Biology 11 and 12Integrated Resource Package 2006IRP 140This document represents an updating of the 1996 IRP. This updatin...
Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication DataMain entry under title:Biology 11 and 12 : integrated resource ...
Biology 11 and 12 • AcknowledgmentsAcknowledgments...........................................................................
Biology 11 and 12 • IIIAcknowledgmentsThis document has been updated from the 1996 IRP to include suggested achievement in...
Biology 11 and 12 • PrefaceThis Integrated Resource Package (IRP)provides basic information teachers willrequire in order ...
IntroductionBiology 11 and 12
Introduction to Biology 11 and 12Biology 11 and 12 • This Integrated Resource Package (IRP) setsout the provincially presc...
Introduction to Biology 11 and 12 • Biology 11 and 12Biology 11Biology is a scientific discipline that studies a greatvari...
Introduction to Biology 11 and 12Biology 11 and 12 • Biology 12Biology 12 focusses on human biology, allowingstudents to d...
Considerations forProgram DeliveryBiology 11 and 12
Biology 11 and 12 • Considerations for Program DeliveryThis section of the IRP contains additionalinformation to help educ...
10 • Biology 11 and 12Considerations for Program Delivery•	 informing parents/guardians and students ofthe prescribed lear...
Biology 11 and 12 • 11Considerations for Program Delivery•	 Ensure students are aware that if they disclosepersonal inform...
12 • Biology 11 and 12Considerations for Program Deliveryreflects Aboriginal concepts of teaching andlearning, teachers ar...
Biology 11 and 12 • 13Considerations for Program Delivery•	 photocopy print music, workbooks,instructional materials, inst...
Prescribed Learning OutcomesBiology 11 and 12
Prescribed Learning OutcomesBiology 11 and 12 • 17Prescribed learning outcomes are contentstandards for the provincial edu...
Prescribed Learning Outcomes18 • Biology 11 and 12Prescribed Learning Outcomes: Biology 11It is expected that students wil...
Prescribed Learning OutcomesBiology 11 and 12 • 19Prescribed Learning Outcomes: Biology 12It is expected that students wil...
Prescribed Learning Outcomes20 • Biology 11 and 12Prescribed Learning Outcomes: Biology 12Biology 12 Prescribed Learning O...
Student AchievementBiology 11 and 12
Student AchievementBiology 11 and 12 • 23This section of the IRP contains informationabout classroom assessment and studen...
Student Achievement24 • Biology 11 and 12Assessment as LearningAssessment as learning actively involves studentsin their o...
Student AchievementBiology 11 and 12 • 25For more information about assessment for, as,and of learning, refer to the follo...
Student Achievement26 • Biology 11 and 12Key ElementsKey elements provide an overview of content ineach curriculum organiz...
Student AchievementBiology 11
28 • Biology 11 and 12Student Achievement • Key Elements – Biology 11Key Elements: Processes of ScienceEstimated Time: int...
Biology 11 and 12 • 29Student Achievement • Suggested Achievement Indicators – Biology 11Processes of SciencePrescribed Le...
30 • Biology 11 and 12Student Achievement • Key Elements – Biology 11Key Elements:TaxonomyEstimated Time: 3–5 hoursBy the ...
Biology 11 and 12 • 31Student Achievement • Suggested Achievement Indicators – Biology 11Prescribed Learning Outcomes Sugg...
32 • Biology 11 and 12Student Achievement • Key Elements – Biology 11Key Elements: EvolutionEstimated Time: 5–10 hoursBy t...
Biology 11 and 12 • 33Student Achievement • Suggested Achievement Indicators – Biology 11Prescribed Learning Outcomes Sugg...
34 • Biology 11 and 12Student Achievement • Key Elements – Biology 11Key Elements: EcologyEstimated Time: 10–12 hoursBy th...
Biology 11 and 12 • 35Student Achievement • Suggested Achievement Indicators – Biology 11Prescribed Learning Outcomes Sugg...
36 • Biology 11 and 12Student Achievement • Key Elements – Biology 11Key Elements: MicrobiologyEstimated Time: 20–25 hours...
Biology 11 and 12 • 37Student Achievement • Suggested Achievement Indicators – Biology 11Prescribed Learning Outcomes Sugg...
38 • Biology 11 and 12Student Achievement • Key Elements – Biology 11Key Elements: Plant BiologyEstimated Time: 20–23 hour...
Biology 11 and 12 • 39Student Achievement • Suggested Achievement Indicators – Biology 11Prescribed Learning Outcomes Sugg...
40 • Biology 11 and 12Student Achievement • Key Elements – Biology 11Key Elements: Animal BiologyEstimated Time: 32–35 hou...
Biology 11 and 12 • 41Student Achievement • Suggested Achievement Indicators – Biology 11Prescribed Learning Outcomes Sugg...
42 • Biology 11 and 12Prescribed Learning Outcomes Suggested Achievement IndicatorsOrganizer ‘Animal Biology’continued fro...
Student AchievementBiology 12
44 • Biology 11 and 12Student Achievement • Key Elements – Biology 12Key Elements: Processes of ScienceEstimated Time: int...
Biology 11 and 12 • 45Student Achievement • Suggested Achievement Indicators – Biology 12Processes of SciencePrescribed Le...
46 • Biology 11 and 12Student Achievement • Key Elements – Biology 12Key Elements: Cell Biology (Cell Structure)Estimated ...
Biology 11 and 12 • 47Student Achievement • Suggested Achievement Indicators – Biology 12Cell Biology (Cell Structure)Pres...
48 • Biology 11 and 12Student Achievement • Key Elements – Biology 12Key Elements: Cell Biology (Cell Compounds and Biolog...
Biology 11 and 12 • 49Student Achievement • Suggested Achievement Indicators – Biology 12Cell Biology (Cell Compounds and ...
50 • Biology 11 and 12Prescribed Learning Outcomes Suggested Achievement IndicatorsSuborganizer ‘Cell Biology (CellCompoun...
Biology 11 and 12 • 51Student Achievement • Suggested Achievement Indicators – Biology 12Prescribed Learning Outcomes Sugg...
52 • Biology 11 and 12Student Achievement • Key Elements – Biology 12Key Elements: Cell Biology (DNA Replication)Estimated...
Biology 11 and 12 • 53Student Achievement • Suggested Achievement Indicators – Biology 12Cell Biology (DNA Replication)Pre...
54 • Biology 11 and 12Student Achievement • Key Elements – Biology 12Key Elements: Cell Biology (Protein Synthesis)Estimat...
Biology 11 and 12 • 55Student Achievement • Suggested Achievement Indicators – Biology 12Cell Biology (Protein Synthesis)P...
56 • Biology 11 and 12Student Achievement • Key Elements – Biology 12Key Elements: Cell Biology (Transport Across Cell Mem...
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2006biology1112

  1. 1. Biology 11 and 12Integrated Resource Package 2006IRP 140This document represents an updating of the 1996 IRP. This updating has beenundertaken for the purpose of• clarifying the Prescribed Learning Outcomes• introducing Suggested Achievement Indicators• addressing content overloadResources previously recommended for the 1996 version of the curriculum,where still valid, continue to support this updated IRP. (See the LearningResources section in this IRP for additional information.)
  2. 2. Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication DataMain entry under title:Biology 11 and 12 : integrated resource package 2006Also available on the Internet.ISBN 0-7726-5522-71. Biology – Study and teaching (Secondary) – British Columbia.2. Education, Secondary – Curricula – British Columbia. I. BritishColumbia. Ministry of Education.QH320.C3B56 2006 570.712711 C2006-960051-1Copyright © 2006 Ministry of Education, Province of British Columbia.Copyright NoticeNo part of the content of this document may be reproduced in any form or by any means, including electronicstorage, reproduction, execution, or transmission without the prior written permission of the Province.Proprietary NoticeThis document contains information that is proprietary and confidential to the Province. Any reproduction,disclosure, or other use of this document is expressly prohibited except as the Province may authorizein writing.Limited Exception to Non-ReproductionPermission to copy and use this publication in part, or in its entirety, for non-profit educational purposeswithin British Columbia and the Yukon, is granted to (a) all staff of BC school board trustees, includingteachers and administrators; organizations comprising the Educational Advisory Council as identifiedby Ministerial Order; and other parties providing, directly or indirectly, educational programs to entitledstudents as identified by the School Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c.412, or the Independent School Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c.216,and (b) a party providing, directly or indirectly, educational programs under the authority of the Minister ofthe Department of Education for the Yukon Territory as defined in the Education Act, R.S.Y. 2002, c.61.
  3. 3. Biology 11 and 12 • AcknowledgmentsAcknowledgments................................................................................................................................................... IIIPrefacePreface ...................................................................................................................................................................... VIntroduction to Biology 11 and 12Rationale ................................................................................................................................................................... 3Requirements and Graduation Credits ................................................................................................................ 3Graduation Program Examination ....................................................................................................................... 4Biology 11 ................................................................................................................................................................. 4Biology 12 ................................................................................................................................................................. 5Suggested Timeframe ............................................................................................................................................. 5Considerations for Program DeliveryAlternative Delivery Policy.................................................................................................................................... 9Addressing Local Contexts .................................................................................................................................... 9Involving Parents and Guardians ........................................................................................................................ 9Course Requirements Respecting Beliefs ............................................................................................................ 10Safety Considerations ............................................................................................................................................. 10Confidentiality ......................................................................................................................................................... 10Inclusion, Equity, and Accessibility for All Learners ......................................................................................... 11Working with the School and Community ......................................................................................................... 11Working with the Aboriginal Community .......................................................................................................... 11Information and Communications Technology ................................................................................................. 12Copyright and Responsibility ............................................................................................................................... 12Prescribed Learning OutcomesIntroduction ............................................................................................................................................................. 17Wording of Prescribed Learning Outcomes......................................................................................................... 17Domains of Learning............................................................................................................................................... 17Biology 11 Prescribed Learning Outcomes.......................................................................................................... 18Biology 12 Prescribed Learning Outcomes.......................................................................................................... 19Student Achievement Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................. 23Classroom Assessment and Evaluation................................................................................................................ 23Key Elements ........................................................................................................................................................... 26Achievement Indicators.......................................................................................................................................... 26Biology 11 Key Elements and Suggested Achievement Indicators.................................................................. 28Biology 12 Key Elements and Suggested Achievement Indicators.................................................................. 44 Learning Resources Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................. 77Biology 11 and 12 Grade Collections.................................................................................................................... 77Table of Contents
  4. 4. Biology 11 and 12 • IIIAcknowledgmentsThis document has been updated from the 1996 IRP to include suggested achievement indicators, a moreclear and succinct set of prescribed learning outcomes, a snapshot of the course’s key elements, and otherminor refinements, while maintaining the original intent and essence of the 1996 curricular content.Many people contributed their expertise to the Biology 11-12 IRP. The Project Manager (2005-2006) wasMr. Waël Afifi of the Ministry of Education, working with other ministry personnel and our partners ineducation. We would like to thank all who participated in this process, including the teams of educatorswho developed the 1996 Biology 11-12 IRP, and the following individuals who contributed to the 2005-2006updating of this document: Jim Axford School District No. 68 (Nanaimo) Darrel Barber School District No. 37 (Delta) Matthew Bourget School District No. 71 (Comox) Gerrit Keizer Simon Fraser University Anne Laite School District No. 46 (Sunshine Coast) Jeanette Laursoo Independent School (Mulgrave School, West Vancouver) Barbara McKinley School District No. 44 (North Vancouver) Megan Ryan School District No. 35 (Langley) GT Publishing Services, Ltd. project co-ordination, writing, and editing
  5. 5. Biology 11 and 12 • PrefaceThis Integrated Resource Package (IRP)provides basic information teachers willrequire in order to implement Biology 11and 12. This document supersedes the Biology 11and 12 Integrated Resource Package (1996).The information contained in thisdocument is also available on the Internetat www.bced.gov.bc.ca/irp/irp.htmThe following paragraphs provide briefdescriptions of the components of the IRP.IntroductionThe Introduction provides general informationabout Biology 11 and 12, including special featuresand requirements.Included in this section are• a rationale for teaching Biology 11 and 12in BC schools• information about graduation programrequirements and provincial examinations• listings of each course’s curriculum organizersand suborganizers – groupings for prescribedlearning outcomes that share a common focus• suggested time allotments for each courseConsiderations for Program DeliveryThis section of the IRP contains additionalinformation to help educators develop their schoolpractices and plan their program delivery to meetthe needs of all learners.Prescribed Learning OutcomesThis section contains the prescribed learningoutcomes, the legally required content standardsfor the provincial education system. The learningoutcomes define the required knowledge, skills,and attitudes for each subject. They are statementsof what students are expected to know and be ableto do by the end of the course.Student AchievementThis section of the IRP contains information aboutclassroom assessment and measuring studentachievement, including sets of specific achievementindicators for each prescribed learning outcome.Achievement indicators are statements thatdescribe what students should be able to do inorder to demonstrate that they fully meet theexpectations set out by the prescribed learningoutcomes. Achievement indicators are notmandatory; they are provided to assist in theassessment of how well students achieve theprescribed learning outcomes.Also included in this section are key elements –descriptions of content that help determine theintended depth and breadth of the prescribedlearning outcomes.Learning ResourcesThis section contains general information onlearning resources, and provides a link to titles,descriptions, and ordering information for therecommended learning resources in the Biology 11and 12 Grade Collections.
  6. 6. IntroductionBiology 11 and 12
  7. 7. Introduction to Biology 11 and 12Biology 11 and 12 • This Integrated Resource Package (IRP) setsout the provincially prescribed curriculumfor Biology 11 and 12. The development ofthis IRP has been guided by the principles oflearning:• Learning requires the active participationof the student.• People learn in a variety of ways and atdifferent rates.• Learning is both an individual and a groupprocess.In addition to these three principles, this documentrecognizes that British Columbia’s schools includeyoung people of varied backgrounds, interests,abilities, and needs. Wherever appropriate forthis curriculum, ways to meet these needs and toensure equity and access for all learners have beenintegrated as much as possible into the learningoutcomes and achievement indicators.This document represents an updating of the 1996IRP. This updating has been undertaken for thepurpose of• clarifying the prescribed learning outcomes• introducing suggested achievement indicators• addressing content overloadResources previously recommended for the 1996version of the curriculum, where still valid,continue to support this updated IRP. (See theLearning Resources section later in this IRP foradditional information.)Biology 11 and 12, in draft form, was availablefor public review and response from Novemberto December, 2005. Feedback from educators,students, parents, and other educational partnersinformed the development of this updated IRP.RationaleThe science curriculum of British Columbiaprovides a foundation for the scientific literacy ofcitizens, for the development of a highly skilledand adaptable work force, and for the developmentof new technologies. It is a foundation on whichteachers can develop a science program thatprovides a comprehensive set of knowledge,skills, and experiences related to science.School science programs that are planned todevelop scientifically literate students provideexperiences that• help students become flexible and adaptablewhile acquiring specialized knowledge• develop the capacity to think critically• call for a wide range of knowledge, methods,and approaches that enable students to analysepersonal and societal issues critically• encourage students to examine the impact ofscientific knowledge on their lives, society, andthe environment• develop a positive attitude toward science• cultivate students’ appreciation of the scientificendeavour and their potential to contribute to itThe science curricula of British Columbia provide aframework of opportunities for students to becomescientifically literate by• examining basic concepts, principles, laws,and theories through scientific inquiry• actively gaining knowledge, skills, andattitudes that provide the basis for sound andethical problem solving and decision making• developing an understanding of the place ofscience in society and history and itsrelationships to other disciplines• making informed and responsible decisionsabout themselves, their homes, workplaces,and the global communityRequirements and Graduation CreditsBiology 11 and 12 are two of the courses availablefor students to satisfy the Grade 11-12 GraduationProgram science requirement.Biology 11 and 12 are each designated as four-creditcourses, and must be reported as such to the Ministryof Education for transcript purposes. Letter gradesand percentages must be reported for these courses.It is not possible to obtain partial credit for thesecourses.The course codes for Biology 11 and 12 are BI 11and BI 12. These courses are also available inFrench (Biologie 11, Biologie 12: course codesBIOSR 11, BIOSR 12).
  8. 8. Introduction to Biology 11 and 12 • Biology 11 and 12Biology 11Biology is a scientific discipline that studies a greatvariety of organisms. It is widely accepted that afew major themes exist in biology, and the use ofthese can provide an organizational framework forstudying biology. The three themes for Biology 11are as follows:• Unity and Diversity• Evolutionary Relationships• Ecological RelationshipsTeachers should provide laboratory and fieldopportunities for students to examine a wide varietyof organisms to develop their understanding of thethree major themes of Biology 11.The prescribed learning outcomes for Biology 11are grouped under the following curriculumorganizers and suborganizers:Graduation Program ExaminationBiology 12 has an optional Graduation Programexamination, worth 40% of the final course markfor students who choose to write it. Althoughstudents are not required to take this exam toreceive credit for the course, they should be advisedthat some post-secondary institutions requireGrade 12 exams to meet entrance requirements,and that writing Grade 12 exams also providesopportunities for provincial scholarships.For more information, refer to the Ministryof Education examinations web site:www.bced.gov.bc.ca/exams/Biology 11Processesof ScienceTaxonomy Evolution Ecology Microbiology• Viruses• KingdomMoneraPlantBiologyAnimalBiologyA curriculum organizer consists of a set ofprescribed learning outcomes that share a commonfocus. Note that the ordering of organizers,suborganizers, and outcomes in the Biology 11curriculum is not intended to imply an orderof instruction.The prescribed learning outcomes related toProcesses of Science support the development ofknowledge, skills, and attitudes essential for anunderstanding of science. These learning outcomesshould not be taught in isolation, but should beintegrated with activities related to the other sixcurriculum organizers.
  9. 9. Introduction to Biology 11 and 12Biology 11 and 12 • Biology 12Biology 12 focusses on human biology, allowingstudents to develop an interest in and understandingof science by looking at themselves and seeing howthe diverse body systems are integrated to maintainhomeostasis.Laboratory skills are essential to students ofBiology 12. These skills are developed in labactivities that focus on the hypothetical as wellas the practical. An emphasis on the processesof science is integral to the complete study ofBiology 12 and should be integrated throughoutthe course.The order of learning outcomes follows a sequencefrom cell structure and simple, biochemicalprocesses to the organ systems themselves.However, this order does not imply a requiredsequence of instruction.The prescribed learning outcomes for Biology 12are grouped under the following curriculumorganizers and suborganizers:A curriculum organizer consists of a set ofprescribed learning outcomes that share a commonfocus. Note that the ordering of organizers,suborganizers, and outcomes in the Biology 12curriculum does not imply an order of instruction.The prescribed learning outcomes related toProcesses of Science support the development ofknowledge, skills, and attitudes essential for anunderstanding of science. These learning outcomesshould not be taught in isolation, but should beintegrated with activities related to the other twocurriculum organizers.Suggested TimeframeProvincial curricula are developed in accordancewith the amount of instructional time recommendedby the Ministry of Education for each subject area.Teachers may choose to combine various curriculato enable students to integrate ideas and makemeaningful connections.Biology 11 and 12 each require approximately90–110 hours of instructional time. Although afour-credit course is typically equivalent to120 hours, this timeframe allows for flexibilityto address local needs. The Student Achievementsection of this IRP provides a suggested breakdownof this suggested time allotment by curriculumorganizer.Biology 12Processesof ScienceCell Biology• Cell Structure• Cell Compounds andBiological Molecules• DNA Replication• Protein Synthesis• Transport across CellMembrane• EnzymesHuman Biology• Digestive System• Circulatory System• Respiratory System• Nervous System• Urinary System• Reproductive System
  10. 10. Considerations forProgram DeliveryBiology 11 and 12
  11. 11. Biology 11 and 12 • Considerations for Program DeliveryThis section of the IRP contains additionalinformation to help educators develop theirschool practices and plan their programdelivery to meet the needs of all learners. Includedin this section is information about• Alternative Delivery policy• addressing local contexts• involving parents and guardians• course requirements respecting beliefs• safety considerations• confidentiality• inclusion, equity, and accessibility forall learners• working with the school and community• working with the Aboriginal community• information and communications technology• copyright and responsibilityAlternative Delivery PolicyThe Alternative Delivery policy does not applyto Biology 11 and 12.The Alternative Delivery policy outlines howstudents, and their parents or guardians, inconsultation with their local school authority, maychoose means other than instruction by a teacherwithin the regular classroom setting for addressingprescribed learning outcomes contained in theHealth curriculum organizer of the followingcurriculum documents:• Health and Career Education K to 7, andPersonal Planning K to 7 PersonalDevelopment curriculum organizer (untilSeptember 2008)• Health and Career Education 8 and 9• Planning 10The policy recognizes the family as the primaryeducator in the development of children’s attitudes,standards, and values, but the policy still requiresthat all prescribed learning outcomes be addressedand assessed in the agreed-upon alternativemanner of delivery.It is important to note the significance of the term“alternative delivery” as it relates to the AlternativeDelivery Policy. The policy does not permit schoolsto omit addressing or assessing any of the prescribedlearning outcomes within the health and careereducation curriculum. Neither does it allowstudents to be excused from meeting any learningoutcomes related to health. It is expected thatstudents who arrange for alternative delivery willaddress the health-related learning outcomes andwill be able to demonstrate their understanding ofthese learning outcomes.For more information about policy relatingto alternative delivery, refer towww.bced.gov.bc.ca/policy/Addressing Local ContextsThere is some flexibility in the Biology 11 and 12curriculum, providing opportunities for individualteacher and student choice in the selection of topicsto meet learning outcomes. This flexibility enableseducators to plan their programs by using topicsand examples that are relevant to their local contextand to the particular interests of their students.When selecting topics it may be appropriate toincorporate student input.In particular, Biology 11 teachers may wish tocustomize the curriculum to take advantage ofopportunities to study the seasonal flora and faunaof their region. The prescribed learning outcomesoffer a variety of organisms to choose from. It isimportant, however, that teachers recognize theimportance of choosing life activities (such asenergy acquisition) as a thread that relates eachorganism studied to those previously studied andthose yet to be studied.Involving Parents and GuardiansThe family is the primary educator in thedevelopment of students’ attitudes and values. Theschool plays a supportive role by focussing on theprescribed learning outcomes in the Biology 11 and12 curriculum. Parents and guardians can support,enrich, and extend the curriculum at home.It is highly recommended that schools informparents and guardians about the Biology 11 and 12curriculum, and teachers (along with school anddistrict administrators) may choose to do so by
  12. 12. 10 • Biology 11 and 12Considerations for Program Delivery• informing parents/guardians and students ofthe prescribed learning outcomes for the subjectby sending home class letters, providing anoverview during parent-teacher interviews, etc.• responding to parent and guardian requests todiscuss course unit plans, learning resources, etc.Course Requirements Respecting BeliefsFor many students and teachers, the study of somescience concepts may lead to issues and questionsthat go beyond the immediate scope of curriculum(e.g., science is used to meet many industrialrequirements, but industrial decision makers mustconsider factors other than scientific feasibilitybefore adopting a particular process). Thetechnological application of science in areas suchas genetic engineering, human reproduction, andmedical technology raises questions of ethics andvalues. Because these social questions arise, in part,from capabilities that science makes possible, theyshould be addressed. It must be made clear tostudents, however, that science only provides thebackground for what is hoped will be informedpersonal and social decisions. Teachers must handlethese questions objectively and with sensitivity.Reconciling scientific discoveries (for example, ingenetic engineering) and religious faith poses aparticular challenge for some students. Whilerespecting the personal beliefs of students, teachersshould be careful to distinguish between knowledgebased on the application of scientific methods, andreligious teachings and associated beliefs such ascreationism, theory of divine creation, or intelligentdesign theory.Safety ConsiderationsScience education is an activity-based processthat provides an exciting method of teaching andlearning. However, experiments and demonstrationsmay involve inherent risks for both the teacher andthe student.Safety guidelines must be discussed with students.These safety guidelines must support and encouragethe investigative approach generally and laboratoryinstruction specifically, while at the same timepromoting safety in the classroom and laboratory.Encouraging a positive safety attitude is aresponsibility shared among the board, schooladministrators, teachers, and students in everyschool district. The co-operation of all these groupshelps develop a strong safety consciousness bothinside and outside our schools.Field work and field trips require special vigilancewith respect to traffic and road safety, safe practicesin study areas and when obtaining samples, and anawareness of changes in weather. Teachers are alsoreminded of the potential risks associated withactivities that involve extraction and analysis ofhuman fluids or tissue.Another important aspect of in-school safety isthe Workplace Hazardous Materials InformationSystems (WHMIS). Through labelling, materialsafety data sheets, and education and training,WHMIS is designed to ensure that those usinghazardous materials have sufficient informationto handle them safely. Each school district shouldhave an individual trained in WHMIS who canwork with teachers to establish safe, well-ventilatedclassroom and laboratory working conditions.To assist teachers in providing a safe science-learning environment, the Ministry of Educationpublishes the Science Safety Resource Manual, whichhas been distributed to every school.The Science Safety Resource Manual is availableonline atwww.bced.gov.bc.ca/irp/resdocs/scisafety.htmConfidentialityThe Freedom of Information and Protection of PrivacyAct (FOIPPA) applies to students, to school districts,and to all curricula. Teachers, administrators, anddistrict staff should consider the following:• Be aware of district and school guidelinesregarding the provisions of FOIPPA and howit applies to all subjects, including Biology 11and 12.• Do not use students’ Personal EducationNumbers (PEN) on any assignments thatstudents wish to keep confidential.
  13. 13. Biology 11 and 12 • 11Considerations for Program Delivery• Ensure students are aware that if they disclosepersonal information that indicates they are atrisk for harm, then that information cannot bekept confidential.• Inform students of their rights under FOIPPA,especially the right to have access to their ownpersonal information in their school records.Inform parents of their rights to access theirchildren’s school records.• Minimize the type and amount of personalinformation collected, and ensure that it isused only for purposes that relate directly tothe reason for which it is collected.• Inform students that they will be the onlyones recording personal information aboutthemselves unless they, or their parents, haveconsented to teachers collecting that informationfrom other people (including parents).• Provide students and their parents with thereason(s) they are being asked to providepersonal information in the context of theBiology 11 and 12 curriculum.• Inform students and their parents that they canask the school to correct or annotate any of thepersonal information held by the school, inaccordance with Section 29 of FOIPPA.• Ensure students are aware that their parentsmay have access to the schoolwork they createonly insofar as it pertains to students’ progress.• Ensure that any information used in assessingstudents’ progress is up-to-date, accurate, andcomplete.For more information about confidentiality, referto www.mser.gov.bc.ca/FOI_POP/index.htmInclusion, Equity, andAccessibility for All LearnersBritish Columbia’s schools include students ofvaried backgrounds, interests, and abilities. TheKindergarten to Grade 12 school system focuses onmeeting the needs of all students. When selectingspecific topics, activities, and resources to supportthe implementation of Biology 11 and 12, teachersare encouraged to ensure that these choices supportinclusion, equity, and accessibility for all students.In particular, teachers should ensure that classroominstruction, assessment, and resources reflectsensitivity to diversity and incorporate positiverole portrayals, relevant issues, and themes suchas inclusion, respect, and acceptance.Government policy supports the principles ofintegration and inclusion of students for whomEnglish is a second language and of students withspecial needs. Most of the prescribed learningoutcomes and suggested achievement indicatorsin this IRP can be met by all students, includingthose with special needs and/or ESL needs. Somestrategies may require adaptations to ensurethat those with special and/or ESL needs cansuccessfully achieve the learning outcomes.Where necessary, modifications can be made tothe prescribed learning outcomes for studentswith Individual Education Plans.For more information about resources andsupport for students with special needs, refer towww.bced.gov.bc.ca/specialed/For more information about resources andsupport for ESL students, refer towww.bced.gov.bc.ca/esl/Working with the School and CommunityThis curriculum addresses a wide range of skillsand understandings that students are developingin other areas of their lives. It is important torecognize that learning related to this curriculumextends beyond the biology classroom.School and district-wide programs support andextend learning in Biology 11 and 12. Communityorganizations may also support the curriculumwith locally developed learning resources, guestspeakers, workshops, and field studies. Teachersmay wish to draw on the expertise of thesecommunity organizations and members.Working with the Aboriginal CommunityThe Ministry of Education is dedicated to ensuringthat the cultures and contributions of Aboriginalpeoples in BC are reflected in all provincialcurricula. To address these topics in the classroomin a way that is accurate and that respectfully
  14. 14. 12 • Biology 11 and 12Considerations for Program Deliveryreflects Aboriginal concepts of teaching andlearning, teachers are strongly encouraged toseek the advice and support of local Aboriginalcommunities. Aboriginal communities are diversein terms of language, culture, and availableresources, and each community will have itsown unique protocol to gain support forintegration of local knowledge and expertise.To begin discussion of possible instructional andassessment activities, teachers should first contactAboriginal education co-ordinators, teachers,support workers, and counsellors in their districtwho will be able to facilitate the identification oflocal resources and contacts such as elders, chiefs,tribal or band councils, Aboriginal cultural centres,Aboriginal Friendship Centres, and Métis or Inuitorganizations.In addition, teachers may wish to consult thevarious Ministry of Education publicationsavailable, including the “Planning Your Program”section of the resource, Shared Learnings. Thisresource was developed to help all teachers providestudents with knowledge of, and opportunities toshare experiences with, Aboriginal peoples in BC.For more information about these documents,consult the Aboriginal Education web site:www.bced.gov.bc.ca/abed/welcome.htmInformation andCommunications TechnologyThe study of information and communicationstechnology is increasingly important in our society.Students need to be able to acquire and analyseinformation, to reason and communicate, to makeinformed decisions, and to understand and useinformation and communications technology for avariety of purposes. Development of these skills isimportant for students in their education, theirfuture careers, and their everyday lives.Literacy in the area of information andcommunications technology can be defined asthe ability to obtain and share knowledge throughinvestigation, study, instruction, or transmissionof information by means of media technology.Becoming literate in this area involves finding,gathering, assessing, and communicatinginformation using electronic means, as well asdeveloping the knowledge and skills to use andsolve problems effectively with the technology.Literacy also involves a critical examination andunderstanding of the ethical and social issuesrelated to the use of information and communicationstechnology. When planning for instruction andassessment in Biology 11 and 12, teachers shouldprovides opportunities for students to developliteracy in relation to information andcommunications technology sources, and to reflectcritically on the role of these technologies in society.Copyright and ResponsibilityCopyright is the legal protection of literary,dramatic, artistic, and musical works; soundrecordings; performances; and communicationssignals. Copyright provides creators with the legalright to be paid for their work and the right to sayhow their work is to be used. The law permitscertain exceptions for schools (i.e., specific thingspermitted) but these are very limited, such ascopying for private study or research. Thecopyright law determines how resources can beused in the classroom and by students at home.In order to respect copyright it is necessary tounderstand the law. It is unlawful to do thefollowing, unless permission has been given bya copyright owner:• photocopy copyrighted material to avoidpurchasing the original resource for any reason• photocopy or perform copyrighted materialbeyond a very small part – in some cases thecopyright law considers it “fair” to copy wholeworks, such as an article in a journal or aphotograph, for purposes of research andprivate study, criticism, and review• show recorded television or radio programs tostudents in the classroom unless these arecleared for copyright for educational use (thereare exceptions such as for news and newscommentary taped within one year ofbroadcast that by law have record-keepingrequirements – see the web site at the end ofthis section for more details)
  15. 15. Biology 11 and 12 • 13Considerations for Program Delivery• photocopy print music, workbooks,instructional materials, instruction manuals,teacher guides, and commercially availabletests and examinations• show videorecordings at schools that are notcleared for public performance• perform music or do performances ofcopyrighted material for entertainment (i.e.,for purposes other than a specific educationalobjective)• copy work from the Internet without an expressmessage that the work can be copiedPermission from or on behalf of the copyrightowner must be given in writing. Permission mayalso be given to copy or use all or some portion ofcopyrighted work through a licence or agreement.Many creators, publishers, and producers haveformed groups or “collectives” to negotiate royaltypayments and copying conditions for educationalinstitutions. It is important to know what licencesare in place and how these affect the activitiesschools are involved in. Some licences may alsorequire royalty payments that are determined bythe quantity of photocopying or the length ofperformances. In these cases, it is important toassess the educational value and merits of copyingor performing certain works to protect the school’sfinancial exposure (i.e., only copy or use thatportion that is absolutely necessary to meet aneducational objective).It is important for education professionals, parents,and students to respect the value of original thinkingand the importance of not plagiarizing the work ofothers. The works of others should not be usedwithout their permission.For more information about copyright, refer towww.cmec.ca/copyright/indexe.stm
  16. 16. Prescribed Learning OutcomesBiology 11 and 12
  17. 17. Prescribed Learning OutcomesBiology 11 and 12 • 17Prescribed learning outcomes are contentstandards for the provincial educationsystem; they are the prescribed curriculum.Clearly stated and expressed in measurable andobservable terms, learning outcomes set out therequired knowledge, skills, and attitudes – whatstudents are expected to know and be able to do –by the end of the specified course.Schools have the responsibility to ensure that allprescribed learning outcomes in this curriculum aremet; however, schools have flexibility in determininghow delivery of the curriculum can best take place.It is expected that student achievement will varyin relation to the learning outcomes. Evaluation,reporting, and student placement with respect tothese outcomes are dependent on the professionaljudgment and experience of teachers, guided byprovincial policy.Prescribed learning outcomes for Biology 11and 12 are presented by grade and by curriculumorganizer and suborganizer, and are codedalphanumerically for ease of reference; however,this arrangement is not intended to imply arequired instructional sequence.Wording of Prescribed Learning OutcomesAll learning outcomes complete the stem, “It isexpected that students will….”When used in a prescribed learning outcome, theword “including” indicates that any ensuing itemmust be addressed. Lists of items introduced bythe word “including” represent a set of minimumrequirements associated with the generalrequirement set out by the outcome. The lists arenot necessarily exhaustive, however, and teachersmay choose to address additional items that alsofall under the general requirement set out bythe outcome.Domains of LearningPrescribed learning outcomes in BC curriculaidentify required learning in relation to one ormore of the three domains of learning: cognitive,psychomotor, and affective. The followingdefinitions of the three domains are based onBloom’s taxonomy.The cognitive domain deals with the recall orrecognition of knowledge and the developmentof intellectual abilities. The cognitive domain canbe further specified as including three cognitivelevels: knowledge, understanding and application,and higher mental processes. These levels aredetermined by the verb used in the learningoutcome, and illustrate how student learningdevelops over time.• Knowledge includes those behaviours thatemphasize the recognition or recall of ideas,material, or phenomena.• Understanding and application represents acomprehension of the literal message containedin a communication, and the ability to apply anappropriate theory, principle, idea, or methodto a new situation.• Higher mental processes include analysis,synthesis, and evaluation. The higher mentalprocesses level subsumes both the knowledgeand the understanding and application levels.The affective domain concerns attitudes, beliefs,and the spectrum of values and value systems.The psychomotor domain includes those aspectsof learning associated with movement and skilldemonstration, and integrates the cognitive andaffective consequences with physical performances.Domains of learning and, particularly, cognitivelevels, inform the design and development of theGraduation Program examination for Biology 12.
  18. 18. Prescribed Learning Outcomes18 • Biology 11 and 12Prescribed Learning Outcomes: Biology 11It is expected that students will:Processes of ScienceA1 demonstrate safe and correct technique for a variety of laboratory proceduresA2 design an experiment using the scientific methodA3 interpret data from a variety of text and visual sourcesTaxonomyB1 apply the Kingdom system of classification to study the diversity of organismsEvolutionC1 describe the process of evolutionEcologyD1 analyse the functional inter-relationships of organisms within an ecosystemMicrobiologyVirusesE1 evaluate the evidence used to classify viruses as living or non-livingE2 evaluate the effects of viruses on human healthKingdom MoneraE3 analyse monerans as a lifeform at the prokaryotic level of organizationE4 evaluate the effectiveness of various antibiotics, disinfectants, or antiseptics on bacterial culturesPlant BiologyF1 analyse how the increasing complexity of algae, mosses, and ferns represent an evolutionarycontinuum of adaptation to a land environmentF2 analyse how the increasing complexity of gymnosperms and angiosperms contribute to survival in aland environmentAnimal BiologyG1 analyse how the increasing complexity of animal phyla represents an evolutionary continuumG2 analyse the increasing complexity of the Phylum Porifera and the Phylum CnidariaG3 analyse the increasing complexity of the Phylum Platyhelminthes, the Phylum Nematoda, and thePhylum AnnelidaG4 analyse the increasing complexity of the Phylum Mollusca, the Phylum Echinodermata, and thePhylum ArthropodaG5 relate the complexity of the form and function of vertebrates to the evolutionary continuumof animals
  19. 19. Prescribed Learning OutcomesBiology 11 and 12 • 19Prescribed Learning Outcomes: Biology 12It is expected that students will:Processes of ScienceA1 demonstrate safe and correct technique for a variety of laboratory proceduresA2 design an experiment using the scientific methodA3 interpret data from a variety of text and visual sourcesCell BiologyCell StructureB1 analyse the functional inter-relationships of cell structuresCell Compounds and Biological MoleculesB2 describe the characteristics of water and its role in biological systemsB3 describe the role of acids, bases, and buffers in biological systems in the human bodyB4 analyse the structure and function of biological molecules in living systems, including– carbohydrates– lipids– proteins– nucleic acidsDNA ReplicationB5 describe DNA replicationB6 describe recombinant DNAProtein SynthesisB7 demonstrate an understanding of the process of protein synthesisB8 explain how mutations in DNA affect protein synthesisTransport across Cell MembraneB9 analyse the structure and function of the cell membraneB10 explain why cells divide when they reach a particular surface area-to-volume ratioEnzymesB11 analyse the roles of enzymes in biochemical reactionsBiology 12 Prescribed Learning Outcomes continued on page 20
  20. 20. Prescribed Learning Outcomes20 • Biology 11 and 12Prescribed Learning Outcomes: Biology 12Biology 12 Prescribed Learning Outcomes continued from page 19Human BiologyDigestive SystemC1 analyse the functional inter-relationships of the structures of the digestive systemC2 describe the components, pH, and digestive actions of salivary, gastric, pancreatic, and intestinaljuicesCirculatory SystemC3 describe the inter-relationships of the structures the heartC4 analyse the relationship between heart rate and blood pressureC5 analyse the functional inter-relationships of the vessels of the circulatory systemC6 describe the components of bloodC7 describe the inter-relationships of the structures of the lymphatic systemRespiratory SystemC8 analyse the functional inter-relationships of the structures of the respiratory systemC9 analyse the processes of breathingC10 analyse internal and external respirationNervous SystemC11 analyse the transmission of nerve impulsesC12 analyse the functional inter-relationships of the divisions of the nervous systemUrinary SystemC13 analyse the functional inter-relationships of the structures of the urinary systemReproductive SystemC14 analyse the functional inter-relationships of the structures of the male reproductive systemC15 analyse the functional inter-relationships of the structures of the female reproductive system
  21. 21. Student AchievementBiology 11 and 12
  22. 22. Student AchievementBiology 11 and 12 • 23This section of the IRP contains informationabout classroom assessment and studentachievement, including specific achievementindicators to assist in the assessment of studentachievement in relation to each prescribed learningoutcome. Also included in this section are keyelements – descriptions of content that helpdetermine the intended depth and breadth ofprescribed learning outcomes.Classroom Assessment and EvaluationAssessment is the systematic gathering ofinformation about what students know, areable to do, and are working toward. Assessmentevidence can be collected using a wide varietyof methods, such as• observation• student self-assessments and peer assessments• quizzes and tests (written, oral, practical)• samples of student work• projects and presentations• oral and written reports• journals and learning logs• performance reviews• portfolio assessmentsAssessment of student performance is based onthe information collected through assessmentactivities. Teachers use their insight, knowledgeabout learning, and experience with students, alongwith the specific criteria they establish, to makejudgments about student performance in relationto prescribed learning outcomes.Three major types of assessment can be used inconjunction to support student achievement.• Assessment for learning is assessment forpurposes of greater learning achievement.• Assessment as learning is assessment as aprocess of developing and supporting students’active participation in their own learning.• Assessment of learning is assessment forpurposes of providing evidence of achievementfor reporting.Assessment for LearningClassroom assessment for learning providesways to engage and encourage students to becomeinvolved in their own day-to-day assessment – toacquire the skills of thoughtful self-assessment andto promote their own achievement.This type of assessment serves to answer thefollowing questions:• What do students need to learn to besuccessful?• What does the evidence of this learninglook like?Assessment for learning is criterion-referenced,in which a student’s achievement is compared toestablished criteria rather than to the performanceof other students. Criteria are based on prescribedlearning outcomes, as well as on suggestedachievement indicators or other learningexpectations.Students benefit most when assessment feedbackis provided on a regular, ongoing basis. Whenassessment is seen as an opportunity to promotelearning rather than as a final judgment, it showsstudents their strengths and suggests how they candevelop further. Students can use this informationto redirect their efforts, make plans, communicatewith others (e.g., peers, teachers, parents) abouttheir growth, and set future learning goals.Assessment for learning also provides anopportunity for teachers to review what theirstudents are learning and what areas need furtherattention. This information can be used to informteaching and create a direct link between assessmentand instruction. Using assessment as a way ofobtaining feedback on instruction supports studentachievement by informing teacher planning andclassroom practice.
  23. 23. Student Achievement24 • Biology 11 and 12Assessment as LearningAssessment as learning actively involves studentsin their own learning processes. With support andguidance from their teacher, students takeresponsibility for their own learning, constructingmeaning for themselves. Through a process ofcontinuous self-assessment, students develop theability to take stock of what they have alreadylearned, determine what they have not yet learned,and decide how they can best improve their ownachievement.Although assessment as learning is student-driven,teachers can play a key role in facilitating how thisassessment takes place. By providing regularopportunities for reflection and self-assessment,teachers can help students develop, practise, andbecome comfortable with critical analysis of theirown learning.Assessment of LearningAssessment of learning can be addressed throughsummative assessment, including large-scaleassessments and teacher assessments. Thesesummative assessments can occur at the end of theyear or at periodic stages in the instructional process.Large-scale assessments, such as Foundation SkillsAssessment (FSA) and Graduation Program exams,gather information on student performancethroughout the province and provide informationfor the development and revision of curriculum.These assessments are used to make judgmentsabout students’ achievement in relation to provincialand national standards. There is no large-scaleprovincial assessment for Biology 11. The large-scaleprovincial assessment for Biology 12 is the optionalgraduation program examination, worth 40% of thefinal course mark for students who choose to write it.Assessment of learning is also used to inform formalreporting of student achievement.For Ministry of Education reporting policy,refer to www.bced.gov.bc.ca/policy/policies/student_reporting.htmAssessment for Learning Assessment as Learning Assessment of LearningFormative assessment isongoing in the classroom• teacher assessment, studentself-assessment, and/orstudent peer assessment• criterion-referenced – criteriabased on prescribed learningoutcomes identified in theprovincial curriculum, reflectingperformance in relation to aspecific learning task• involves both teacher andstudent in a process ofcontinual reflection and reviewabout progress• teachers adjust their plans andengage in corrective teachingin response to formativeassessmentFormative assessment isongoing in the classroom• self-assessment• provides students withinformation on their ownachievement and prompts themto consider how they cancontinue to improve theirlearning• student-determined criteriabased on previous learning andpersonal learning goals• students use assessmentinformation to make adaptationsto their learning process and todevelop new understandingsSummative assessment occursat end of year or at key stages• teacher assessment• may be either criterion-referenced (based on prescribedlearning outcomes) or norm-referenced (comparing studentachievement to that of others)• information on studentperformance can be shared withparents/guardians, school anddistrict staff, and othereducation professionals (e.g.,for the purposes of curriculumdevelopment)• used to make judgments aboutstudents’ performance inrelation to provincial standards
  24. 24. Student AchievementBiology 11 and 12 • 25For more information about assessment for, as,and of learning, refer to the following resourcedeveloped by the Western and Northern CanadianProtocol (WNCP): Rethinking Assessment withPurpose in Mind.This resource is available online atwww.wncp.ca/Criterion-Referenced Assessment and EvaluationIn criterion-referenced evaluation, a student’sperformance is compared to established criteriarather than to the performance of other students.Evaluation in relation to prescribed curriculumrequires that criteria be established based on thelearning outcomes.Criteria are the basis for evaluating studentprogress. They identify, in specific terms, thecritical aspects of a performance or a product thatindicate how well the student is meeting theprescribed learning outcomes. For example,weighted criteria, rating scales, or scoring guides(reference sets) are ways that student performancecan be evaluated using criteria.Wherever possible, students should be involved insetting the assessment criteria. This helps studentsdevelop an understanding of what high-qualitywork or performance looks like.Criterion-referenced assessment and evaluation may involve these steps:Step 1 Identify the prescribed learning outcomes and suggested achievement indicators(as articulated in this IRP) that will be used as the basis for assessment.Step 2 Establish criteria. When appropriate, involve students in establishing criteria.Step 3 Plan learning activities that will help students gain the knowledge, skills, and attitudesoutlined in the criteria.Step 4 Prior to the learning activity, inform students of the criteria against which their work willbe evaluated.Step 5 Provide examples of the desired levels of performance.Step 6 Conduct the learning activities.Step 7 Use appropriate assessment instruments (e.g., rating scale, checklist, scoring guide) andmethods (e.g., observation, collection, self-assessment) based on the particular assignmentand student.Step 8 Review the assessment data and evaluate each student’s level of performance or quality ofwork in relation to criteria.Step 9 Where appropriate, provide feedback and/or a letter grade to indicate how well the criteriaare met.Step 10 Communicate the results of the assessment and evaluation to students and parents/guardians.
  25. 25. Student Achievement26 • Biology 11 and 12Key ElementsKey elements provide an overview of content ineach curriculum organizer and suborganizer. Theycan be used to determine the expected depth andbreadth of the prescribed learning outcomes.Achievement IndicatorsTo support the assessment of provinciallyprescribed curricula, this IRP includes sets ofachievement indicators in relation to each learningoutcome.Achievement indicators, taken together as a set,define the specific level of knowledge acquired,skills applied, or attitudes demonstrated by thestudent in relation to a corresponding prescribedlearning outcome. They describe what evidence tolook for to determine whether or not the studenthas fully met the intent of the learning outcome.Since each achievement indicator defines only oneaspect of the corresponding learning outcome, theentire set of achievement indicators should beconsidered when determining whether studentshave fully met the learning outcome.In some cases, achievement indicators may alsoinclude suggestions as to the type of task thatwould provide evidence of having met the learningoutcome (e.g., a constructed response such as a list,comparison, analysis, or chart; a product createdand presented such as a report, drama presentation,poster, letter, or model; a particular skilldemonstrated such as microscope use).Achievement indicators support the principles ofassessment for learning, assessment as learning, andassessment of learning. They provide teachers andparents with tools that can be used to reflect onwhat students are learning, as well as providestudents with a means of self-assessment andways of defining how they can improve theirown achievement.Achievement indicators are not mandatory; theyare suggestions only, provided to assist in theassessment of how well students achieve theprescribed learning outcomes.Achievement indicators may be useful to provincialexamination development teams and inform thedevelopment of exam items. However, examinationquestions, item formats, exemplars, rubrics, orscoring guides will not necessarily be limited tothe achievement indicators as outlined in theIntegrated Resource Packages.Specifications for provincial examinationsare available online atwww.bced.gov.bc.ca/exams/specs/The following pages contain the suggestedachievement indicators corresponding to eachprescribed learning outcome for the Biology 11and 12 curriculum. The achievement indicatorsare arranged by curriculum organizer andsuborganizer for each grade; however, this orderis not intended to imply a required sequence ofinstruction and assessment.
  26. 26. Student AchievementBiology 11
  27. 27. 28 • Biology 11 and 12Student Achievement • Key Elements – Biology 11Key Elements: Processes of ScienceEstimated Time: integrated throughoutThe prescribed learning outcomes related to Processes of Science support the development of knowledge,skills, and attitudes essential for an understanding of science. These learning outcomes should not betaught in isolation, but should be integrated with activities related to the other curriculum organizers.Vocabularyconclusion, control, control group, controlled variable, dependent variable, experimental group,experimental variable, independent variable, repeatable procedure, sample size, scientific method, testablehypothesisKnowledge• independent and dependent variables• controlled and experimental variables• control group, experimental groupSkills and Attitudes• demonstrate safe and correct lab technique (e.g., use of dissection and compound microscopes,preparation of wet-mount slides, sterile technique, safe dissection technique)• apply the scientific method to design and carry out experiments• make inferences and generalizations• interpret data from a variety of types of sources• draw conclusions• communicate information and results (e.g., graphs, diagrams, models, formulae)
  28. 28. Biology 11 and 12 • 29Student Achievement • Suggested Achievement Indicators – Biology 11Processes of SciencePrescribed Learning Outcomes Suggested Achievement IndicatorsIt is expected that students will:The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievementfor each corresponding prescribed learning outcome.Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to:A1 demonstrate safe and correcttechnique for a variety oflaboratory proceduresq demonstrate the correct use of a dissection microscopeq prepare wet-mount slidesq demonstrate safe and correct dissection techniqueq demonstrate the correct use of a compound microscopeq demonstrate sterile technique while preparing a streak plateA2 design an experiment usingthe scientific methodq formulate a testable hypothesis to investigate a scientific problem(e.g., determining the effectiveness of antibacterial agents onbacteria, determining the rate of fermentation in yeast)q formulate and carry out a repeatable, controlled procedure to testthe hypothesis:– identify controlled versus experimental variables– identify the independent and dependent variables– use control and experimental groups, as appropriate– use a control as appropriate– use appropriate sample sizeq observe, measure, and record dataq interpret results to draw conclusionsq determine whether the conclusions support or reject thehypothesisq determine whether the experiment is reliableq use results and conclusions as a basis for further comparisons,investigations, or analysesA3 interpret data from a varietyof text and visual sourcesq use data from a variety of representations (e.g., diagrams,electron micrographs, graphs, photographs) to make inferencesand generalizationsq draw and present conclusions, applying the most appropriatemeans to communicate (e.g., graph, diagram, model, formula,map, visual)
  29. 29. 30 • Biology 11 and 12Student Achievement • Key Elements – Biology 11Key Elements:TaxonomyEstimated Time: 3–5 hoursBy the end of this course, students will have an understanding of the applications of taxonomy.Vocabularybinomial nomenclature, biochemical relationship, class, embryological relationship, eukaryotic cell,evolutionary relationship, family, genus, homologous structure, kingdom, order, phylum, prokaryotic cell,species, sub-phylum, taxonomy/taxonKnowledge• principles of taxonomy• Kingdom system of classification, taxons, binomial nomenclature• characteristics of the kingdoms Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and AnimaliaSkills and Attitudes• use classification keys• demonstrate correct use of a compound microscope• observe organisms to recognize common characteristics• demonstrate ethical, responsible, co-operative behaviour• show respect for living things
  30. 30. Biology 11 and 12 • 31Student Achievement • Suggested Achievement Indicators – Biology 11Prescribed Learning Outcomes Suggested Achievement IndicatorsIt is expected that students will:The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievementfor each corresponding prescribed learning outcome.Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to:B1 apply the Kingdom systemof classification to study thediversity of organismsq explain how the following principles are used in taxonomy toclassify organisms:– evolutionary relationships– biochemical relationships– homologous structures– embryological relationshipsq compare characteristics of a prokaryotic cell with those of aeukaryotic cellq describe the unifying characteristics of organisms in each of thefollowing kingdoms:– Monera– Protista– Fungi– Plantae– Animaliaq classify selected organisms using the following taxons: kingdom,phylum (and sub-phylum), class, order, family, genus, speciesq apply binomial nomenclature to name selected organismsTaxonomy
  31. 31. 32 • Biology 11 and 12Student Achievement • Key Elements – Biology 11Key Elements: EvolutionEstimated Time: 5–10 hoursBy the end of this course, students will have an understanding of the mechanics of evolution.Vocabularycomplementary base pairing, convergent evolution, divergent evolution, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA),double helix, evolutionary change, gene flow, genetic drift, gradual change model, mutation, naturalselection, nitrogenous base, non-random mating, punctuated equilibrium model, speciation, sugar-phosphate backboneKnowledge• basic structure of DNA• role of DNA in evolution• agents of evolutionary change• patterns of evolution• tempo of evolutionary changeSkills and Attitudes• create models (e.g., agents of evolutionary change, DNA)• gather data to study variation within a population• communicate results (e.g., using graphs, tables, diagrams, lab reports)• demonstrate ethical, responsible, co-operative behaviour
  32. 32. Biology 11 and 12 • 33Student Achievement • Suggested Achievement Indicators – Biology 11Prescribed Learning Outcomes Suggested Achievement IndicatorsIt is expected that students will:The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievementfor each corresponding prescribed learning outcome.Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to:C1 describe the processof evolutionq describe the basic structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) withreference to the following terms:– double helix– sugar-phosphate backbone– nitrogenous bases (A, T, C, G)– complementary base pairing (A-T, C-G)q explain the role of DNA in evolutionq describe the five agents of evolutionary change: mutation, geneticdrift, gene flow, non-random mating, and natural selectionq differentiate among and give examples of convergent evolution,divergent evolution, and speciationq compare the gradual change model with the punctuatedequilibrium model of evolutionEvolution
  33. 33. 34 • Biology 11 and 12Student Achievement • Key Elements – Biology 11Key Elements: EcologyEstimated Time: 10–12 hoursBy the end of this course, students will have an understanding of the role various organisms play in anecosystem.Vocabularycarrying capacity, cellular respiration, chemical equations, climax community, commensalism, consumer,cyclic growth, decomposer, density-dependent factors, density-independent factors, ecological succession,energy flow, exponential growth, logistic growth, mutualism, parasitism, photosynthesis, pioneer species,population, producer, products, pyramid of energy, reactants, steady state, symbiosisKnowledge• interdependent roles of organisms in ecosystems• energy flow and energy pyramids• photosynthesis and cellular respiration• factors affecting population growthSkills and Attitudes• create bar graphs, line graphs, pie charts, tables, and diagrams to extract and convey information• create models to represent a given type of data (e.g., populations)• conduct experiments (e.g., quadrat study)• relate cause to effect• assess human impacts on an ecosystem• demonstrate ethical, responsible, co-operative behaviour• show respect and sensitivity for the environment
  34. 34. Biology 11 and 12 • 35Student Achievement • Suggested Achievement Indicators – Biology 11Prescribed Learning Outcomes Suggested Achievement IndicatorsIt is expected that students will:The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievementfor each corresponding prescribed learning outcome.Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to:D1 analyse the functional inter-relationships of organismswithin an ecosystemq describe the process of ecological succession, with reference toterms such as pioneer species and climax communityq explain the roles of producers, consumers, and decomposersin ecosystemsq describe a pyramid of energy in terms of energy flow throughan ecosystemq describe the roles of photosynthesis and cellular respirationwithin a pyramid of energyq compare photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of thereactants, products, and chemical equationsq describe the stages a population goes through as it increases insize, with reference to terms such as exponential growth, logisticgrowth, cyclic growth, carrying capacity, steady stateq describe density-dependent and density-independent factors thatlimit and control population growthq define symbiosis and types of symbiosis: parasitism, commensalism,and mutualismEcology
  35. 35. 36 • Biology 11 and 12Student Achievement • Key Elements – Biology 11Key Elements: MicrobiologyEstimated Time: 20–25 hoursBy the end of this course, students will have an understanding of characteristics and functions of virusesand bacteria.VocabularyViruses: antibody, antigen, DNA, host cell, lymphocyte, lysogenic cycle, lytic cycle, membranous envelope,mucous membrane, nucleic acid core, phagocytic white blood cell, primary line of defence, protein capsid,RNA, secondary line of defence, tertiary line of defence, viral specificity, white blood cellMonera: aerobic respiration, antibiotic, antiseptic, bacteria, binary fission, classification, conjugation,disinfectant, ecological role, fermentation, motility, mutate/mutation, photosynthesis, prokaryote,resistant/resistanceKnowledgeViruses• definitions of living vs. non-living• structure of viruses• viral reproduction• effects of viruses on humansMonera• characteristics of prokaryotic cells• structure and function of bacteria• moneran diversity• roles and effects of bacteria• effects of antibacterial agentsSkills and Attitudes• demonstrate proper techniques for handling and disposing of laboratory materials involving bacteria• use personal protective equipment• demonstrate emergency response procedures• demonstrate safe and correct use of a Bunsen burner• observe organisms to recognize common characteristics• communicate results (e.g., using graphs, tables, diagrams, lab reports)• create models (e.g., life cycle of a virus)• conduct experiments (e.g., antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria)• demonstrate ethical, responsible, co-operative behaviour• show respect for living things
  36. 36. Biology 11 and 12 • 37Student Achievement • Suggested Achievement Indicators – Biology 11Prescribed Learning Outcomes Suggested Achievement IndicatorsIt is expected that students will:The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievementfor each corresponding prescribed learning outcome.Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to:VirusesE1 evaluate the evidence used toclassify viruses as living ornon-livingq identify criteria for classifying organisms as livingq describe the basic structure of a virus, including the antigens, themembranous envelope, the protein capsid, and the nucleic acidcore (DNA or RNA)q identify the role of the host cell in viral reproductionq compare the lytic and lysogenic cyclesE2 evaluate the effects of viruseson human healthq define and give examples of viral specificityq describe the body’s basic lines of defence against a viral attack,including– primary line of defence (e.g., skin, mucous membranes, tears)– secondary line of defence (e.g., phagocytic white blood cellsengulf viruses)– tertiary line of defence (e.g., white blood cells calledlymphocytes produce antibodies)q give examples of ways to reduce the spread of viral diseasesKingdom MoneraE3 analyse monerans as alifeform at the prokaryoticlevel of organizationq examine monerans and identify the characteristics thatunify themq use examples to illustrate moneran diversity with respect tothe following:– classification– shape and grouping of cells– motility– ecological role– nutrition (fermentation, aerobic respiration, photosynthesis)– reproduction (binary fission, conjugation)– human diseasesq give examples of the beneficial roles of bacteriaE4 evaluate the effectivenessof various antibiotics,disinfectants, or antisepticson bacterial culturesq conduct an experiment using sterile technique to test the effectsof various antibacterial agents (e.g., antibiotics, disinfectants, andantiseptics) on bacterial culturesq analyse and interpret data from experiments to draw conclusionsabout the effectiveness of particular agents on specific bacteriaq explain how bacteria mutate to become resistant to antibioticsMicrobiology
  37. 37. 38 • Biology 11 and 12Student Achievement • Key Elements – Biology 11Key Elements: Plant BiologyEstimated Time: 20–23 hoursBy the end of this course, students will have an understanding of the increasing complexity of phyla withinthe Kingdom Plantae and the characteristics that place organisms within each phylum.Vocabularyadaptation, alternation of generations, colonial, dicots, enclosed seeds, flowers, fruit, leaves, monocots,multicellular, pollen, roots, seeds, stems, unicellular, vascular tissueKnowledge• trends of increasing complexity in plant lifeforms• characteristics of algae, mosses, ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms• adaptations of plants to a land environmentSkills and Attitudes• observe plants to recognize common characteristics• communicate results (e.g., using graphs, tables, diagrams, lab reports)• create models (e.g., vascular tissue of a plant)• conduct experiments (e.g., plant dissection, water transport in vascular tissue)• demonstrate ethical, responsible, co-operative behaviour• show respect and sensitivity for the environment
  38. 38. Biology 11 and 12 • 39Student Achievement • Suggested Achievement Indicators – Biology 11Prescribed Learning Outcomes Suggested Achievement IndicatorsIt is expected that students will:The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievementfor each corresponding prescribed learning outcome.Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to:F1 analyse how the increasingcomplexity of algae, mosses,and ferns represent anevolutionary continuumof adaptation to a landenvironmentq examine green algae and describe the characteristics thatunify themq use examples of unicellular, colonial, and multicellular greenalgae to illustrate their increasing complexityq examine mosses and describe the characteristics that unify themq examine ferns and describe the characteristics that unify themq describe alternation of generations in algae, mosses, and fernsq describe features of mosses and ferns that have enabledadaptation to a land environmentF2 analyse how the increasingcomplexity of gymnospermsand angiosperms contributeto survival in a landenvironmentq examine gymnosperms and describe the characteristics that unifythemq explain how gymnosperms are adapted for survival in a landenvironment with respect to the following: alternation ofgenerations, roots, stems, leaves, seeds, pollen, vascular tissueq examine angiosperms and describe characteristics that unifythemq use specimens to differentiate between monocots and dicotsq describe how angiosperms are adapted for survival in a landenvironment, with respect to alternation of generations, flowers,pollen, enclosed seeds, fruit, roots, stems, leaves, vascular tissueq compare the ways in which mosses, ferns, gymnosperms, andangiosperms have adapted to a land environmentPlant Biology
  39. 39. 40 • Biology 11 and 12Student Achievement • Key Elements – Biology 11Key Elements: Animal BiologyEstimated Time: 32–35 hoursBy the end of this course, students will have an understanding of the increasing complexity within theKingdom Animalia and the characteristics that place organisms within each phylum.Vocabularyasexual reproduction, cell, cephalization, closed circulatory system, coelom, colonial, fluid feeding,endoskeleton, excretion, exoskeleton, filter feeding, free-living, internal transport, invertebrates, levels oforganization, life functions, medusa, motility, motility/motile, multicellular, niche, open circulatory system,organ, organ system, parasite/parasitic, polyp, reproduction, respiration, response, sessile, sexualreproduction, symmetry, tissue, vertebral columnKnowledge• trends of increasing complexity in animal lifeforms• characteristics of Phylum Porifera, Phylum Cnidaria, Phylum Platyhelminthes, Phylum Nematoda,Phylum Annelida, Phylum Mollusca, Phylum Echinodermata, Phylum Arthropoda, and SubphylumVertebrata (Phylum Chordata)• how animals in each phylum carry out their life functions• ecological significance of various animal phylaSkills and Attitudes• demonstrate proper techniques for handling and disposing of laboratory materials involving preservedspecimens• use personal protective equipment• demonstrate safe and correct dissection technique• observe organisms to recognize common characteristics• communicate results (e.g., using graphs, tables, diagrams, lab reports)• create models (e.g., of a sponge)• conduct experiments (e.g., light sensitivity in planaria)• demonstrate ethical, responsible, co-operative behaviour• show respect for living things
  40. 40. Biology 11 and 12 • 41Student Achievement • Suggested Achievement Indicators – Biology 11Prescribed Learning Outcomes Suggested Achievement IndicatorsIt is expected that students will:The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievementfor each corresponding prescribed learning outcome.Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to:G1 analyse how the increasingcomplexity of animal phylarepresents an evolutionarycontinuumq compare phyla in terms of– levels of organization – cell, tissue, organ, organ system– cephalization– development of a coelom– symmetry– reproductionq describe the life functions animals need to survive, including– feeding– respiration– internal transport– excretion– reproduction– response and motilityq compare the advantages and disadvantages of different waysanimals carry out their life functions (e.g., filter feeding vs. fluidfeeding, parasitic vs. free-living, asexual vs. sexual reproduction,sessile vs. motile)G2 analyse the increasingcomplexity of the PhylumPorifera and the PhylumCnidariaOrganizer ‘Animal Biology’continued on page 42q examine members of the Phylum Porifera and identify theirunifying characteristicsq describe how poriferans carry out their life functionsq examine members of the Phylum Cnidaria and identify theirunifying characteristicsq describe how cnidarians carry out their life functionsq compare polyp and medusa with respect to structure, generalfunction, and motilityq suggest the advantages of a motile form in the life cycle of acnidarianq explain the evolutionary significance of colonial (poriferan)versus multicellular (cnidarian) lifeformsq describe the ecological roles of sponges and cnidariansAnimal Biology
  41. 41. 42 • Biology 11 and 12Prescribed Learning Outcomes Suggested Achievement IndicatorsOrganizer ‘Animal Biology’continued from page 41G3 analyse the increasingcomplexity of the PhylumPlatyhelminthes, the PhylumNematoda, and the PhylumAnnelidaq examine members of the Phylum Platyhelminthes and describetheir unifying characteristicsq describe how platyhelminthes carry out their life functionsq examine members of the Phylum Nematoda and describe theirunifying characteristicsq describe how nematodes carry out their life functionsq examine members of the Phylum Annelida and describe theirunifying characteristicsq describe how annelids carry out their life functionsq describe the physical changes that were necessary for flatwormsand roundworms to become parasiticq evaluate the characteristics of a successful parasiteq describe human disorders that are caused by non-segmentedwormsq compare platyhelminthes, nematodes, and annelids with respectto evolutionary changesq describe the ecological roles of platyhelminthes, nematodes,and annelidsG4 analyse the increasingcomplexity of the PhylumMollusca, the PhylumEchinodermata, and thePhylum Arthropodaq examine members of the Phylum Mollusca and describe theirunifying characteristicsq describe how molluscs carry out their life functionsq examine members of the Phylum Echinodermata and describetheir unifying characteristicsq describe how echinoderms carry out their life functionsq examine members of the Phylum Arthropoda and describe theirunifying characteristicsq describe how arthropods carry out their life functionsq compare how molluscs, echinoderms, and arthropods haveevolved to adapt to different nichesq demonstrate a knowledge of the diverse ecological roles ofmolluscs, echinoderms, and arthropodsG5 relate the complexityof the form and functionof vertebrates to theevolutionary continuumof animalsq examine members of the Subphylum Vertebrata and describetheir unifying characteristicsq compare members of two or more classes of vertebratesq compare the vertebrates and invertebrates in terms of increasingcomplexity, with reference to characteristics including– endoskeleton vs. exoskeleton– presence or absence of vertebral column– closed vs. open circulatory systemq describe the diverse ecological role of vertebratesStudent Achievement • Suggested Achievement Indicators – Biology 11
  42. 42. Student AchievementBiology 12
  43. 43. 44 • Biology 11 and 12Student Achievement • Key Elements – Biology 12Key Elements: Processes of ScienceEstimated Time: integrated throughoutThe prescribed learning outcomes related to Processes of Science support the development of knowledge,skills, and attitudes essential for an understanding of science. These learning outcomes should not betaught in isolation, but should be integrated with activities related to the other curriculum organizers.Vocabularyconclusion, control, control group, controlled variable, dependent variable, electron micrograph,experimental group, experimental variable, independent variable, reliable, repeatable procedure, samplesize, scientific method, testable hypothesisKnowledge• distinguish between independent and dependent variables• distinguish between controlled and experimental variables• distinguish between control group and experimental groupSkills and Attitudes• safe and correct lab technique (e.g., use of dissection and compound microscopes, dissection technique)• applying the scientific method to design and carry out experiments• making inferences and generalizations• interpreting data from a variety of types of sources (e.g., electron micrographs)• drawing conclusions• communicating information and results (e.g., graphs, diagrams, models, formulae)
  44. 44. Biology 11 and 12 • 45Student Achievement • Suggested Achievement Indicators – Biology 12Processes of SciencePrescribed Learning Outcomes Suggested Achievement IndicatorsIt is expected that students will:The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievementfor each corresponding prescribed learning outcome.Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to:A1 demonstrate safe and correcttechnique for a variety oflaboratory proceduresq demonstrate the correct use of a dissection microscopeq demonstrate safe and correct dissection techniqueq demonstrate the correct use of a compound microscopeA2 design an experiment usingthe scientific methodq formulate a testable hypothesis to investigate a scientific problem(e.g., factors affecting enzyme activity, tonicity of various cells)q formulate and carry out a repeatable, controlled procedure to testthe hypothesis:– identify controlled versus experimental variables– identify the independent and dependent variables– use control and experimental groups, as appropriate– use a control as appropriate– use appropriate sample sizeq observe, measure, and record dataq interpret results to draw conclusionsq determine whether the conclusions support or rejectthe hypothesisq determine whether the experiment is reliableq use information and conclusions as a basis for furthercomparisons, investigations, or analysesA3 interpret data from a varietyof text and visual sourcesq use data from a variety of representations (e.g., diagrams,electron micrographs, graphs, photographs) to make inferencesand generalizationsq draw and present conclusions, applying the most appropriatemeans to communicate (e.g., graph, diagram, model, formula,map, visual)
  45. 45. 46 • Biology 11 and 12Student Achievement • Key Elements – Biology 12Key Elements: Cell Biology (Cell Structure)Estimated Time: 5–6 hoursBy the end of this course, students will have an understanding of the structure of cells.Vocabularycell membrane, cell wall, cellular respiration, chloroplast, chromatin, chromosome, cristae, cytoplasm,cytoskeleton, Golgi bodies, lysosome, matrix, mitochondria, nuclear envelope, nuclear pore, nucleolus,nucleus, organelle, polysome, ribosome, rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum,vacuole, vesicleKnowledge• functional inter-relationships of cell structures• how cell compartmentalization assists in the production and distribution of moleculesSkills and Attitudes• demonstrate correct use of a compound microscope• communicate results (e.g., using graphs, tables, diagrams, lab reports)• create models (e.g., of a cell, or an organelle)• demonstrate ethical, responsible, co-operative behaviour
  46. 46. Biology 11 and 12 • 47Student Achievement • Suggested Achievement Indicators – Biology 12Cell Biology (Cell Structure)Prescribed Learning Outcomes Suggested Achievement IndicatorsIt is expected that students will:The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievementfor each corresponding prescribed learning outcome.Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to:B1 analyse the functional inter-relationships of cell structuresq describe the following cell structures and their functions:– cell membrane– cell wall– chloroplast– cytoskeleton– cytoplasm– Golgi bodies– lysosomes– mitochondria – including cristae and matrix– nucleus – including nuclear pore, nucleolus, chromatin,nuclear envelope, and chromosomes– ribosomes (polysomes)– smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum– vacuoles– vesiclesq state the balanced chemical equation for cellular respirationq describe how the following organelles function tocompartmentalize the cell and move materials through it:– rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum– vesicles– Golgi bodies– cell membraneq identify cell structures depicted in diagrams and electronmicrographs
  47. 47. 48 • Biology 11 and 12Student Achievement • Key Elements – Biology 12Key Elements: Cell Biology (Cell Compounds and Biological Molecules)Estimated Time: 7–9 hoursBy the end of this course, students will have an understanding of the structures and function of cellcompounds and biological molecules.Vocabularyacid, acid (carboxyl) group, adenine, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), alpha helix, amine group, amino acid,base, beta pleated sheet, bonding, buffer, carbohydrate, cellulose, complementary base pairing, cytosine,dehydration synthesis, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), deoxyribose, dipeptide, disaccharide, double helix,glucose, glycerol, guanine, glycogen, hemoglobin, hydrogen bonding, hydrolysis, lipid, lubricant, maltose,monomer, monosaccharide, neutral fat, nitrogenous base, nucleic acids, nucleotide, organic, peptide bond,pH, phosphate, phospholipid, polarity, polymer, polypeptide, polysaccharide, primary structure, protein,quaternary structure, R-group, ribonucleic acid (RNA), ribose, saturated fatty acid, secondary structure,solvent, starch, steroid, sugar-phosphate backbone, temperature regulator, tertiary structure, thymine,unsaturated fatty acid, uracilKnowledge• characteristics of water and its role in biological systems• importance of pH and the role of acids, bases, and buffers in biological systems• structure and function of biological molecules in living systems: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, andnucleic acids• dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis• types of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids• empirical formula of a carbohydrateSkills and Attitudes• create molecular models• conduct experiments (e.g., to observe the effects of acids and bases on indicators; to test foods for thepresence of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins)• communicate results (e.g., using graphs, tables, diagrams, lab reports)• demonstrate ethical, responsible, co-operative behaviour
  48. 48. Biology 11 and 12 • 49Student Achievement • Suggested Achievement Indicators – Biology 12Cell Biology (Cell Compounds and Biological Molecules)Prescribed Learning Outcomes Suggested Achievement IndicatorsIt is expected that students will:The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievementfor each corresponding prescribed learning outcome.Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to:B2 describe the characteristicsof water and its role inbiological systemsq describe the role of water as a solvent, temperature regulator,and lubricantq describe how the polarity of the water molecule results inhydrogen bondingB3 describe the role of acids,bases, and buffers inbiological systems inthe human bodySuborganizer ‘Cell Biology (CellCompounds and Biological Molecules)’continued on page 50q differentiate among acids, bases, and buffersq describe the importance of pH to biological systems in thehuman body
  49. 49. 50 • Biology 11 and 12Prescribed Learning Outcomes Suggested Achievement IndicatorsSuborganizer ‘Cell Biology (CellCompounds and Biological Molecules)’continued from page 49B4 analyse the structure andfunction of biologicalmolecules in living systems,including– carbohydrates– lipids– proteins– nucleic acidsSuborganizer ‘Cell Biology (CellCompounds and Biological Molecules),’PLO B4 continued on page 51q demonstrate a knowledge of dehydration synthesis andhydrolysis as applied to organic monomers and polymersq differentiate among carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleicacids with respect to chemical structureq recognize the following molecules in structural diagrams:– adenosine triphosphate (ATP)– deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)– disaccharide– glucose– glycerol– hemoglobin– monosaccharide– neutral fat– phospholipid– polysaccharide (starch, glycogen, and cellulose)– ribose– RNA– saturated and unsaturated fatty acids– steroidsq recognize the empirical formula of a monosaccharide as CnH2nOnq list the main functions of carbohydratesq differentiate among monosaccharides (e.g., glucose),disaccharides (e.g., maltose), and polysaccharidesq differentiate among starch, cellulose, and glycogen with respect to– function– type of bonding– level of branchingq describe the location, structure, and function of the following inthe human body:– neutral fats– steroids– phospholipidsStudent Achievement • Suggested Achievement Indicators – Biology 12
  50. 50. Biology 11 and 12 • 51Student Achievement • Suggested Achievement Indicators – Biology 12Prescribed Learning Outcomes Suggested Achievement IndicatorsSuborganizer ‘Cell Biology (CellCompounds and Biological Molecules),’PLO B4 continued from page 50q compare saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in terms ofmolecular structureq list the major functions of proteinsq draw a generalized amino acid and identify the amine, acid(carboxyl), and R-groupsq identify the peptide bonds in dipeptides and polypeptidesq differentiate among the following levels of protein organizationwith respect to structure and types of bonding:– primary– secondary (alpha helix, beta pleated sheet)– tertiary– quaternary (e.g., hemoglobin)q list the major functions of nucleic acids (RNA and DNA)q name the four nitrogenous bases in ribonucleic acid (RNA) anddescribe the structure of RNA using the following terms:– nucleotide (ribose, phosphate, nitrogenous base, adenine,uracil, cytosine, guanine)– linear, single stranded– sugar-phosphate backboneq name the four nitrogenous bases in DNA and describe thestructure of DNA using the following terms:– nucleotide (deoxyribose, phosphate, nitrogenous base,adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine)– complementary base pairing– double helix– hydrogen bonding– sugar-phosphate backboneq compare the general structural composition of DNA and RNAq relate the general structure of the ATP molecule to its role as the“energy currency” of cells
  51. 51. 52 • Biology 11 and 12Student Achievement • Key Elements – Biology 12Key Elements: Cell Biology (DNA Replication)Estimated Time: 4–5 hoursBy the end of this course, students will have an understanding of the process of DNA replication.Vocabularycomplementary base pairing, DNA helicase, DNA polymerase, nucleotides, recombinant DNA, replication,semi-conservative replicationKnowledge• purpose of DNA replication• site of DNA replication in the cell• semi-conservative DNA replication• recombinant DNASkills and Attitudes• interpret graphs, tables, and diagrams• create models (e.g., of DNA replication)• conduct experiments (e.g., to isolate DNA, to produce recombinant DNA)• demonstrate ethical, responsible, co-operative behaviour
  52. 52. Biology 11 and 12 • 53Student Achievement • Suggested Achievement Indicators – Biology 12Cell Biology (DNA Replication)Prescribed Learning Outcomes Suggested Achievement IndicatorsIt is expected that students will:The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievementfor each corresponding prescribed learning outcome.Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to:B5 describe DNA replication q describe the three steps in the semi–conservative replication ofDNA:– “unzipping” (DNA helicase)– complementary base pairing (DNA polymerase)– joining of adjacent nucleotides (DNA polymerase)q describe the purpose of DNA replicationq identify the site of DNA replication within the cellB6 describe recombinant DNA q define recombinant DNAq describe a minimum of three uses for recombinant DNA
  53. 53. 54 • Biology 11 and 12Student Achievement • Key Elements – Biology 12Key Elements: Cell Biology (Protein Synthesis)Estimated Time: 4–6 hoursBy the end of this course, students will have an understanding of the process of protein synthesis.Vocabularyamino acid, anti-codon, codon, DNA sequence (genetic code), elongation, environmental mutagen, geneticdisorder, initiation, messenger RNA (mRNA), mutation, polypeptide chain, ribosomes, termination,transcription, transfer RNA (tRNA), translationKnowledge• process of protein synthesis• how mutations in DNA affect protein synthesis• mutations causing genetic disordersSkills and Attitudes• interpret tables and diagrams• create models (e.g., protein synthesis or mutation)• demonstrate ethical, responsible, co-operative behaviour
  54. 54. Biology 11 and 12 • 55Student Achievement • Suggested Achievement Indicators – Biology 12Cell Biology (Protein Synthesis)Prescribed Learning Outcomes Suggested Achievement IndicatorsIt is expected that students will:The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievementfor each corresponding prescribed learning outcome.Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to:B7 demonstrate anunderstanding of the processof protein synthesisq identify the roles of DNA, messenger RNA (mRNA), transferRNA (tRNA), and ribosomes in the processes of transcription andtranslation, including initiation, elongation, and terminationq determine the sequence of amino acids coded for by a specificDNA sequence (genetic code), given a table of mRNA codonsq identify the complementary nature of the mRNA codon and thetRNA anti-codonB8 explain how mutations inDNA affect protein synthesisq give examples of two environmental mutagens that can causemutations in humansq use examples to explain how mutations in DNA change thesequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain, and as a resultmay lead to genetic disorders
  55. 55. 56 • Biology 11 and 12Student Achievement • Key Elements – Biology 12Key Elements: Cell Biology (Transport Across Cell Membrane)Estimated Time: 6–7 hoursBy the end of this course, students will have an understanding of the structure and function of cellmembranes.Vocabularyactive transport, carbohydrates, carrier protein, cell membrane, channel protein, cholesterol, concentrationgradient, diffusion, endocytosis, exocytosis, facilitated transport, fluid-mosaic membrane model,glycolipid, glycoprotein, hydrophilic, hydrophobic, hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic, osmosis, passivetransport processes, phagocytosis, phospholipid, phospholipid bilayer, pinocytosis, pressure gradient,protein, selectively permeable, surface area-to-volume ratio, tonicityKnowledge• structure and function of the cell membrane• factors affecting rate of diffusion• transport processes• why cells divide when they reach a particular surface area-to-volume ratioSkills and Attitudes• interpret diagrams, tables, and graphs (e.g., of surface area to volume ratio)• create models (e.g., of cell membrane, compare surface area-to-volume ratio of objects of different sizes)• conduct experiments (e.g., to determine the tonicity of cells, diffusion)• demonstrate ethical, responsible, co-operative behaviour

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