Tools For Information Processes


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Tools For Information Processes

  1. 1. Tools for Information processes 11 IPT
  2. 2. The seven processes <ul><li>These are the processes that can be found in any information system that can transfer the raw data into useful information. Some systems focus more on one or two of the process but you can always find all of them there. </li></ul>
  3. 3. COLLECT <ul><li>The process by which data is entered into or captured by a computer: </li></ul><ul><li>Decide the data provided </li></ul><ul><li>Where does the data come from </li></ul><ul><li>How is it encoded (entry into the system) </li></ul>
  4. 4. ORGANISE <ul><li>The process by which data is formatted by use for other processes </li></ul>
  5. 5. ANALYSE <ul><li>The process by which data is interpreted or summarized to make it easier to use </li></ul><ul><li>Sort </li></ul><ul><li>Table </li></ul><ul><li>Query it </li></ul><ul><li>Charts/graphs </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling/simulation </li></ul><ul><li>File comparisons </li></ul><ul><li>What-if processing </li></ul>
  6. 6. STORE/RETRIEVING <ul><li>The process by which data is saved for later use: </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Server </li></ul><ul><li>Internet (virtually) </li></ul><ul><li>USB </li></ul><ul><li>DVD </li></ul><ul><li>Backup </li></ul>
  7. 7. PROCESS <ul><li>The procedure that manipulates/changes data to produce a new value/result. </li></ul><ul><li>Calculation of the total </li></ul><ul><li>Compression </li></ul><ul><li>Documents </li></ul><ul><li>Video/audio </li></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul>
  8. 8. OUTPUT (TRANSMITTING AND RECEIVING) <ul><li>A process that transfers data between systems </li></ul>
  9. 9. DISPLAY <ul><li>The process by which the information is formatted for presentation to the user </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Seven Processes <ul><li>In general, whenever we discuss any of these processes, we should focus on: </li></ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware/software </li></ul><ul><li>Participant </li></ul><ul><li>How is it entered </li></ul><ul><li>Any social/ethical issues – privacy/copyright </li></ul>
  11. 11. Collecting <ul><li>Keyboard Layouts </li></ul><ul><li>Layout of keys on keyboard can affect stress on hand when typing. </li></ul><ul><li>QWERTY – This is the layout used by the first typist in the late 1800’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Made to: </li></ul><ul><li>Slow typists down </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent key jams </li></ul><ul><li>Keys were designed for the slowest possible entry. Unfortunately today, we still use the same keyboard layout </li></ul><ul><li>DVORAK – Mr. Dvorak put the most common keys on the home row to reduce stress on the hand when typing. Although this design was chosen to reduce muscular strain, it results in dramatic improvements in speed. Although this would be better if it were used universally, there is too much investment in QWERTY keyboards. </li></ul><ul><li>MALTRON – the design of the MALTRON keyboard puts the common keys under the strongest fingers. This reduces both hand strain and increases typing speed. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Collecting continued… <ul><li>Clearly the aim is to reduce stress and strain on the person. This can also be helped through a regular work routine: </li></ul><ul><li>Work routine should be varied throughout the day with a change approx. every hour </li></ul><ul><li>Take a 5 minute break every hour, and then focus on something at a different distance. Roll shoulders to reduce strain on back. Get up and walk around </li></ul>
  13. 13. Collecting continued… <ul><li>Text: </li></ul><ul><li>Keyboard – 2 types </li></ul><ul><li>Full Travel Keyboard is the standard keyboard. </li></ul><ul><li>Adv: </li></ul><ul><li>Audible spring and feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Concave springs </li></ul><ul><li>Keys F,J and 5 have a dot for correct typing when touch typing </li></ul><ul><li>Easily replaced </li></ul><ul><li>Disadv: </li></ul><ul><li>Slower </li></ul><ul><li>Not as ergonomic </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid can damage circuit </li></ul><ul><li>More expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to destroy/vandalize </li></ul>
  14. 14. Collecting cont… <ul><li>Membrane Keyboard is a single flat surface with no moving parts </li></ul><ul><li>Adv: </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to make </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to clean </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to maintain </li></ul><ul><li>Disadv: </li></ul><ul><li>No feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Poor ergonomics </li></ul><ul><li>Harder to be accurate </li></ul><ul><li>Slower </li></ul>
  15. 15. Collecting text cont… <ul><li>Regardless of construction underneath the keys, there must be a grid of wires which is used to identify which circuit has been broken and therefore which key has been pressed. It then translates the ASCII value and sends it to the CPU </li></ul><ul><li>GROUPS OF KEYS: </li></ul><ul><li>Alphabetic keys – Qwerty, Maltron, Dvorak layout </li></ul><ul><li>Numeric keys – ergonomically more appropriate, especially when keypad is detachable. Rays on 5. Helps locate the hand correctly </li></ul><ul><li>Function keys – usually on the top row. Special keys based on the software performpre-programmed set of steps (shortcut) depending on the function used. Some keys have standard functions regardless of the program. Any programmer can assign any function to any key. They merely need to know the ASCII value generated by the keys to write the code. Ergonomically better. </li></ul><ul><li>Cursor movement keys – this includes arrow keys, pg up, pg down, esc, del. Pressing the insert key toggles between insert and overwrite. </li></ul><ul><li>Control keys – have a specific function. Tab, esc, shift, caps loc, enter. A number of these control keys are used in combination with other keys to generate a different ASCII value - > E.g. Alt + F4 and Ctrl + Alt + Delete </li></ul>
  16. 16. Collecting cont… <ul><li>MOUSE </li></ul><ul><li>Ball based mouse – this mouse consisted of two sensors at right angle and one at a stabilizing section. Each sensor senses movement in a specific direction. The amount of movement in each direction is sent along in binary format to the CPU. This allows the operating system to use the information to move the cursor along the screen and respond appropriately to the clicks. Right clicking can select/deselect, open/close, scroll, highlight or drag. </li></ul><ul><li>Optical mouse – a red laser is used to reflect off the surface of which it is used. It has tiny imperfections from the surface to calculate how far it has moved in each direction. ADV: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less moving parts (easy to clean) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harder to break </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More accurate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheaper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The nature of transmitted data is the same as the older mouse. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Collecting conti…. <ul><li>POINTING DEVICES </li></ul><ul><li>Track ball – works as an upside down mouse. The user moves the ball with their finger. Ergonomically better. </li></ul><ul><li>Track point – further development of the track ball on a laptop. Same functions but smaller. </li></ul><ul><li>Track pads – another alternative which measures movement of a finger on a pad </li></ul><ul><li>Stylus – this type of pen works by detecting pressure on the screen. It has a grid of metal wires underneath to detect x and y co-ordinates. </li></ul><ul><li>Scroll wheel – special purpose button used only for pg up and pg down functions and zooming in/out. </li></ul><ul><li>Click wheel (iPod) – emerging technology that has proved to be highly effective. </li></ul><ul><li>Regardless of the specifics of the actual device used, there must be a driver. This is a piece of software whose job It is to decode the incoming data and process it appropriately to perform the desired function. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Collecting conti… <ul><li>Graphics Tablet </li></ul><ul><li>This is a light flat panel which we write on with a special stylus. Underneath the surface is a grid of wires which can identify by pressure or by changes in voltage, the “marks” being made on the tablet. The tighter the grid, the better the resolution and the more precision there will be when we transfer the shape to the CPU. For text input there must be OCR software </li></ul>
  19. 19. Collecting continued…. <ul><li>Hardware Devices for Collecting </li></ul><ul><li>Road Sensing Devices – these are devices which detect pressure in pressure and which are placed just under the road. Using these devices, it is easy to detect the number of people driving over it. These can be used to sense traffic patterns or to direct the operation of traffic lights. This is stored as numeric data. </li></ul><ul><li>Biometric Devices – these are increasingly popular and allow us to scan images of finger prints, eyes, face patterns, voice recognition, palm print, etc. the data stored is a bitmap which can be compared to valid bitmaps stored on file. Biometrics can be used for authentication or much less commonly for identification. Increasingly, as CPU processing power increases, identification will be used more. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Collecting continued…. <ul><li>Input of Numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Numeric keypad – as individual keys are pressed, the equivalent ASCII value is transferred. If numbers are input into a numeric field, they are automatically converted to their 16 bid binary equivalent. This means the maximum binary value is 32767 </li></ul><ul><li>Barcode reader – numbers consist of a unique combination of thin, medium and think black and white lines. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Collecting continued…. <ul><li>Smart card – physically the same size as a magnetic card but it allows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>256Kb of stored information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy ability to update information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It utilizes the same form of memory as on the SIM card at home. As the card is used in various transactions, the transaction details can be recorded on the card. The data stored can include data, time and location as wells the amount. </li></ul><ul><li>Adv: </li></ul><ul><li>Transactions can be tracked </li></ul><ul><li>Can store up to 256Kb of information </li></ul><ul><li>Disadv: </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy implications if card is lost. This is why not many companies use a smart card. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Collecting continued….. <ul><li>Phone handset – specific transactions allow data to be paid for over your phone keypad. These phone information systems are losing popularity because they are machine centered, not human centered. Human centered is suited to the human way of thinking (easy to use, not frustrating). Machine centered is designed because it can be done technically, but without human regard. </li></ul><ul><li>Adv: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always/easily available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone can use them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadv </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only numeric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple key pressed for texted </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Collecting continued… <ul><li>Optical Mark Sensing – selected circles filled in with graphite pencil/pen. We choose one from a number of possible choices and it measures the amount of light reflected of each defined area. </li></ul><ul><li>Adv: </li></ul><ul><li>No special technology </li></ul><ul><li>Primary source (no bias) </li></ul><ul><li>Dis: </li></ul><ul><li>Sheets must still be scanned </li></ul>
  24. 24. Collecting continued… <ul><li>MICR (Magnetic ink character recognition) – special characters are printed using magnetic ink. Each numeric digit has its own unique magnetic field by measuring the magnetic field of each character. We can identify the equivalent of each digit. Commonly used on the bottom of passports/cheques. </li></ul><ul><li>The data encoded at the bottom of a cheque includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Cheque number </li></ul><ul><li>BSB number </li></ul><ul><li>Account Number </li></ul>
  25. 25. Collecting continued… <ul><li>RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) – is used in an increasing number of businesses. Technology used in e-tags. Each tag transmits at a unique frequency. When the transmitting device is detected by the RFID reader, it can be and verify the ID of the transmitting task. </li></ul>