge/Thanks” and “Support/Confirmation”)—AFFIRMING & SUPPORTIVE! NOT IMPERSONABLE!
  • Very close match suggests responsiveness of mentors.
  • Even in an online environment there is evidence of 1-1 mentoring going on and there is plc conversations taking place.
    People ar eposting for the reasons we expected… sharing experience

    1. 1. ENDAPT • Electronically • Networking to • Develop • Accomplished • Professional • Teachers • ENabling new teachers to… • ADAPT to—and to adapt —the complex, ever- changing contexts of education as teacher leaders and in service of student learning.
    2. 2. 1-to-1 Group http://endapt.wm.edu/modules/emissary-admin/info.php?template=home_page.html Info on demand
    3. 3. Through ENDAPT, we aim to… 1) Improve pre-service preparation 2) Improve novice induction 3) Improve teacher effectiveness 4) Improve teacher retention 5) Foster teacher leadership 6) Improve K-12 student learning
    4. 4. Overcomes some recognized limitations of site- based mentoring: • Access to highly experienced, communicative mentors • Scheduling mentoring sessions • School politics (Abbott, 2003; Schlager, Fusco, Koch, Crawford, & Phillips, 2003) Why Online Mentoring for Novice Teachers? Telementoring e-mentoring Online m entoring Virtual learning community Computer-mediated communication
    5. 5. How ENDAPT Began… Group Mentoring Instructional Technology course On-site Mentoring Clinical Faculty Program 1-to-1 Mentoring WINGS Online
    6. 6. Tapped In http://www.tappedin.org
    7. 7. Novice Mentor Mentor Novice Mentor Threaded Discussion in Virtual Room
    8. 8. The Pilot September-October • Recruited novices • Recruited mentors • Oriented novices individually • “Trained” mentors October • Launched group mentoring December • Survey #1 May-June • Content Analysis • Survey #2 • Concluded group mentoring
    9. 9. Pilot Participants 13 Novices • 5 elementary • 2 middle • 4 high • 2 reading specialists • 11 in VA • 1 in FL • 1 in AZ 11 Mentors • 6 elementary • 3 middle • 2 high • AL, CA, FL, MI, MO, NC, VA • 5 - 31 years experience • 20 years experience on average • TOY—school, district, region, state, national • NBPTS certified • Danforth fellow • Officers/president of state professional associations • State/national commissions • Department/team/grade-level chairs • Awards from professional assn.
    10. 10. Research Study The purpose of our study is to identify the:  nature  evident outcomes of professional conversations among master (i.e., mentor) and novice teachers in an asynchronous, group-based, online mentoring environment.
    11. 11. Research Questions • Flow: What is the flow (i.e., direction) and frequency of the posts among mentor and novice teachers? • Function: What is the function (i.e., purpose) and frequency of the posts among mentor and novice teachers? • Content: What is the content (i.e., topics) and frequency of the posts among mentor and novice teachers?
    12. 12. Content Analysis Methodology • Created function categories* • Identified content categories** • Developed codebook • Pilot coded • Trained coders (6) • Calculated inter-rater reliability * Adapted from Bonk & Kim's (1998) 12 forms of mentoring communication. ** Adapted from William & Mary (2002) student teacher competencies
    13. 13. Content Analysis Unit of Data Collection  Discussion thread within an online mentoring forum Unit of Data Analysis  Individual posting to discussion thread within an online mentoring forum Type of Evidence: Manifest vs. Latent  Manifest or explicit meaning that can be objectively derived from the words used and the thoughts expressed in the postings.
    14. 14. Frequency & Direction of Posts Specific Mentor Specific Novice Broadcast Mentor Specific Novice Specific Mentor Broadcast Novice
    15. 15. Mentor Function Categories (1) Support/Confirmation -- The mentor makes a supportive statement and/or confirms the actions of a novice teacher or another mentor: “You’re doing great…”, “Don’t doubt yourself…”, "You're really growing as a professional...", "That was a good decision..." (2) Guided Advice -- The mentor provides specific direction, instruction, or advice to the novice teacher or another mentor: “You may want to try…”, “I suggest using…” (3) Modeling -- The mentor describes his or her own experience or thinking but does not give direct advice, answers, or interpretations of a given situation: “The way I’ve handled that situation is to…”, "Once I...", "I remember...", "In my classroom..." (4) Seeking Clarification/Direct Questioning -- The mentor poses a direct question or makes a statement inviting explanation or clarification: “How are you currently grading homework?”, “Have you discussed this with your principal?”, "Tell me more about..." (5) Prompting Reflection -- The mentor prompts or otherwise creates an opportunity for a novice to think about, share, and evaluate his or her own thinking: "What do you think your actions resulted in?", "How might your students have taken what you said to them?", "What do you think the parent was thinking during the conference?" (6) Professional Growth -- The mentor makes an explicit statement about his or her own professional growth, new understanding, or change in practice resulting from online forum: “I’m starting to see…”, “I feel more confident…”, “I used to think…but now...”
    16. 16. Novice Function Categories (1) Acknowledgement/Thanks -- The novice acknowledges his or her understanding someone else's ideas, or indicates acceptance of new ideas, or expresses thanks for someone else's thought: “I see what you’re saying…”, "That's good advice...” (2) Guided Advice -- The novice provides specific direction, instruction, or advice to another novice teacher or mentor: “You may want to try…”, “I suggest using…” (3) Sharing Experience, No Problem -- The novice describes an experience, but there is no indication that the experience is problematic: "Today was great! I had my class doing...", "I had my first parent conference yesterday and it went really well." , "In our school use..." (4) Specific Question/Seeking Specific Information -- The novice teacher poses a question or invites others to provide him or her specific information: “How do you use manipulatives in middle school math?”, "What reading series do you use?", "What should I expect during my first observation?", "I need to know more about...", "Anything you can tell me is appreciated..." (5) Explicit Issue/Problem -- The novice specifically describes a situation that he or she is confronting or has confronted in his or her practice, but does not pose a question or specifically seek a response: “I’m having trouble with…”, “In my school…”, "Yesterday was awful. I had a student..." (6) Reflection/Professional Growth -- The novice teacher makes an explicit statement about his or her own professional growth, new understanding, or change in practice, either resulting from the online forum or not: “I’m starting to see…”, “I feel more confident…”, “I used to think…but now...”
    17. 17. Mentor and Novice Functions Mentor Novice (1) Support / Confirmation Acknowledgement / Thanks (2) Guided Advice Guided Advice (3) Modeling Sharing Experience, No Problem (4) Seeking Clarification / Direct Questioning Seeking Information / Specific Question (5) Prompting Reflection Explicit Issue / Problem (6) Professional Growth Reflection / Professional Growth
    18. 18. Content Categories (1) Planning for Instruction • Plans lessons that align with local, state, and national standards. • Selects appropriate instructional strategies/activities. • Selects appropriate materials/resources. (2) Instructional Delivery • Teaches based on planned lessons. • Provides for individual differences. • Uses motivational strategies to promote learning. • Engages students actively in learning. • Uses a variety of effective teaching strategies. • Helps students develop thinking skills that promote learning. • Monitors student learning. (3) Assessment for Learning • Creates and selects appropriate assessments for learning. • Implements assessments for learning. • Interprets/uses assessment results to make instructional decisions. (4) Classroom Management • Builds positive rapport with and among students. • Organizes for effective teaching. • Demonstrates use of effective routines and procedures. • Demonstrates efficient and effective use of time. • Maintains a safe learning environment. • Responds appropriately to inappropriate behavior. (5) Professionalism • Demonstrates professional demeanor and ethical behavior. • Participates in and applies professional development. • Demonstrates effective oral and written communication. • Cooperates, collaborates, and fosters relationships with members of the school community.
    19. 19. Content Analysis: Inter-rater Reliability Coder Direction Mentor Function Novice Function Content Range Average Reliability CS 0.9 0.917 0.833 0.92 .833 - 1.0 0.9 PA 1 0.917 0.917 0.9 .75 - 1.0 0.925 SN 0.9 0.833 0.833 0.72 .583 - .917 0.817 TF 1 0.833 - 0.94 .75 - 1.0 0.892 TS 1 0.938 0.833 0.84 .833 - 1.0 0.9 VW 1 0.857 0.944 0.74 .583 - 1 0.833 TOTALS 0.9666 0.8825 0.872 0.8433 .583 - 1.0 0.8778
    20. 20. Mean Median Mode SD Mentors 33.81 35 25, 35 23.37 Novices 11.77 5 20 13.71 Number of Postings by Individual Novices and Mentors 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 NumberofPosts Mentors Novices
    21. 21. Direction of Mentor Posts mentor to novice 41% mentor to broadcast 46% mentor to mentor 13% Direction of Novice Posts novice to mentor 33% novice to broadcast 56% novice to novice 11%
    22. 22. Percentage of Novice Posts Including Each Novice Function 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Percentage 30% 11% 42% 37% 39% 12% Acknowledge/ Thanks Guided Advice Sharing Experience Questions Issue/ Problem Reflection/ Growth Percentages exceed 100 because a single most may have multiple functions. Percentage of Mentor Posts Including Each Mentor Function 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% Percentage 41% 38% 63% 12% 11% 3% Support/ Confirmation Guided Advice Modeling Questions Prompt Reflection Professional Growth
    23. 23. Comparison of Percentage of Posts Containing Each Content Category by Mentors and Novices 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Mentors 26% 35% 15% 36% 30% Novices 41% 36% 17% 36% 26% Planning for Instruction Instructional Delivery Assessment Classroom Management Professionalism
    24. 24. Perspective “Like Alice in Teacher Wonderland virtual communities allow my teacher world to grows [sic] larger and smaller at the same time!” Susan middle school teacher Virginia Friday, June 9, 2006
    25. 25. posted by Matt November 2006 The longer I do this (a whopping 11 weeks now!), I'm realizing that to be an effective teacher, it will take my all. My ALL! I constantly think about school: what I've done, all that still needs to get done, the handfull [sic] of students that try to make the classroom miserable, the other handful that are the reason I get out of bed (some kids are in both groups)…. I guess my question is: is it always like this? I like teaching (I think), but I'm tired of working 12 hours a day, 5-6 days a week for questionable results. Jobs that you can walk away from at the end of the day, and not think about until you return the next seem mighty enticing right now….I amI am honestly not trying to be pessimistic, but why teach?honestly not trying to be pessimistic, but why teach? Matt
    26. 26. The end.The end. posted by Matt on Jun 1, 2006, 3:05 PM Today it ends. When the bell rang at 11:28 am, the students walked out the door for the last time this academic year. Tonight is graduation. Tomorrow is a work- day. Done. And my friends, what a ride it has been. Ask me how it was. MyAsk me how it was. My response: I have no clue- I'll let you know in a week or two.response: I have no clue- I'll let you know in a week or two. Regardless, from a deep place inside, thank you all. It was very reassuring toIt was very reassuring to know that you were available to run to when my world was collapsing. Yourknow that you were available to run to when my world was collapsing. Your input has been internalized and has shaped my approaches this year.input has been internalized and has shaped my approaches this year. As I look forward to reflecting this summer, know that your input and our conversations will be one of my primary sources for material. Again, my sincerest thanks. Matt 2nd year teacher.2nd year teacher.
    27. 27. Future Research Questions NATURE of online mentoring • Flow • Function • Content • Similar to, different from, and/or complementary of on- site mentoring EFFECTS of online mentoring • Teacher Leadership • Teacher Retention • Teacher Practice • K-12 Student Learning • What types of online support are most effective for pre-service and novice teachers? • What makes these supports effective and why?
    28. 28. Lessons Learned (Process) • Market and recruit early • Platform exposure • Training for Mentors • Choose your champion carefully • Incentives for both mentor and novice
    29. 29. Lessons Learned-(Outcomes) • Group Online mentoring allows for both group and 1-1 mentoring • Virtual professional learning communities encourage professional development across the continuum (mentor-mentor and novice-novice) • Their conversations are professional and around competencies related to teaching and learning • Mentors used effective, traditional mentoring behaviors (e.g., modeling rather than directing) • Novices shared experiences as often as they asked questions