Bible compilation


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A slideshow educating the readers how the Bible was compiled from the very beginning down to the present times.

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Bible compilation

  1. 1. The WordThe Compilation of the Bible
  2. 2. “One of the many divine qualities of the Bible is that it does not yield its secrets to the irreverent and the censorious.” --James I. PackerThe Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  3. 3. How did we get the Bible?The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  4. 4. “The Bible did not arrive by fax from heaven…The Bible is theproduct of man, my dear. Not of God. The Bible did not fall magically from the clouds. Man created it as a historical record of tumultuous times, and it has evolved through countless translations, additions, andrevisions. History has never hada definitive version of the book..” --Dan Brown in The Da Vinci CodeThe Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  5. 5. Canon „Measuring Rod‟; „Standard‟; „Rule‟Canon refers to the collection of books that passed a test of authenticity and authority; it also means that those books are our rule of life – both in this world and the next.The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  6. 6. • Written over about 1,500 years • 66 books – 39 in the Old; 27 in the New • 40 authorsThe Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  7. 7. The Old Testament Order of original Hebrew Bible The Pentateuch The Prophets The Writings Also referred to as Includes former Psalms, Job, Proverbs, “The Law”. Includes prophets such as Ruth, Song of Songs, Genesis, Exodus, Joshua, Judges, Ecclesiastes, Leviticus, Numbers, and Samuel, and Kings. Lamentations, Esther, Deuteronomy Major prophets such as Daniel, Ezra, Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Nehemiah, Chronicles Ezekiel. Also 12 minor prophets Old Testament primarily written in Hebrew and Aramaic. Contained consonants only (no vowels; added later by Masoretes – Jewish scholars - around A.D. 500). Oldest book is Job (not Genesis) with last book written likely being Nehemiah around 424-400 B.C.The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  8. 8. The New Testament The Gospels Church History Apostolic Matthew, Mark, Acts Writings Luke, John Paul, writer of Hebrews, Peter, James, Jude, John New Testament written in Greek. Earliest book is either Mark or Matthew with the last book being Revelation around A.D. 94-96.The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  9. 9. The History of the Canon The Old Testament Moses Pentateuch Other David puts Books cared writes Put in Ark inspired texts books in for by priestsPentateuch (Deut 31:24) added to Ark treasury (2 Kings 22:8) (1 Kings 8:6)The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  10. 10. The History of the Canon The Old Testament More Exile in sixth Ezra Canon Canonbooks added century; restores stored in ark meticulously during Canon Canon; last constructed copied Hezekiah scattered books added for 2nd templeThe Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  11. 11. The History of the Canon The Old Testament Overview of Old Testament Formation and History Pre-patriarchal period Creation – 2100 Gen. 1:1-11:26 B.C. Patriarchal period 2100 – 1800 B.C. Gen. 11:27-50:26 Egyptian 1800 – 1400 B.C. Ex. 1:1-Deut 34:12 captivity/exodus Conquests/judges 1400 – 1050 B .C. Josh. 1:1-1 – 1 Sam. 10:1 United Kingdom 1050 – 931 B.C. 1 Sam. 10:1 – 1 Kings 12:15 Divided Kingdom 931 – 1 Kings 12:15 – to fall of Israel 722 B.C. 2 Kings 16:6 to fall of Judah 586 B.C. 2 Kings 25:26 Babylonian captivity and 586-420 B.C. 2 Kings 25:26-30 post-exilic period Ezra; NehemiahThe Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  12. 12. The History of the Canon The Old Testament"from the blood of Abel to the blood of Zechariah, who was killed between the altar and the house of God; yes, I tell you, it shall be charged against this generation.‟"(Luke 11:51)Jesus confirmed the 39 books of the Old Testament in this verse – Abel‟s death is found in Genesis and Zechariah‟s in 2 Chronicles 24:20-21 (the last book in the Hebrew Bible)The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  13. 13. The History of the Canon The Old Testament"It is true our history has been written since Artaxerxes very particularly but has not been esteemed of the like authority with the former by our forefathers, because there has not been an exact succession of the prophets since that time.“ -Josephus, A. D. 95 Statement indicates Old Testament Canon was already intactThe Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  14. 14. “Eventually, four Gospels and twenty- three other texts were canonized into a Bible. This did not occur, however, until the sixth century.” – Dan Burstein, Secrets of the Code, 116.The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  15. 15. The History of the Canon The New Testament The truth is the composition of the New Testament was officially settled at the Council of Carthage in A. D. 397. However, the majority of the New Testament was accepted as authoritative much earlier.The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  16. 16. The History of the Canon The New TestamentFirst collection of New Testamentbooks proposed by Marcion in AD140.• Marcion was a Docetist. They believe all spirit is good, all material is evil (typically Platonic dualism) and also claim that Jesus only appeared human)• Excluded Matthew, Mark, John• Included 10 of Paul‟s letters, but edited themThe Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  17. 17. The History of the Canon The New TestamentNext collection of NewTestament books is theMuratorian Canon, dated AD170. Included:• All four gospels• Acts• 13 of Paul‟s letters• 1, 2, 3 John• Jude• RevelationThe Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  18. 18. The History of the Canon The New Testament The final New Testament Canon was first identified by the Church father Athanasius in A. D. 367 and ratified by the Council of Carthage in A. D. 397.The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  19. 19. Proof the New Testament was Recognized Early "and regard the patience of our Lord as salvation; just as also our beloved brother Paul, according to the wisdom given him, wrote to you, as also in all his letters, speaking in them of these things, in which are some things hard to understand, which the untaught and unstable distort, as they do also the rest of the Scriptures, to their own destruction." (2 Peter 3:15-16) "For the Scripture says, “You shall not muzzle the ox while he is threshing,” and “The laborer is worthy of his wages.”" (1 Timothy 5:18; cf. Luke 10:7)The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  20. 20. Proof the New Testament was Recognized Early Writer Lived Gospel Quotes Quotes from Acts Justin Martyr A.D. 133 268 10 Irenaeus A.D. 125 1,038 194 Clement (alex.) A.D. 150-212 1,107 44 Origen A.D. 185-253 9,231 349 Tertullian A.D. 160-220 3,822 502 Hippolytus A.D. 165-235 734 42 Eusebius A.D 265-340 3,258 211 Totals - 19,368 1,352The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  21. 21. Proof the New Testament was Recognized EarlyClement (c. A.D. 95) Ignatius (c. A.D. 107) Polycarp (c. A.D. 110) • Matthew • Matthew • Titus • Matthew • Mark • Mark • Philemon • Mark • Luke • Luke • Hebrews • Luke • Romans • John • James • John • 1 Corinthians • Acts • 1 & 2 Peter • Acts • Ephesians • Romans • 1 & 3 John • Romans • 1 Timothy • 1 & 2 Corinthians • Revelation • 1 & 2 Corinthians • Titus • Galatians • Galatians • Hebrews • Ephesians • Ephesians • James • Philippians • Philippians • 1 Peter • Colossians • Colossians • 1 Thessalonians • 2 Thessalonians • 1 & 2 Timothy • 1 & 2 Timothy • 1 Peter & 1 JohnThe Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  22. 22. A Christocentric View of Scripture Name Aspect Viewpoint Law Foundation for Christ Downward History Preparation for Christ Outward Poetry Aspiration for Christ Upward Prophecy Expectation of Christ Forward Gospels Manifestation of Christ Downward Acts Propagation of Christ Outward Epistles Interpretation and application of Upward Christ Revelation Consummation of Christ Forward * Geisler and NixThe Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  23. 23. What was the test for canonicity?The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  24. 24. 1. Written by apostle (defined as person seeing Jesus Christ after His resurrection) or companion of apostle 2. No contradiction in core teachings of the faith (analogy of faith) 3. Accepted early and by majority of churches (catholicity)The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  25. 25. The Canon and the Church Incorrect View Correct View Determines Canon Discovers Canon Mother of Canon Child of Canon Magistrate of Canon Minister of Canon Regulates Canon Recognizes Canon Judge of Canon Witness of Canon Master of Canon Servant of Canon When the decision was made as to what books were canonical, the Church used the Latin term „recipemus‟, which means “we receive.” What the Church said is that we receive these particular books as being canonical, as being apostolic in authority and in origin, and therefore we submit to their authority. It‟s one thing to make something authoritative, and it‟s another thing to recognize something that already is authoritative.The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  26. 26. Challenges to the CanonThe Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  27. 27. The Apocrypha “hidden” or “doubtful” 14 books, 11 accepted by Catholics Was in original King James BibleThe Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  28. 28. Why consider the Apocrypha for the Canon? • New Testament cites it (e.g. Jude 6) • Greek Old Testament contained the books • Some early Church fathers cite them • Early catacombs had pictures from them • St. Augustine accepted them • Eastern Church accepts them • Early King James Bible had them • Cave with the Dead Sea Scrolls had themThe Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  29. 29. Protestant Response to the Apocrypha • New Testament never refers to Apocrypha as Scripture; simply mentions statements in passing. Also cites pagan poets. • No one knows if original Greek Old Testament contained it. • No Hebrew Bible ever had them • Many early Church fathers rejected them (e.g. Jerome, who was a greater Biblical scholar than Augustine). Again, they may allude to them, but never cite them as Scripture (it is written…) • The catacomb pictures simply proves they contained religious history • St. Augustine accepted them because he said they contained stories of Christian martyrs; not test for canonicity • Eastern Church has not always accepted them • King James Bible had them in the middle; not included in either TestamentThe Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  30. 30. Protestant Response to the Apocrypha • Were found with the Dead Sea Scrolls, but no indication they were considered inspired. I have many books in my library too along with a number of Bibles. • No commentaries ever written on Apocrypha • Special parchment was used for Scripture; not used for Apocrypha • No Apocryphal book written by prophet or apostle of God • Contains non-Biblical doctrines (e.g. references to works salvation; prayers for the dead) • Contains errors in geography • Never mentioned as being inspired in first 400 years of the Church • Never quoted by Jesus • Never quoted by Philo (Jewish teacher who quoted from all Old Testament books) or by Josephus as being ScriptureThe Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  31. 31. The Documentary Hypothesis The documentary hypothesis is a theory that challenges the authorship of the Pentateuch by Moses. It asserts many authors wrote the first five books of the Bible and did so many years after the events took place. The theory was first asserted by a priest named H. B. Witter who noticed that two distinct names for God (Elohim and Yahweh) were used throughout the book of Genesis. A French physician named Jean Astruc published a work on the same theory, but the one who provided the most force to the theory was Julius Wellhausen who divided the Torah up into four distinct sections – J.E.D.P.The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  32. 32. Biblical Support for Mosaic Authorship • Exodus 17:14: “Then the Lord said to Moses, „Write this in  a book as a  memorial and recite it to Joshua…” • Exodus 24:4,7: “Moses wrote down all the words of the Lord…Then he took the book of the covenant and read it in the hearing of the people.” • Exodus 34:27: “Then the Lord said to Moses, „Write down these words…” • Numbers 33:2: “Moses recorded their starting places according to their journeys by the command of the Lord, and these are their journeys according to their starting places.” • Deuteronomy 31:9: “So Moses wrote this law and gave it to the priests…” • 1 Kings 2:3: ““Keep the charge of the Lord your God, to walk in His ways, to keep His statutes, His commandments, His ordinances, and His testimonies, according to what is written in the Law of Moses…” • Matthew 19:8: “He said to them, “Because of your hardness of heart Moses permitted you to divorce your wives; but from the beginning it has not been this way.”The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  33. 33. Biblical Support for Mosaic Authorship • Mark 12:26: ““But regarding the fact that the dead rise again, have you not read in the book of Moses…” • John 5:46-47: “For if you believed Moses, you would believe Me, for he wrote about Me. But if you do not believe his writings, how will you believe My words?” • John 7:19: “Did not Moses give you the Law, and yet none of you carries out the Law? Why do you seek to kill Me?” • Acts 3:22: ““Moses said, „The Lord God will raise up for you a prophet like me from your brethren; to Him you shall give heed to everything He says to you.” • Romans 10:5: “For Moses writes that the man who practices the righteousness which is based on law shall live by that righteousness.”The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  34. 34. The Documentary Hypothesis “Clap your hands, all peoples; Shout to God ( - ‫אֱ ֹלהים‬Elohim) ִ with the voice of joy. For the Lord ( - ‫י ְהוִה‬Yahweh) Most High is to be  feared, A great King over all the earth.”  -Psalm 47:1-2 Notice that the writer uses two different names for God in these verses.The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  35. 35. The Documentary Hypothesis Fifty-four Israeli scholars subjected the Pentateuch to the most rigorous linguistic syntactical evaluation that any portion of the Bible has been submitted to by a computer program. The software analyzed objectively the work of those books, and in the end, the conclusion was this: There is no question that, from a statistical standpoint, the first 5 books of the Bible were written by a single individual.The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  36. 36. The Gnostic „Gospels‟ “More than eighty gospels were considered for the New Testament, and yet only a relatively few werechosen for inclusion – Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John among them. . . . The early church needed to convince the world that the mortal prophet Jesus was a divine being. Therefore, anygospels that described earthly aspects of Jesus‟ life had to be omitted from the Bible.”--Dan Brown in The Da Vinci CodeThe Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  37. 37. The Gnostic „Gospels‟ • Accidentally discovered in 1945 near the Egyptian village of Nag Hammadi. • Six Bedouin camel drivers were digging for fertilizer when one of them uncovered a human skeleton buried next to an earthenware jar. • Inside the jar, they found thirteen leather-bound volumes containing fifty-two treatises. • The books included Gospels (e.g. Thomas, Philip), Acts (e.g. Peter and the Twelve Apostles), letters (e.g. Peter to Philip) and Apocalypses (e.g. Paul, Peter).The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  38. 38. The Gnostic „Gospels‟ • Clearly Gnostic in their writing • Departure from core teachings of Scripture (Nature of God, person of Christ, nature of mankind, salvation, view of women, etc.) • Not written by apostle or companion of apostle • Rejected by early churches (e.g. Irenaeus)The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  39. 39. The Mormon Version of Scripture Joseph Smith, by „divine inspiration‟, introducedthousands of changes (additions, deletions, etc.) to the King James Version of the Bible. Smith went so far as to add a passage in Genesis 50 thatpredicted his own coming: “That seer will I bless . . . And his name shall be called Joseph.”The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  40. 40. The Book of Mormon• The book of Mormon has been edited and revised over four thousand times – strange for something called out letter by letter by Joseph Smith from letters that divinely appeared to him, and something Smith called “the most correct of any book on earth.”• Plagiarisms from the Bible are found in the book of Mormon – whole chapters in Isaiah from the 1611 version of the KJV have been lifted, including the italicized words, which are words inserted by the KJV translators (i.e. they are not divine).The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  41. 41. The Canon We Have is Complete• Jesus promised His followers would have “everything I have said to you” brought to them by the Holy Spirit (John 14:26); nothing would be omitted• God‟s providence ensures that what God revealed through inspiration would be preserved with nothing lost• The meticulous preservation by the saints guarantees nothing was lost• The end of the apostolic period removes any chance of extra-Biblical inspiration – the Church was built on their foundation (Eph. 2:20)The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  42. 42. Why do we have different translations of the Bible?The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  43. 43. John Wycliffe (ca. A. D. 1330-1384) is credited with creating the first English translation of the whole Bible from the Latin Vulgate. Later, William Tyndale created the first English translation to draw directly from Hebrew and Greektexts, and the first to take advantage of the new medium of print, which allowed for its wide distribution. Tyndale was arrested on the orders of King Henry VIII, jailed in the castle of Vilvoorde outside Brussels for over a year, tried for heresy and burned at the stake. Hewas strangled before his body was burnt.The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  44. 44. Philosophies of Biblical Translation• Free Translation or Paraphrase: Translates the ideas from the original text but without being constrained by the original words or language. Readable, but not always exact because interpretation depends upon the translators. Example: Peterson‟s "The Message."• Dynamic/Functional Equivalence: Does not translate by structural units or words but by “meaningful mouthfuls” or “thought by thought” with the goal being to reproduce a response in the reader that is equivalent to the response of the original readers. Examples: NIV, New English Bible.• Literal or Formal: Starts with a word for word translation but will conform to the target language grammar (e.g. adding words); however it still remains lexically word-for-word. Examples: NASB, King James, New King James, ESV.The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  45. 45. “Either the translator leaves the writer alone as much aspossible and moves the readertoward the writer, or he leaves the reader alone as much aspossible and moves the writer toward the reader” - Friedrich SchleiermacherThe Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  46. 46. Example of Dynamic vs. Literal " Now when he saw the crowds, he went up on a mountainside and sat down. His disciples came to him, and he began to teach them, saying:"(Matthew 5:1-2; Dynamic – NIV)" When Jesus saw the crowds, He went up on the mountain; and after He sat down, His disciples came to Him. He opened His mouth and began to teach them, saying,"(Matthew 5:1-2; Literal - NASB) Why does Matthew say Jesus “opened His mouth”? Is there anything important lost in the NIV by that omission? The Sermon on the Mount is a parallel in Scripture to the giving of the law at Sinai. God gave Israel principles for the Theocratic kingdom and Jesus gives His disciples principles for the Messianic kingdom. Deut. 8:3 says, “man does not live by bread alone, but man lives by everything that proceeds out of the mouth of the Lord” Matthew is depicting Jesus as reenacting the history of God‟s Son, Israel; the Spirit inspires him to make this link between Christ and God‟s giving of the Law.The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  47. 47. So What Bible Should I Use? Dynamic/Functional Literal/Formal Equivalence EquivalenceEssence of Thought-for-Thought Sentence-for-SentenceProper Setting Target Language Source LanguageInterpretation Thematic Interpretation Linguistic InterpretationMeaning/Words Meaning Expressed without No Meaning Expressed without Words (Know Thought Words (Know Thought Through Apart from Words) Words)Locus of Meaning In the Mind In the TextGoal Reproduce Same Effect Reproduce Same MeaningFocus Response to the Message Form of the messageFor Bible study, many conservative theologians recommend a Bible produced from a literal / formal equivalence framework (e.g. NASB, ASV, ESV, KJV, NKJV). It doesn‟t mean you should throw out your Bible if it‟s not one of these, but it may be good to have one as a reference.The Word – The Compilation of the Bible
  48. 48. The WordThe Compilation of the Bible