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Steve MagnessUniversity of Houston
 Teach you the How’s and the why’s.◦ If you want to copy me, go on my blog and you’llfind exact training schedules.◦ But ...
Evolution in theory: Over time, we select/keepthat which works and discardor minimize that whichdoesn’t.Basic Evolution:...
 What decides what is kept? Success Trickle down effect (Elites/Pro’s to college/HS) Pseudo Success Big words/Power/ ...
Patterns: Every generation goes slightlyopposite of the previous one “newness” Desire to be different orimprove Backla...
 1800’s- Continuous running- lots of walking◦ WIlliam Cummings- Mile a day, mostly slow, 1-2x aweek, he’d run it hard 19...
 1940s-50s- Pushing the Limit◦ Gusta Holmer- informal intervals (Fartlek)◦ Gerschler- Finn’s lacked speed work Intervals...
 John Landy◦ "To my mind the problem of running the mile issimply to blend stamina and speed. Endurance isbest obtained t...
 Cerutty, Van Aaken, etc. Lydiard◦ High volume, quality Base◦ Periodization (Strict periodization) Base of pure mileage...
 British Invasion◦ Coe/Horwill Trend towards more mixed periodization Moderate volume, very high intensity Weight Trai...
 Science+ Interval influence◦ HS athletes bad (17 Hsers in ALL of 90s went sub 9for 2mi…in 2000’s 110)◦ With Exception of...
 Progression in everything Recovery matters even more◦ More “space” between Sweet spot of Volume/Intensity Intervals- ...
 Periodization◦ None (always the same)◦ Simple Block (Lydiard)◦ Complex Block (Wilson)◦ mixed (Coe) Progression◦ Random-...
 Lessons:◦ Sometimes, good stuff is “lost” or forgotten What got lost? Igloi- aerobic intervals Horwill vs. Coe Cerut...
1. Build and MaintainIt is easier to maintain a quality then to build it up2. Never leave anything behindThe goal of train...
5. IndividualizeTheir physiology and psychology will change what type of training theyneed and it is a disservice to the r...
 For each event you have: Slow Twitch Orientated Fast Twitch Orientated Specialist Why? Fuel usage, muscle fiber, phy...
Rosenberger et al. Exercises at givenpercentages of VO2max. Journal of Science andMed. in Sport, 2009•Exercising at 75% VO...
 How to tell?◦ Lactate testing Max lactate (after 400-600m) 18+= very FT (expect mid distance or shorter)◦ Lactate thre...
FT Runner ST RunnerLong Run Shorter, less frequent, pacemodulatedLonger, faster, can include more “stuff”High endaerobic w...
Classification Name Pace level 5,000m runner exampleRecovery Anything slower Anything slowerGeneral Endurance 3 race dista...
•Everything includedthroughout•Emphasis changes•Transition•Connect•“Spice”= moderate/easyworkout forintro/maintenance
 EVERY WORKOUT MATTERS◦ Zones not the key! Stimulus is what matters. Variables to manipulate◦ Pace◦ Length of intervals...
 Everything is always there. Emphasis changes Base◦ Build General side early◦ Transition towards Aerobic/Anaerobic Suppo...
 General Endurance◦ Mileage Increase, then qualify (increase pace, add “stuff”) There’s more than just easy and hard. S...
 Creating a Neuromuscular base◦ Increases muscle fiber pool◦ Most specific strength work that canbe done. Hill Sprints -...
 Threshold runs1. Intro- Progression runs1. Small Spices of work (pickups last 1-2mi)2. Progress- increase time (15min,20...
01234567891016.5 17 17.5 18 18.5 19 19.51/5/2012test 1MAXTest 1:61.8-13.7Test 2:59.8- 14.2
 Long Intervals, Alternations, Fartleks At 10k pace +/-Ex: Jackie-early Base- 6mi alternating miles in 5:15/6:00Transiti...
 Direct Speed supportSpice: 30-60sec surges during easy runs (8mi w/ 8x45sec) Anaerobic SupportIntro/maintenance 12x200 ...
 Start with figuring out where you want to bespecific endurance wise at the end of the year◦ Work backwards◦ Every 10-14 ...
 Four key ways to develop specific endurance◦ Bottom up◦ Top Down◦ Alternation◦ Blend Attack the problem in 2 directions...
12x200m with 100m jog at 5k pace3 x (4x400) at 5k w/ 30sec rest. 5min b/t sets3x(3x600) at 5k w/ 40sec rest. 5min b/t sets...
Example Progression of Alternation workout for 5k specific endurance:•5miles at a steady pace with a 40sec surge at 10k pa...
DirectSupportconnection2k, 400, 1600, 400, 1200 w/ 3-4min rest (long-10k pace,short-3k pace)1600 (10k), 600 (3k), 1200 (10...
 Use Blends and combo work to connectcomponents Connection of supports-◦ 4 sets of 1600 (10k),400(1500 pace) with 90sec/...
 Strength Endurance◦ ability to maintain force production during fatigue◦ Goal- Force fiber recruitment, then train to en...
Use ExampleRace pace Rhythm for miler For miler: 8-10x200 at mile pacew/ 200m jogendurance support for 800mrunner2-3x(6x15...
 INDIVIDUALIZE! Tapering◦ Drop in mileage, increase inintensity◦ Works for some FT orientatedathletes in shorter events◦...
 Work from both extremes and progress togethertowards specificity1.Create Base of work (endurance, neuromuscular andbiome...
 Full actual schedules of Ryan Dohner (8:55HS), Will Nation (9:16 HS), and TommySchmitz (3:39 1500m) can be found at:◦ ww...
Evolution of training
Evolution of training
Evolution of training
Evolution of training
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Evolution of training

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The natural selection of Endurance Training. How training distance runners has evolved over the years. And how we can apply that knowledge to train runners.

http://www.ScienceofRunning.com

Published in: Sports, Technology

Evolution of training

  1. 1. Steve MagnessUniversity of Houston
  2. 2.  Teach you the How’s and the why’s.◦ If you want to copy me, go on my blog and you’llfind exact training schedules.◦ But you have to know the how’s and why’s to besuccessful.
  3. 3. Evolution in theory: Over time, we select/keepthat which works and discardor minimize that whichdoesn’t.Basic Evolution: Keep some Get rid of some Add some◦ Why? Set yourself apart.Optimal
  4. 4.  What decides what is kept? Success Trickle down effect (Elites/Pro’s to college/HS) Pseudo Success Big words/Power/ “Newness” Spreadability- books, journals, internet, language(!) Secrecy Impedance of Evolution: Systematic Education with Agendas (Paint by numbers coaching)…not real learning Drugs Distorts what you are naturally able to do, and distortssuccess Unforeseen misunderstandings Ex: “Science”, Patternicity
  5. 5. Patterns: Every generation goes slightlyopposite of the previous one “newness” Desire to be different orimprove Backlash Constant back and forthinterplay between mileageand intervals throughouthistory
  6. 6.  1800’s- Continuous running- lots of walking◦ WIlliam Cummings- Mile a day, mostly slow, 1-2x aweek, he’d run it hard 1910-30s- Finn’s◦ Paavo Nurmi- 4hr walks (Build a base)◦ Periodization- long walks- winter, then steadyrunning with small bouts of intervals◦ Interval training- low volume, short repeats(<600m) “4 to 7km with fast speed over the last 1 to 2km,finished off by four to five sprints “ (Noakes, LOR)
  7. 7.  1940s-50s- Pushing the Limit◦ Gusta Holmer- informal intervals (Fartlek)◦ Gerschler- Finn’s lacked speed work Intervals- HUGE volumes (80x200m)- Progression via Volume/rest manipulation Heart Rate guided- (“newness” of scientific gadget)◦ Zatopek- 50x400m Pushes limit of Large volumes of running (up to 140mpw), and intervals(50x400)1950’s- Split of Intervals◦ Mihaly Igloi- Mixed mostly shorter intervals Large volumes of running Aerobic intervals/ Swim type training◦ Franz Stampfl Low volume running (20-40mpw for ex High quality intervals (10x400m w/ 2min rest) Periodization- Introduced Progression of speed Base (400s in 68)…in season (400s in 60)
  8. 8.  John Landy◦ "To my mind the problem of running the mile issimply to blend stamina and speed. Endurance isbest obtained through long, slow running and thestopwatch is definitely not necessary except as anoccasional check. Speed, on the other hand, isobtained by running at speeds much faster thanracing pace, and for distances shorter than 440yard.”
  9. 9.  Cerutty, Van Aaken, etc. Lydiard◦ High volume, quality Base◦ Periodization (Strict periodization) Base of pure mileage to hills to low volume high intensity Originally: 4-5 days in a row of interval training Monday-1320, 1/2; 880, 3/4; 440 all outTuesday-4x440, 1/2Wednesday-6x880, 1/2Thursday-5 miles, 3/4Friday- 6x220, 1/2Saturday-v20x220, 1/2Sunday-Long distance jogging Bowerman◦ Combined progression of Stampfl/German’s (Date pace->goalpace)◦ Lydiard Base + hard/easy concept
  10. 10.  British Invasion◦ Coe/Horwill Trend towards more mixed periodization Moderate volume, very high intensity Weight Training◦ Harry Wilson “Quality Base”- Takes Lydiards base to next obviouslevel (tempo, aerobic intervals done during base) Science◦ Concept of VO2max, lactate threshold, etc.popularized◦ Zone training is born
  11. 11.  Science+ Interval influence◦ HS athletes bad (17 Hsers in ALL of 90s went sub 9for 2mi…in 2000’s 110)◦ With Exception of Bob Kennedy and Todd Williams-Pro’s subpar◦ Lower volume, very high intensity Why didn’t it work??? Where did we go from here?
  12. 12.  Progression in everything Recovery matters even more◦ More “space” between Sweet spot of Volume/Intensity Intervals- all encompassing◦ All volumes, all intensities All encompassing/complex Periodization Neural/Sprint/Power/weight training Larger Modulation Loose “Zones”
  13. 13.  Periodization◦ None (always the same)◦ Simple Block (Lydiard)◦ Complex Block (Wilson)◦ mixed (Coe) Progression◦ Random->volume->rest->speed->everything Recover
  14. 14.  Lessons:◦ Sometimes, good stuff is “lost” or forgotten What got lost? Igloi- aerobic intervals Horwill vs. Coe Cerutty- weights emphasis◦ Best training practice isn’t always “selected” 90’s…◦ Old stuff is recycled all the time and sold as “new” Ask if it’s been tried before…and if it was a success.◦ Don’t overestimate “newness”◦ Overtraining 1920’s version versus 1950’s versus 2013’s? Repeating mistakes?◦ Heavy emphasis in current literature on HIIT being “as good” asaerobic running. Based on VO2max (bad concept)
  15. 15. 1. Build and MaintainIt is easier to maintain a quality then to build it up2. Never leave anything behindThe goal of training is to build on top of what has been donepreviously, not leave it behind and forget about it.3. Progress everythingTraining fundamentally alters a person, how they adapt andrespond to a stimulus changes too.4. BalanceTraining is the process of balancing seemingly opposingadaptations.
  16. 16. 5. IndividualizeTheir physiology and psychology will change what type of training theyneed and it is a disservice to the runner to give the same training toevery runner and expect the same results.6. Take complex things and make them simpleTom Tellez once told me that good coaches take complex ideas andmake them simple, while a bad coach who wants to appear like theyknow what they are doing takes ideas and concepts and makes themmore complex7. You can love an idea, but don’t be married to it.Getting married to an idea or concept limits objective or creativethinking.8. Training does not occur in isolationEverything interacts. You have to consider the big picture
  17. 17.  For each event you have: Slow Twitch Orientated Fast Twitch Orientated Specialist Why? Fuel usage, muscle fiber, physiology alldifferent. Why train the same?
  18. 18. Rosenberger et al. Exercises at givenpercentages of VO2max. Journal of Science andMed. in Sport, 2009•Exercising at 75% VO2max:•Wide range of stimulus•WHY give everyone training forthe same event the sameworkouts?!
  19. 19.  How to tell?◦ Lactate testing Max lactate (after 400-600m) 18+= very FT (expect mid distance or shorter)◦ Lactate threshold More ST athletes have their threshold at lower lactatelevels (<4 vs. >5 for real FT athlete)◦ PR comparison◦ Power testing Standing broad jump 25m one legged jumps for distance◦ Stride mechanics Elastic and reactive VS. flat and “grinder”
  20. 20. FT Runner ST RunnerLong Run Shorter, less frequent, pacemodulatedLonger, faster, can include more “stuff”High endaerobic workMore progressive, less right on thethreshold, lower volumeHigher volumes, more near thresholdMore Igloi style Aerobic intervalsAlternations slower recovery portion. ShorterintervalsHard and steady portions closer together pacewise“Anaerobic”workNeed longer progressive period to reachmax.Less needed to reach peak shape.Spices of work.Speed work Need pure speed and some speedendurance/anaerobic capacity. Needed tocountbalance endurance work!Mainly pure speed work.SpecificEnduranceShort to Long development withspeed always specificTop down approach- increasing speed whilereducing recoveryLower volumes. Broken into sets Can handle larger volumes/densityMaintenance More speed maintenance
  21. 21. Classification Name Pace level 5,000m runner exampleRecovery Anything slower Anything slowerGeneral Endurance 3 race distance up +/- Steady pace to marathonpace +/-Aerobic Support 2 race distances up +/- Lactate Threshold/ HalfMarathon pace +/-Direct Endurance Support 1 race distance up +/- 10k pace +/-Specific Race pace +/- 5,000m pace +/-Direct Speed Support 1 race distance down +/- 3,000m pace +/-Anaerobic Support 2 race distances down +/- 1500m pace +/-General Speed 3 race distance down +/- 400-800m pace +/-Neuromuscular Pure speed/sprints Pure speed/sprints
  22. 22. •Everything includedthroughout•Emphasis changes•Transition•Connect•“Spice”= moderate/easyworkout forintro/maintenance
  23. 23.  EVERY WORKOUT MATTERS◦ Zones not the key! Stimulus is what matters. Variables to manipulate◦ Pace◦ Length of intervals Increase length= enhance ability to endure◦ Hill Increases strength component, changes muscle fiber recruitment◦ Recovery Decrease rest= more aerobic Jog= Active rest slows anaerobic system recovery. Increases demand on aerobic pathways. Steady run= more specific/work on lactate utilization “Stuff” between Sprints- force muscle fiber recruitment Strength work- force muscle fiber recruitment/strength component Aerobic work- increases lactate take up, permits higher volume (i.e. 4x150 attempo effort with 50m jog as the rest between sets)◦ Density- Sets/reps
  24. 24.  Everything is always there. Emphasis changes Base◦ Build General side early◦ Transition towards Aerobic/Anaerobic Support◦ Small Spices of specific work Pre-comp◦ Build Supports (transition towards Direct supports)◦ Increase building of specific◦ Maintain General Competition◦ Specific endurance- every 10-14 days-reach best levels◦ Direct supports reach best workout, then go into maintenance◦ Maintenance of General and Aerobic/Anaerobic support Fine Tuning◦ Race prep/modeling
  25. 25.  General Endurance◦ Mileage Increase, then qualify (increase pace, add “stuff”) There’s more than just easy and hard. Some “mileage” days should bemoderate Add “stuff”◦ Long Tempos Marathon pace or progressive Mostly for general/aerobic support Shifts fuel system◦ Long runs Extend Qualify “Stuff” Surges (14mi w/ 8x30sec surge at the end) Pickups (last 1-3mi pickup to near threshold) Progression Fasted WHY? To maintain work, we rotate the effort among groups of muscle fibers so thatsome contract while others rest. Allow time for all units to cycle in. Addingsomething faster at end recruits more fibers when they are fatigued.
  26. 26.  Creating a Neuromuscular base◦ Increases muscle fiber pool◦ Most specific strength work that canbe done. Hill Sprints -> Flat Sprints◦ Why? Transitions from more strength to moreplyometric/power◦ Add speed endurance component ifneeds to be developed General speed◦ Most 5k runners getting to do 200’s at800 or faster speed suffices6x8sec Hill Sprints8x8sec HS10x8sec HS4x60m flat sprints8x10sec HS5x80m flat sprints10x10sec HS2x60m, 2x80m, 2x100m8x10sec HS + 1x20sec4x60m, 1x150m8x10sec HS +2x25secSample Progression
  27. 27.  Threshold runs1. Intro- Progression runs1. Small Spices of work (pickups last 1-2mi)2. Progress- increase time (15min,20,25,30,etc.) “Split up” as get higher- 20min, 2min rest, 10min For FT or people struggling with thresholds,split up!3. Uphill threshold runs4. With “stuff” Example: 20min threshold, 2x1mile at 10k pace Trains more FT fibers aerobically Serves as a transition Maintenance/Spices:◦ Aerobic Refresh- 10,7,5,3 fartlek- Marathon Pace, LT,10k, 5k◦ 3mi LT + intervals
  28. 28. 01234567891016.5 17 17.5 18 18.5 19 19.51/5/2012test 1MAXTest 1:61.8-13.7Test 2:59.8- 14.2
  29. 29.  Long Intervals, Alternations, Fartleks At 10k pace +/-Ex: Jackie-early Base- 6mi alternating miles in 5:15/6:00Transition 4mi LT, 2min rest, 2x1mi at 10kEarly build 6xmile at 10k pace with 4min restLate build 2x1mi, 2mi, 2x1mi at 10k pacewith 3min restmaintenance 2mi, 1.5mi, 1mi, 800 with 4minjog at (just slower than LT, LT,10k, 5k pace)
  30. 30.  Direct Speed supportSpice: 30-60sec surges during easy runs (8mi w/ 8x45sec) Anaerobic SupportIntro/maintenance 12x200 w/ 200m jog at 3k down to 1500m paceEarly/maintenance 9x300 w/ 100m walk alternating 3k/1500 paceMid 3x(400,300,200) w/ 60sec rest) w/ 3-4min b/t setsMid 4x200, 3x300, 2x400, w/ 60sec restPeak workout 3x(500, 300 w/ 60sec rest) w/ 4min b/t setsIntro/maintenance 12x200m at 3k paceEarly 3 sets of (4x400) with 30sec rest. 3min b/t sets at 3k paceMid 2 sets of (700,600,500,400) with 60sec b/t sets, 3min b/t reps at 3k paceMid 2 sets of (800,700,600) with 60sec b/t sets, 3min b/t reps at 3k pacePeak workout 6x800m with 2min rest at 3k paceExample: Tommy Schmitz 3x(600,400,200 w/ 60-90sec rest) 1:28, 58, 28
  31. 31.  Start with figuring out where you want to bespecific endurance wise at the end of the year◦ Work backwards◦ Every 10-14 days◦ Figure out what you are building towards: Example: Galen/Mo for 10k- 6xmile in 4:12 w/ 400jog800m 1500m/1mile 5k 10k Marathon2-3x(200,600)w/ 75sec restand 5-6min2-3x800m w/2min rest at1mile pace4x1mile w/2min rest at 5kpace7mi ofalternating1000m at 10kpace/ 600msteady8mi easy, 15miat MarathonPace
  32. 32.  Four key ways to develop specific endurance◦ Bottom up◦ Top Down◦ Alternation◦ Blend Attack the problem in 2 directions- choose 2of the above and cycle through◦ Which two depends on the person Introductory (during base)◦ Small “spices” of work◦ 12x30sec surge during 8mi easy run at 5k pace◦ 16x200 at 5k-3k pace with 200 jog
  33. 33. 12x200m with 100m jog at 5k pace3 x (4x400) at 5k w/ 30sec rest. 5min b/t sets3x(3x600) at 5k w/ 40sec rest. 5min b/t sets2x(3x800) at 5k w/ 45sec rest. 5min b/t sets2x (1000,800,700) at 5k w/ 45sec rest. 5min b/t sets5x1000 at 5k w/ 60-75sec restTop Down6x1mile at threshold with 1-2min rest5x1mile at 10k pace w/ 2-3min rest3x1mile at 10k, 2x1000m at 5k pace w/ 3min rest1xmile at 10k, 1mile at 5k, 2x1000m at 5k w/ 3min rest3x1mile at 5k pace w/ 3min rest4x1mile at just faster than 5k pace w/ 3min rest
  34. 34. Example Progression of Alternation workout for 5k specific endurance:•5miles at a steady pace with a 40sec surge at 10k pace every mile•4 miles of alternating 200m at 5k pace+ w/ 1400m at steady pace (5:50 pace)•4mi of alternating 400 at 5k pace+ w/ 1200m at steady pace (5:45 pace)•4mi of alternating 600 at 5k pace w/ 1000m at steady pace (5:40 pace)•4mi of alternating 800 at 5k pace - w/ 800m at steady pace (5:40 pace)•4mi of alternating 900 at 5k pace -w/ 700m at steady pace (5:35 pace)•Alternate a “hard” and a “steady” pace•Works on lactate usage/removal•Progress via•Increasing “hard” segment distance/decreasing steady•Decreasing speed of steady or hard segment•Lengthen total distanceExample (HS) Ryan Dohner:4x alternating 800 at 5k, 400m steady(800 in 2:23s…400 in 83)
  35. 35. DirectSupportconnection2k, 400, 1600, 400, 1200 w/ 3-4min rest (long-10k pace,short-3k pace)1600 (10k), 600 (3k), 1200 (10k), 400 (1mi), 800 (5k) w/ 3-4min, paces in parentheses3x (1600,2min rest, 400) w/ 4min rest. 1600m at 10k pace,400m at 2mile paceSpecificSpeed End1600 (5k), 600 (3k), 1200 (3k), 300 (1mi), 600 (5k), 200(1mi) w/ 3-4min rest1600 (5k), 400 (1mi), 1200 (5k), 300 (1mi), 600 (1st 300 at5k, next 300 progress to 1mi) w/ 3-4min rest2000(10k pace), 400(3k), 1600(5k), 300 (1mi), 1000(3k) 200(800) w/ 3min rest•Faster portion forces fiber recruitment and increases lactateconcentration, which also better simulates metabolic stress during race.•Increases the ability to remove lactate quickly
  36. 36.  Use Blends and combo work to connectcomponents Connection of supports-◦ 4 sets of 1600 (10k),400(1500 pace) with 90sec/3minrest Specific speed endurance-◦ 4 sets of 1000 (5k), 300(1500) with 90sec/3min rest Specific strength endurance-◦ 3 sets of (3x800 at 5k pace) with 4x10sec Hill Sprintbetween Example: Ciaran◦ 2 sets of 1200, 1000, 800, 400: (3:13, 2:40, 2:02, 58…3:09, 2:37, 1:58.9, 55.7)
  37. 37.  Strength Endurance◦ ability to maintain force production during fatigue◦ Goal- Force fiber recruitment, then train to endure Hill repeats/runs/fartleks Strength Endurance Circuits Canova style Sprints between intervals 3x800, 4xHill Sprint, 3x800, 4xHS, 3x800 at 10k to 5k pace Ex: Jackie- 3x1.5mi with 4x200m hill in between (1.5 at5:30, 5:25, 5:17 pace) Race preparation◦ Surging Alternations start the process- work towards within rep surges: 3x 800 in 2:06 (run 34,30,32,30)◦ Kick development See Science presentation◦ Fuel Economy See Science presentation
  38. 38. Use ExampleRace pace Rhythm for miler For miler: 8-10x200 at mile pacew/ 200m jogendurance support for 800mrunner2-3x(6x150) at 3k down to 1mipace w/ 50m jog between reps,400m jog between sets.Direct aerobic support for 800mrunner3-4 x(8x100) at 1mile pace w/30sec rest in between reps, 5minbetween sets.Speed Maintenance or Transitionfor 5k-10k runner3x(400m, 200m) at 3k pace w/100m jog between everything•Aerobic Intervals-Igloi style•Way to work at more specific speeds aerobically•Great for FT type runners•Used for specific maintenance work
  39. 39.  INDIVIDUALIZE! Tapering◦ Drop in mileage, increase inintensity◦ Works for some FT orientatedathletes in shorter events◦ Risks erosion of aerobicprocess or increase inanaerobic capacity too much. Sharpening Slight decrease inintensity/volume/ and density Works well for moreST/aerobically orientatedathletes Some race Pace work done byat maintenance levels withlonger rest periods Muscle Tension◦ How much pop in the legs◦ What matters in the last weekbefore the raceIncrease Tension Decreases TensionSprint work, both flatsprints and hill sprintslonger duration runsWeight training Very taxing workouts(i.e. “anaerobic 400’s)Ballistic/Power work (medball throws, squatjumps,etc)Threshold workfaster Pace/rhythm work moderate pacedaerobic runningPlyometrics soft surface running(sand, heavy grass,wood chip trails)Stridesrunning in spikes or onharder surfaces
  40. 40.  Work from both extremes and progress togethertowards specificity1.Create Base of work (endurance, neuromuscular andbiomechanical base)2. Connect with support.3. Connect to specific.4. All along maintaining what you did. Specific work every 10-14 days throughout When other component is emphasized do every 7-14days. When any other component is in maintenance,depending on what it is, every 10-20 days.
  41. 41.  Full actual schedules of Ryan Dohner (8:55HS), Will Nation (9:16 HS), and TommySchmitz (3:39 1500m) can be found at:◦ www.ScienceofRunning.com

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