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Transforming Agricultural Education in Southeast Asia to Include Sustainability

SIANI
SIANI

Teodoro Mendoza from the University of Philippines, Los Baños (UPLB) discusses the challenges in incorporating sustainability into agricultural education curriculums in southeast Asia in order to work specifically towards the SDGs.  HESA-SIANI August 2017 Philippines Workshop

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The Challenges of Transforming Higher Agricultural
Education (HAE)
into
Higher Education for Sustainable Agriculture (HESA*) and
Food Systems in the Philippines and Southeast Asia*
*Discussion pointers for the PHILIPPINE ACADEMIC-GOVERNMENT-FARMER-AGENCY
POLICY DIALOGUE on “Achieving SDG’s and the ASEAN Work-Plan on Education,
2016-2020 Through Strengthening Higher Education for Sustainable Agriculture
(HESA) and Food Systems in Southeast Asia” held on August 3, 2017 , at UP Hotel, UP
Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines
Teodoro C. Mendoza
Faculty member, Institute of Crop Science, UPLB-CA
*HESA  HESARD
How should HAE be transformed into
Higher Education for Sustainable
Agriculture (HESA) and Food Systems in
Southeast Asia” to…
help achieve SDG2 & 4 in Achieving
SDG’s and the ASEAN Work-Plan on
Education, 2016-2020
Goal 2-End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
Goal 4-Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
Strength/Weakness of HAE in the
Philippines
Strength
- many people in the Philippines,
12th most populated country in
the world (>3.8 X the ideal carrying
capacity )
- Active education for S/T Science
high school
- DOST scholarships- MSc, PhD
- MANY LAWS RA 7722 (CHED), RA
10068
2,299 institutions of higher education in
the Philippines
>300 CU’s before, ,<200, 131 SCU’s
Weakness -
- low turn out of PhD in S/T ( 100 more or
less, 1000 bar passers)
-Declining enrollment in Agri related fields
-“Brain drain” more than 5,000 S/T
personnel leave for country yearly
(includes medical fields)
- OFW (Overseas Filipino Workers) is the
HUGE source of revenue (26% of GNP)
--HAE is mainly for chemical agriculture
( except-BSU, CBSUA)
-SLOW adoption of OA despite R.A
10068
HIGHER EDUCATION in the Phil.
• 2,299 institutions of higher education in the
Philippines
• 1,643 (71 percent) are in the private sector
• 656 institutions in the public sector,
 547 state universities or colleges,
95 local universities and colleges.
• 2012/13 total post-secondary enrollments
=3.56 million (57 % in private sector)
• 2004 = 2.40 million students in the system.
Nick Clark .2015.Education in the Philippines. World Education News & Reviews
(Originally published July 2015; updated June 2016)
.http://wenr.wes.org/2015/06/education-philippines
Improving government policies/public
investment in HAE
• Philippine has more than 30,000 laws
Clean Air Act Zerowaste/Ecological/Solid Waste Mgt. Act, Climate
Change Act, Renewable Energy Act, Higher Education Act (RA7722)
Need: Implementation, monitoring; Coherence and integration
Filipino love technologies/gadgets.
Dr. R. Lantican assessment of technology Technology index (Ti)
USA Ti = 100, Japan Ti=87; Philippines Ti = 0.3
Agri + Food systems need equipment, tools, machine , hauling
trucks, ships, trains etc.
Philippine Agriculture and Fisheries Mechanization Act (PhilMech)
-no budget in the law
“Technology users – not developers/manufacturers”
Invest more on S/T G.E.R.D (Gross Expense on Research and
Development)Singapore – 3.7%; S. Korea = 3.4%,USA = 2.7; Philippines =
End hunger, achieve food security (SDG2) is
related to quality education (SDG4)
- Affected by resource base (land, water,
technology, population)
- Education and culture
Societal transformation from …..
food eating culture to- planting culture
Not the responsibility of the govt. to feed people directly…
The govt. role is to put in place the enabling environment+ infrastructure (
physical, human/social )

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Transforming Agricultural Education in Southeast Asia to Include Sustainability

  • 1. The Challenges of Transforming Higher Agricultural Education (HAE) into Higher Education for Sustainable Agriculture (HESA*) and Food Systems in the Philippines and Southeast Asia* *Discussion pointers for the PHILIPPINE ACADEMIC-GOVERNMENT-FARMER-AGENCY POLICY DIALOGUE on “Achieving SDG’s and the ASEAN Work-Plan on Education, 2016-2020 Through Strengthening Higher Education for Sustainable Agriculture (HESA) and Food Systems in Southeast Asia” held on August 3, 2017 , at UP Hotel, UP Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines Teodoro C. Mendoza Faculty member, Institute of Crop Science, UPLB-CA *HESA  HESARD
  • 2. How should HAE be transformed into Higher Education for Sustainable Agriculture (HESA) and Food Systems in Southeast Asia” to… help achieve SDG2 & 4 in Achieving SDG’s and the ASEAN Work-Plan on Education, 2016-2020 Goal 2-End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture Goal 4-Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
  • 3. Strength/Weakness of HAE in the Philippines Strength - many people in the Philippines, 12th most populated country in the world (>3.8 X the ideal carrying capacity ) - Active education for S/T Science high school - DOST scholarships- MSc, PhD - MANY LAWS RA 7722 (CHED), RA 10068 2,299 institutions of higher education in the Philippines >300 CU’s before, ,<200, 131 SCU’s Weakness - - low turn out of PhD in S/T ( 100 more or less, 1000 bar passers) -Declining enrollment in Agri related fields -“Brain drain” more than 5,000 S/T personnel leave for country yearly (includes medical fields) - OFW (Overseas Filipino Workers) is the HUGE source of revenue (26% of GNP) --HAE is mainly for chemical agriculture ( except-BSU, CBSUA) -SLOW adoption of OA despite R.A 10068
  • 4. HIGHER EDUCATION in the Phil. • 2,299 institutions of higher education in the Philippines • 1,643 (71 percent) are in the private sector • 656 institutions in the public sector,  547 state universities or colleges, 95 local universities and colleges. • 2012/13 total post-secondary enrollments =3.56 million (57 % in private sector) • 2004 = 2.40 million students in the system. Nick Clark .2015.Education in the Philippines. World Education News & Reviews (Originally published July 2015; updated June 2016) .http://wenr.wes.org/2015/06/education-philippines
  • 5. Improving government policies/public investment in HAE • Philippine has more than 30,000 laws Clean Air Act Zerowaste/Ecological/Solid Waste Mgt. Act, Climate Change Act, Renewable Energy Act, Higher Education Act (RA7722) Need: Implementation, monitoring; Coherence and integration Filipino love technologies/gadgets. Dr. R. Lantican assessment of technology Technology index (Ti) USA Ti = 100, Japan Ti=87; Philippines Ti = 0.3 Agri + Food systems need equipment, tools, machine , hauling trucks, ships, trains etc. Philippine Agriculture and Fisheries Mechanization Act (PhilMech) -no budget in the law “Technology users – not developers/manufacturers” Invest more on S/T G.E.R.D (Gross Expense on Research and Development)Singapore – 3.7%; S. Korea = 3.4%,USA = 2.7; Philippines =
  • 6. End hunger, achieve food security (SDG2) is related to quality education (SDG4) - Affected by resource base (land, water, technology, population) - Education and culture Societal transformation from ….. food eating culture to- planting culture Not the responsibility of the govt. to feed people directly… The govt. role is to put in place the enabling environment+ infrastructure ( physical, human/social )
  • 7. Education Governance Population Budget … economic status/level of economic development- --- resource distribution/allocation (priorities ) GOVERNANCE-- National Leaderships/Local Government Units Interrelationships of Education, Governance & Population In relation to SDG4 and SDG2 Economic situation of households*- richer households get quality educ. * BERSALES . L.G.(2017)
  • 8. Education budget by Year in PhP • 2012 = 207.2 billion • 2013 =293.4 billion • 2014 =336.9 billion • 2017 =543.2 billion • 2018 =691.15 billion Adj.PhP649.17* % of GDP GDP 3.307% 16.4215Trillion 3.95% 17.453 Trillion PROJECTED 2017- 1USD=PhP47.41* 2018- 1USD=PhP50.63 UNESCO recommends 6% of GDP for education
  • 9. How can HAE be transformed into HESA & Food Systems to address SDG2 &4 HAE to HESARD – trilogy of functions of Higher Education- instruction, research and extension… PRODUCTION Agriculture Curriculum changes- BSU – BSA major in Organic Agriculture CBSAU – BSA? UPLB – Specific courses 1. Introduction to Physiological Agriculture (CHED mandated all SCU’S to offer this course) 2. Advanced Ecological Agriculture 3. Organic Horticulture
  • 10. The BSSA Universe* (short of Steiner’s biodynamic farming cosmology) *Serrano,2009 Energy* *Mendoza, TC.2017
  • 11. Many researcher/researchers are into Organic Agric. (RA 10068 – 1B) funding for O.A IS AVAILABLE 5 decades of OA advocacy— 50,000 OA practitioners 50,000 hectares  from demo-farms to – farmers farm difficult to expand :OA is difficult agriculture, need to address production (supply chain) to consumption (demand) “ value chain”
  • 12. Extension Extension Roles of Partners / Goals/Objective Inputs Agents (EA’s)/ EA/F Clientelle Outcome Facilitators Technologies LGU/DA Farmers Rural/Agricultural (Fig.2) DTI Group/ development Systems, DOST Organization/ improve farm Practices Cooperative productivity Process/ Academe increase income Procedures, (SUC’s) develop/enhance improve livelihood Detailed steps Training/ their skills, capability capability/bldg. …. Knowledge improve Technical on general principles, living standard/ advicing specific practices QOL (quality of life) The Agro-Industry Extension Framework ( Mendoza, Binoya, Cardenas,2017)
  • 13. Technology generation Validation Dissemination/ Research refinements/ Large scale application Optimization National Program Implementation Basic Applied (Academe (SUC) Knowing the Infrastructure (physical) (DA, DTI, DOST requirements Capability building/training FIIS- (Filipino knowledge ,skills Capital/ credit Inventors, innovators materials , facilities, Society), Private financial/market inputs, Corporation) ROI, IRR tools, equipment, impacts : machineries income, energy, carbon emission (TA-Technology Assessment- technical, economic, environmental, energetics) Fig. 2. The Technology Continuum TECHNOLOGY CONTINUUM
  • 14. ASEAN collaboration is imperative - Funding agencies should influence HAE to be transfomed to HESA ( RD)  through their scholarship ..providing “Scholarships grant for HESA – Organic Agric. Influence curriculum changes/institution of courses/degree programs ( Change is oftentimes FUND driven… or we allow nature too… “ If there are students, the teacher will come”. - Learner – centered, demand-centered education (pedagogy of education, the other is teacher-centered)
  • 15. BUDGET  Education Budget--- adopt UNESCO suggestion -- 6% of GDP  S/T budget should be increased , above 1% of GDP (for hardwares/ logistics support for HESA) RELATED TO humWARE & hardWARE/softWARE  “we put our money--- where our mouth is !”…. RESOURCE ALLOCATION..
  • 17. References BERSALES . L.G.2017.Farmers, Fishermen and Children consistently posted the highest poverty incidence among basic sectors .https://psa.gov.ph/poverty-press-releases Released Date: Friday, June 30, 2017 Clark ,N.2015.Education in the Philippines. World Education News & Reviews (Originally published July 2015; updated June 2016) .http://wenr.wes.org/2015/06/education-philippines Mendoza, TC.2013. Gross Expenses on R&D (GERD) and S/T status of the Philippines & selected countries. Discussions/forum with the members of the FILIPINO INVENTORS Society, ATI Bldg.Quezon City , January 26, 2013 . Mendoza, Teodoro, C. Cely S. Binoya and Virginia Cardenas (2017). “Mapping and Assessing University Based Farmer Extension Services in the Philippines through Agro-Ecological Organic Lens” In Nelles, Wayne, Ed. (2017). “Mapping and Assessing University-based Farmer Extension Services in ASEAN through an Agro-ecological/Organic Lens: Proceedings of a Regional Symposium, 23 Feb 2017 Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Bangkok: ASEAN Studies Center, CU, ISBN: 978-616-407-152-0, pp. 94-107. Mendoza, Teodoro, Cely S. Binoya, Lolita Colting, Ma. Cristeta Cuaresma, Nova Ramos, Lutgarda Tolintino, Carolina Santillana, Santiago Utzurrum, Joy Jamago, Danilo Jusue, Otinggue Masner, Berta Ratilla, Nestor Baguinon, Pablito M. Villegas, Abner T. Montecalvo, Edgar M Libetario, Fidela P Bongat, and Frank A Hilario (March 2016). Higher Education for Sustainable Agriculture: Working for food and nutrition security in the Philippines. Stockholm: SIANI Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Mendoza, TC. 2017. Value Chain Approach in Reducing the Energy Bill of Food. Discussed during the CE SAIN Lecture Series sponsored by Center of Excellence on Sustainable Agricultural Intensification and Nutrition : Transforming Agri-Food Systems on July 20,2017,at Royal University of Agriculture,Phnom Penh, CAMBODIA Serrano, I.2009. Who is our BSA Graduate. A presentation at the UP Los Baños College of Agriculture Planning Workshop to review the curriculum of Bachelor of Science in Agriculture (BSA),Calauan, Laguna,April 16, 2009