Science and performance


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How to use and apply scientific research to your training and coaching.

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Science and performance

  1. 1. Steve MagnessUniversity of
  2. 2. Old School-Anti ScienceScience is GodBoth are wrong
  3. 3.  This presentation will be different.◦ The first part will be philosophical◦ The 2nd part will be fun stuff- real worldexamples and application◦ The last part will be controversial
  4. 4.  Evidence based? only 13% of all treatments used by doctors have goodevidence an additional 21% of treatments that are “likely”beneficial. What about the other 66%? Is Science Bad? No, but… You have to understand it‟s limitations inorder to know how to use it.
  5. 5.  Science conforms to the individual: Average vs. Individual Research focuses on the average. Responder vs. non responder in coach speak is actually anissue of applying the correct stimulus Do we really expect 4mi tempo at X pace to work foreveryone? Timmons et al.(2011) put it best when talking about thenon-responder phenomenon:“It is also an observation that is largely ignored by themajority of researchers interested in the health benefitsof exercise training, presumably because the focus hasbeen on the “average” health benefits within a populationand the desire to have a simple health promotionmessage.”
  6. 6. ◦ Measurement We overemphasize the importance of what we canmeasure. Science evolves based on what we can measure at thetime. VO2max Vollaard et al. (2009) “Moreover, we demonstrate thatVO2max and aerobic performance associate with distinct andseparate physiological and biochemical endpoints,suggesting that proposed models for the determinants ofendurance performance may need to be revisited (pg. 1483)”.
  7. 7. Researchers=No changeCoaches=WHYthe individualdifferences? (i.e. If I‟m that guy at 6%increase I sure think itworks!)J Appl Physiol. 2011 Oct 27. [Epub ahead of print]"Live high - train low" using normobaric hypoxia: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled study.
  8. 8.  The isolation approach: Scientist- break It down to isolate a variable X effects Y and Y is RELATED to performance so itshould work… Coach- Global approach X effects A,B,C,D, etc. How everything interacts ismore important All sorts of other crap(population, equipment, studylength, long term vs. short term, etc.)
  9. 9. 1. Deciding whether something isuseful: Stool test 1.Practical- Does it work in the“real world.” 2. Research- Is there scientificresearch on it and does it confirmthat it works? 3. Theory- Is there a legitimate,non-pseudoscientific, theory forwhy it might work?
  10. 10. 2. Using scientific Knowledge to formulate Realworld ideas Use knowledge of HOW body works and learnhow to apply that knowledge.
  11. 11.  Lactate Curve◦ How?◦ What it means?◦ Missing variable- MAX Lactate01234567894:264:334:404:484:555:025:095:165:245:31Lactate(mmol)Mile paceLactate Levels1st test2nd test3rd test◦ Test 2- Sprint+ aerobic◦ Test 3- overdid speedside
  12. 12. 01234567891016.5 17 17.5 18 18.5 19 19.51/5/2012test 1MAXTest 1:61.8-13.7Test 2:59.8- 14.2
  13. 13. 01234567894:404:484:555:025:095:165:24LactateMile paceLactate changes9/4/200611/2/2006Max Lactate1st test-51.5 400m- 14.82nd test51.2 400m- 15.4
  14. 14.  Data from Renato Canova0246810121416182000 4000 6000 8000 10000 finishResearchElitesSTEADY STATE!!
  15. 15.  Passive versus Active◦ Stretch Reflexes…◦ Inertial forces What it looks like versus what is actually going on aredifferent.Casio Exilim (High speed cameras-$150)
  16. 16. Speed R leg GC L leg GCFlightTime (Rto L or Lto R)Flight/GC timeratio2nd 200 28.3ish 0.1644th 200 28ish 0.1545th 200 28 0.153 0.15 0.155 1.033337th 200 27.8 0.157 0.153 0.141 0.898088th 200 28.2 0.158 0.15 0.164 1.03797
  17. 17.  Using Smart Phones◦ Data base◦ Rate: Overall feeling/RPE Workout rating “Pop” in legs Injuries/Soreness◦ Simple Reaction Test 10 test reaction test (track avg.) Looks at neural fatigue somewhat◦ Look for trends and correlate to training logs
  18. 18.  Enhancing your decision making skills Creating and applying models to helpdecision making◦ Simple fatigue models to determine workouts Simple fatigue models Muscle Fiber theory and application to kickdevelopment
  19. 19.  Fasted Runs◦ Theory-low glycogen is signal for adaptation. Shifts fuelusage towards more fat◦ Research- Drust et al.(2009), Yeo et al. (2008)◦ Practical-Lydiard, Cerutty, Van Aaken,Kenyans,Canadians (!?) Practical- start with running before breakfast for 30min,slowly increase up to close to 2hrs for marathoners. 1-2x aweek depending on goal/time. EASY training after(RECOVER) Adapting the gut◦ Can increase the amount of Carbohydrate our gut canprocess=enhanced marathon performance with lower GIstress◦ Practical experience- eat dinner, go run- after a weekyou‟ll be fine with no GI problems.Drust B, Morton JP. Promoting Endurance Training Adaptations with NutritionalInterventions: The Potential Benefits of “Low Carbohydrate” Training. Kinesiology2009; 41: 19–24.
  20. 20.  Knowledge:◦ Research shows knowledge of external feedback affectsperformance◦ Real world experience shows people occasionally“rebound” after looking like death in a race because theyrealize they are close to finish… Real World Solution◦ Take it all away.◦ Blind Feedback workouts- do workouts withoutknowledge of how long the rep is, what exact paceis, when surges will come,etc.◦ Switches focus to training on dealing with internalcues/feedback and improves psychological drive duringuncertainty.
  21. 21.  Knowledge:◦ “The greater the ability of the athlete to oppose fatigue (by maintainingstrength levels), the smaller the drop in speed and consequently the better theperformance.” Miguel et al. 2004◦ 400m race- (Numella et al. 1992,1994) Force production drops 16% after 300m and 25% after 400m. Increase in muscle activity (measured by EMG) to compensate forfailure of muscle fibers that were doing the work. Kick development:◦ 1.Increase maximum fibers recruited Flat Sprints, Hill Sprints, Power work◦ 2. Improve ability to use for prolonged time Circuits, alternations, hills+flats◦ 3. Learn to recruit them under high acidity fast workouts with bounding/hills 2x500(200 at faster than 800 pace, 100m bound at near mile pace, 200m kick in)full rest between Works by 1st part Increase lactate/fatigue, 2nd part increases fibers recruited, last partteaches you to use those fibers while fatigued Circuits with fast speed running, max intensity bounding and exercises 3-4x400m of 25sprint/25 cruiseMiguel, P. J. P. & Reis, V. M. M. (2004). Speed strength endurance and400m performance. New Studies in Athletics
  22. 22.  Signal pathwayinteractions◦ Gives you the dose,the timing, and theinteractionAdaptationProcessRBCexampleAltitudeDecreaseO2 levelsHif-1aEPORBCincrease
  23. 23. Messenger Signaling PathwaysinitiatedFunctional ResultsMechanical Stretch-frequency and intensityCaMK, MAPK andIGF pathwaysHypertrophy, fast to slowfiber type conversions,Changes in Calciumlevels in the cellCaMK, MAPK, proteinkinase CHypertrophy, slow twitchfiber type conversion,mitochondriaNAD: NADH ratioLow muscle glycogen AMPK and MAPK Increased mitochondriaATP:AMP ratio AMPK Increased mitochondriaDecreased blood OxygenlevelsHIF-1 Increased EPO and RedBlood cellsPI3-k and Akt mTOR Muscle HypertrophyMAPK=Mitogen activated protein kinase IGF-Insulin Like Growth FactorPI3-k= Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinaseCaMK=Calcium/Calmodulin pathwayWhy care?•Interactions matter:•AMPK inhibits mTOR•Do endurance work AFTER strength and you inhibit hypertrophy•Knowledge of stimulus•Explains why training does what:•AMPK and CaMK can both Increase mitochondria.•AMPK= activated through endurance.•CaMK= activated through intense intervals.
  24. 24. Laursen, P. Training for Intense exercise performance: Highvolume or high intensity. 2009
  25. 25. 1. Remember the Brain?◦ Most new research/ideas revolve on the change inmindset.◦ The brain is a smart controller, synthesizinginformation, making calculations based on complexalgorithm, and dictating what happens.◦ Input/Feedback is key.2. Body is well designed.◦ Timing matters, and knowing when to manipulatematters.
  26. 26. Baron et al.(2012). The role of emotions on pacingstrategies andperformance in middle and long duration sportevents
  27. 27. •Feedback•Block with drugs and pacing is erratic (out hard and die)•Deception•Castle et al.- exercise in heat is effected by whatthermometer reads•Ness and Patton- changed labels of weights after 5 weeks,athletes lifted 20lb more for their max•Knowing vs. not knowing (distance, reps, pace, etc.)•Manipulating psychological drive•dissociative cognitive strategy•TRAINING- Training improves our ability to assimilate feedback anduse it better in regards to riding that edge/pacing.•Become an Expert!
  28. 28. “„inner dialogue‟ that occurs duringexercise may be the „competition‟between psychological drives andphysiological homeostatic controlmechanisms” St. Clair Gibson,2013Psychological DriveMaintainingHomeostasis
  29. 29. ◦ Antioxidants Free radicalsactivate AMPK which increaseMitochondria◦ Ice baths Blocks inflammation Reduces Recovery◦ Ibuprofen Can block satellite cell Reduce RecoveryAntioxidant Supplementation during Exercise Training: Beneficial or Detrimental?Sports MedicineV olume 41 - Issue 12 - pp 1043-1069
  30. 30.  Anti-inflammatory◦ At what point during the inflammatory cycle do youimpede? Refueling◦ Low Glycogen needed for certain types of adaptations Hydration◦ In adapting to high heat/humidity, research shows needsome dehydration to get beneficial effects Supplement intake◦ Hepcidin rises post workout for ~3-4hrs…limits Ironabsorption Taking iron pill in that window…decreases absorption…
  31. 31.  Don‟t over recover. Periodize recovery so you use it when youneed it◦ Base and Pre competition phase Damage is good Selectively use recovery modalities when athlete is on“edge”◦ Peaking Slight increase in recovery modalities becauseemphasis shifts from training to racing
  32. 32.  Testosterone and muscle growth◦ Elevated systemic hormones does not effect musclehypertrophy Chronically supraphysiological levels (i.e. drugs) aidsmuscle growth, not what we get in regular acuteexercise. Compression Socks◦ Blood Flow not the issue◦ Modulates muscle “tuning” (think vibrations) Stretching Hands over head◦ Let your kids fall overElevations in ostensibly anabolic hormones with resistance exercise enhance neithertraining2 induced muscle hypertrophy nor strength of the elbow flexors. J Appl Physiol (
  33. 33.  Cushioning andPronation= BrokenParadigm Running surface-◦ “hard” surfaces not evilif they‟re accustomedto it. Individualization◦ Feel most important
  34. 34. Pronation-Left RightFootstrikeOrthotics? Initial Max change Initial Max Change Degree GCFlightTime FootstrikeLunar Fly NO 183 176 7 172 182 10 93.6 0.214 0.114wholeLunar Fly YES 182 175 7 176 185 9Katanas No 184 175 9 175 185 10 92 0.195 0.128midfootLunar Racers No 184 175 9 173 186 13 93.4 0.2 0.123wholeLunar Racers YES 185 176 9 174 185 11 98 0.209 0.119HeelPegasus No 181 173 8 178 188 10 100.7 0.214 0.104HeelPegasus yes 185 176 9 177 188 11 101.6 0.214 0.109HeelVomeros Yes 184 174 10 174 186 12 96.5 0.204 0.114heelBarefoot No 0 0 93.8 0.195 0.119forefoot0 0*Footstrikedegree=90=foot directlyunder knee
  35. 35.  Use Science, don‟t be married to it. Stimulus-> Adaptation◦ What adaptation are you looking for? Lab vs. Real World Average vs. Individuals Know what you‟re testing for and what themeasurement means.
  36. 36.  Twitter: @stevemagness