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Introduction to Apologetics - Lesson 5
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Introduction to Apologetics - Lesson 5


Introductory lesson on definition, origin, and canonicity of the Bible

Introductory lesson on definition, origin, and canonicity of the Bible

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  • 1. Introduction to Apologetics: Defending the Faith Stephen Russell
  • 2. The Bible (Part 1)
  • 3. What is the Bible? Defining the Bible is pre-requisite to evaluating its trustworthiness
  • 4. The Bible Defined
  • 5. Old Testament
  • 6. Old Testament 39 Books Written in Hebrew & Aramaic
  • 7. Pentateuch First 5 Books of Old Testament (a.k.a. The Torah) Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy
  • 8. Types of Writing in OT Historical Poetical Prophetical
  • 9. Septuagint a.k.a. LXX septuaginta means “seventy” in Latin Greek translation of Hebrew Old Testament
  • 10. Question: How was Alexander the Great used by God to prepare the world for Christianity?
  • 11. Answer: th Conquered known world in 4 century B.C. Roads Common culture Common language
  • 12. New Testament
  • 13. New Testament 27 Books Written in Koine Greek
  • 14. Types of Writing in NT Gospels Acts (Historical) Pauline Epistles Non-Pauline Epistles Revelation
  • 15. Biblical Authorship
  • 16. ~40 men over 1600 years OT: 1500 B.C. - 400 B.C. NT: 49 A.D. - 90 A.D.
  • 17. The Apocrypha Greek: “Those having been hidden away” Includes: 1 & 2 Esdras Judith Wisdom Ecclesiasticus Prayer of Manasses 1 & 2 Maccabees Not considered canonical by Judaism
  • 18. Canonicity of the Bible Apostolic Origin Universal Acceptance Liturgical Use Consistent Message
  • 19. The “Lost” Gospels
  • 20. Gnosticism Matter is evil Spirit is good Salvation comes from secret knowledge (Gnosis)
  • 21. Gnostic Gospels Mary Thomas Judas Philip Truth Supposedly suppressed by Church at Council of Nicea (325 A.D.)
  • 22. Council of Nicea Convened to debate nature and divinity of Jesus Subject of Gnostic Gospels never came up
  • 23. Problems with Gnostic Gospels nd Authored during 2 century A.D. or later Not authored by apostles of close associates Not widely accepted within the Church Not used in liturgy Not consistent with canonical scripture
  • 24. Questions?