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Innovation Flow Shankar - TRIZ

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Innovation Flow describes the Science of flowing Ideas & Inventions into Technology Innovations. This is the second part of the talk that I gave to Scientists & Technologists at the National Chemical ...

Innovation Flow describes the Science of flowing Ideas & Inventions into Technology Innovations. This is the second part of the talk that I gave to Scientists & Technologists at the National Chemical Laboratory, Pune on 27 August 2009. I explain TRIZ-based Innovative Problem Solving here. Examples are from the domains of Solid State Lighting and Nanotechnology.

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Innovation Flow Shankar - TRIZ Innovation Flow Shankar - TRIZ Presentation Transcript

  • !nnovation flow the Science of flowing ideas and Inventions into Innovation Shankar MV 27 August, Pune
  • 8/29/2009Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 2
  • Hi, I’m Shankar • Physicist turned Materials Scientist • Now Principal Scientist at Dow R&D, Pune • Earlier, GE R&D – 8 Yrs, Materials Innovation • Patented Inventions, New Products • Innovation Facilitator - TRIZ Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 3
  • Innovation by standing on the shoulders of Giants TRIZ None of us is as good as all of us Someone somewhere has already solved a problem similar to yours Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 4
  • TRIZ (pronounced “trees”) Russian: Теория решения изобретательских задач (Teoriya Resheniya Izobretatelskikh Zadatch) "The theory of solving inventor's problems“ • a systematic problem-solving methodology based on collective inventive knowledge • Altshuller et al (1948 – 1998) studied patented inventions and identified recurrent principles and patterns characterizing inventive thinking 8/29/2009Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 5
  • My TRIZ experience:
  • Problem Solving Specific Vs Generic Specific Problem Specific Solution x2 -9x + 20 = 0 X = 4, 5 Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 7
  • TRIZ Approach World’s Best World’s Best Generic Generic TRIZ Ideas Ideas Problems Problems solving similar solving similar similar to mine similar to mine Imagination Play problems problems Altshuller Problem Solve by Analysis Analogy My Specific My Specific My Specific My Specific Problem Problem Solution Solution Knowledge Play Teoriya Resheniya Izobreatatelskikh Zadatch Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 8
  • 20 Distillation of Inventive Knowledge Pa 0,0 te 00 nt + s Level 4 Level 3 Invention outside Invention inside Paradigm 40 n ti ts In ten Paradigm Discovery ,00 ve ve Pa 0 Level 1 1 Level Apparent Solution Apparent Solution Level 2 Improvement TRIZ 5 Levels of Invention Source: TRIZ Levels of Invention - Altshuller Image source: officesearchtoronto.com/.../ Image source: www.ppalliance.co.uk/contact.html
  • Extraction of Inventive Solutions 1482 Fundamental Technical Problems G.S. Altshuller TRIZ Contradiction Matrix 40 Inventive Principles
  • Mantra for !nnovation flow Focus Escape Move & Align Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 11
  • !nnovation flow Focus Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 12
  • Define the Problem Focus in a way that does not entrap the problem solver in Psychological Inertia Question the Problem Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 13
  • Who is not Who is not NOT (5W+1H) What is not What is not Affected ? Affected ? the Problem? the Problem? How is How is When is When is it not? it not? it not? it not? Why is it not? Why is it not? Where is not Where is not Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune a problem? a problem? 14
  • Evolution of Lighting Technology P LED e nt hi te m W v iro Luminous Efficacy En Illumination Quality (CRI) p Cost per Lumen L am Lamp Life t cen Environmental Impact y es r nc uo ffi cie F l E b B ul Luminescent Phosphor t c en s nde ca In Tungsten Filament Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune Time 15
  • Incandescent Bulb Fluorescent Lamp White LED Solid state What is the Problem ? Low Efficiency (10%) Mercury - Environment High Cost What is not the Low cost (10 Rs) Efficiency Long Life (50-100,000h) Problem ? When is it a Problem ? While using Disposal Manufacturing When is it not a Disposal Use Disposal / Use Problem ? Where is it a Problem ? Energy poor countries Green Countries Poor Countries Where is it not a Surplus / Cheap Energy Safe disposal -Recycling Technology driven, Problem ? technology available Rich Countries Who is affected ? Energy buyer Residents near land fills Mfrs of CFL, Bulbs Who is not affected ? Off the Grid Vast uninhabitable land Leaders in Semiconductor devices Why is it a Problem ? Black Body Radn – Phosphor - Energy Device performance visible spectra at high T down conversion sensitive to contaminants Why is it not a No Mercury 2-3 X more eff than Robust, No Hg Problem? bulbs How is it a Problem ? Depleting fossil fuels Mercury has highest eff Semiconductor device mfg needs fab How is it not a High CRI – close to Sun Scope exists for Hg-free Clean & Green 8/29/2009Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 16 Problem? light discharges
  • Focus The Kingdom was lost because a nail was missing # 1. Why was the Kingdom lost? Question # 2. Why was the battle lost ? the # 3. Why could not the soldier fight well ? Problem # 4. Why was the Horse lost ? # 5. Why did the horse lose its shoe ? Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 17
  • What is the Real Problem to be addressed ? Broader Problem Why do I want to solve this problem ? Original Problem (Start here) What’s stopping me from solving this Problem ? Narrower Problem Ref - Shankar, 27 Aug'09 Hands on Systematic Innovation – Darrellflow at NCL, Pune !nnovation Mann 18
  • Focus 9 Windows of Opportunity Super- System System Look at all the Zones Sub- System Past Present Future Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 19
  • Super-System System System as it is Today Sub-System Past Present Future 8/29/2009Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 20
  • Photo electro chemical Solar Cell Nanostructured Dye-sensitized Light Glass TCO Absorbed dye with TiO2 10 – 20 µm I- I3- Electrolyte I- I3- TCO / Pt Glass
  • Nano Solar Energy Converter • Identify Elements of the System Heat Useful Function • Plot TRIZ Function Map Harmful Function
  • Elements Interaction Matrix Useful Function Harmful Function Sun Glas TCO Dye Nano Electrolyte Counter s TiO2 electrode Sun Sends Excites Evaporates photon s to Glass Supports TCO Dye e-recom Transfers electrons Nano TiO2 Transfers electron Electrolyte corrodes Tranfers electron Counter Complet es circuit electrode
  • Resolve Technical Contradictions What is to be What is holding us Element Present What is desired? improved? back? High transmittivity & TCO ITO electrical conductivity Light transmittivity low conductivity loss in transmittivity Electrical conductivity due to light scattering Organic Light harvester molecules absorb entire spectrum Aggregation, selective (Dye) (Ru-based) of incident radiation # Absorbed photons absorption convert all absorbed photon energy into excitons # Excitons generated Recombination Nanoporous conduct electron away Transfer of e from dye photoelectrode Nano TiO2 immediately Electron mobility to TiO2 Iodine based conduct hole away Hole mobility (liquid Electrolyte redox couple immediately electrolyte) volatility, leakage supply electrons Chemical stability, Counter Pt on continuously, not react electron donating corrosive nature of electrode glass/TCO with electrolytes ability electrolytes and cost
  • Focus Ideality Implementation-free approach IFR Begin with Today Time the End in Mind Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 25
  • Problem: Cleaning the exterior of the windows of tall buildings Ideality = Cleaning / ( Injury + Cost ) • IFR -1 Introduce an element that will clean the exterior from inside – without complicating the design • IFR-2 No new substance or parts System itself will do the useful function • IFR-3 Zone of Contradiction itself performs the function Source: Kraev’s Korner – System Ideality, TRIZ Journal http://www.triz-journal.com/archives/2007/02/08/
  • IFR – 1 IFR – 2 IFR – 3 Cleaning Sliding Self-Cleaning Tool Windows Glass with a Magnet with a cleaning Nano Titania brush Pilkington Active UV TiO2
  • Portable Water Filter Shankar, 20 July 09 Innovation Flow at ARAI, Pune 28 http://www.vestergaard-frandsen.com/lifestraw-introduction.htm
  • Solving an Invisible Problem Shankar, 20 July 09 Adaptive Eyeware Innovation Flow at ARAI, Pune 29 http://hubpages.com/hub/INNOVATIVE-SPECTACLES
  • !nnovation flow Ask Questions Look at all the Zones Focus Begin with the End in Mind Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 30
  • Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 31
  • !nnovation flow Escape & Align Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 32
  • Escape & Align Brainstorming (Osborn, 1948) • Focus on Idea Quantity • No Criticism • Build on other Ideas • Crazy Ideas OK • But BS is not easy always: Think Out- of-the-Box Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 33
  • Roger Sperry (Nobel Laurete 1981) http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1981/sper ry-lecture.html Left – Logical Right – Creative Right Brain Thinking: Drawing on the right side of the Brain – Betty Edwards. A Whole new Mind – Why Right Brain Thinkers will Rule the Future - Dan Pink 8/29/2009Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 34
  • Solving the Nine Dots Puzzle Think out-of-the-Box
  • Systematic Approach to Out-of-the-box Ideas Ideal Final Result Evolution Trends Super-system System Sub-system 5 Whys Past Present Future Shankar, 20 July 09 Innovation Flow at ARAI, Pune 36
  • IFR Lamp Super- System System Sub- System Past Present Future Electron – Photon Interactions
  • Divergent Thinking Same Noun, Same Verb Same Noun, Different Verb Write, Pencil Pencil, Write Pointer Drum stick Missile Lubricator, Electrical connector, Different Noun, Same Verb Different Noun, Different Verb Pen, Write Its not a Pencil, It doesn’t Write Marker Chalk Phone - Voice message Coal, brick, .. Email Finger Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 38
  • Innovators Vs Inventors Shankar.M.V 39
  • Escape & Align Grow Ideas into Solutions Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 40
  • Escape & Align Align Solutions to Problems Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 41
  • TRIZ Approach World’s Best World’s Best Generic Generic TRIZ Ideas Ideas Problems Problems solving similar solving similar similar to mine similar to mine Imagination Play problems problems Altshuller Problem Solve by Analysis Analogy My Specific My Specific My Specific My Specific Problem Problem Solution Solution Knowledge Play Teoriya Resheniya Izobreatatelskikh Zadatch Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 42
  • Imaginatively Generalizing the Problem Generic Generic Problems Problems similar to mine similar to mine Imagination Problem Analysis My Specific My Specific Problem Problem Knowledge Idea in brief Shankar, 20 July 09 Innovation Flow at ARAI, Pune 43
  • TRIZ Engineering Parameters 1. Weight of moving object 15. Durability of moving object 29. Accuracy of manufacturing 2. Weight of nonmoving 16. Durability of nonmoving 30. Harmful factors acting on object object object 3. Length of moving object 17. Temperature 31. Harmful side effects 4. Length of nonmoving 18. Brightness 32. Manufacturability object 19. Energy spent by moving 33. Convenience of use 5. Area of moving object object 34. Repairability 6. Area of nonmoving object 20. Energy spent by nonmoving 35. Adaptability object 7. Volume of moving object 36. Complexity of device 21. Power 8. Volume of nonmoving 37. Complexity of control object 22. Waste of energy 38. Level of automation 9. Speed 23. Waste of substance 39. Productivity 10. Force 24. Loss of information 11. Tension, pressure, stress 25. Waste of time 12. Shape 26. Amount of substance 13. Stability of object 27. Reliability 14. Strength 28. Accuracy of measurement
  • To solve an Inventive TRIZ Problem, Contradiction Inventor needs to find & remove Contradictions. The TRIZ technical contradiction is that when Parameter A is improved, Parameter B worsens.
  • Identify which Parameter is improving Fundamental and which parameter is worsening as a result? Technical Problems 1482 ( 39 X 38 )
  • Distilled Knowledge on Inventive Ideas World’s Best World’s Best Generic Generic TRIZ Ideas Ideas Problems Problems solving similar solving similar similar to mine similar to mine problems problems Imagination Knowledge Idea in brief Shankar, 20 July 09 Innovation Flow at ARAI, Pune 47
  • TRIZ Inventive Principles 1. Segmentation 15. Dynamics 29. Pneumatics and hydraulics 2. Taking out 16. Partial or excessive actions 30. Flexible shells and thin films 3. Local quality 17. Another dimension 31. Porous materials 4. Asymmetry 18. Mechanical vibration 32. Color changes 5. Merging 19. Periodic action 33. Homogeneity . 6. Universality 20. Continuity of useful action 34. Discarding and recovering 7. "Nested doll" 21. Skipping 35. Parameter changes 8. Anti-weight 22. "Turn Lemons into Lemonade" 36. Phase transitions 9. Preliminary anti-action 23. Feedback 37. Thermal expansion 10. Preliminary action 24. 'Intermediary' 38. Strong oxidants 11. Beforehand cushioning 25. Self-service 39. Inert atmosphere 12. Equipotentiality 26. Copying 40. Composite materials 13. 'The other way round' 27. Cheap short-living objects 14. Spheroidality - Curvature 28 Mechanics substitution
  • TRIZ for the Sly Fox TRIZ Principle # 17 Another Dimension TRIZ Principle # 24 Intermediary Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 49
  • TRIZ Contradiction Matrix
  • TRIZ Inventive Principles 1. Segmentation 15. Dynamics 29. Pneumatics and hydraulics 2. Taking out 16. Partial or excessive actions 30. Flexible shells and thin films 3. Local quality 17. Another dimension 31. Porous materials 4. Asymmetry 18. Mechanical vibration 32. Color changes 5. Merging 19. Periodic action 33. Homogeneity . 6. Universality 20. Continuity of useful action 34. Discarding and recovering 7. "Nested doll" 21. Skipping 35. Parameter changes 8. Anti-weight 22. "Turn Lemons into Lemonade" 36. Phase transitions 9. Preliminary anti-action 23. Feedback 37. Thermal expansion 10. Preliminary action 24. 'Intermediary' 38. Strong oxidants 11. Beforehand cushioning 25. Self-service 39. Inert atmosphere 12. Equipotentiality 26. Copying 40. Composite materials 13. 'The other way round' 27. Cheap short-living objects 14. Spheroidality - Curvature 28 Mechanics substitution
  • Evolution of TRIZ 1947 200,000 + Patents 5 Levels of Invention Genrikh Saulovich Altshuller 40,000 Inventive Patents 1926-98 39 TRIZ Parameters TRIZ 1482 Technical Problems TRIZ Contradiction Matrix TRIZ Evolution Essence of Potential 1956-1971 1979 Inventive 40 Inventive Laws of technical system Principles Evolution Knowledge
  • New Refueling system Extra sales 1.5 Bn $ 130 MM $ sales 1st Yr 45% market share New DVD pick-up > 1 Bn $ http://www.xtriz.com/publications/TRIZSuccessCases.pdf
  • Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 54
  • !nnovation flow Think Out-of- the-Box Grow Ideas into Solutions Align Solutions Escape to Problems & Align Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 55
  • Move Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 56
  • Move Study Technology Evolution Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 57
  • Laws governing Trends of Evolution Static Laws: 1. Completeness of parts of the engineering system. Every technical system consists of engine, transmission, limbs and controls. Evolution will take place to all these parts. 2. Energy Conductivity of the system- The better the transfer of energy inside the system, the better the system. 3. Harmony of the parts of the system- Better harmony in timing, frequency etc. improves performance of the system. Dynamic Laws: 4. Transition from Microlevel to Macrolevel which improves miniaturization. 5. Dynamization - that moves the evolution from a rigid structure to a flexible one. Kinematic Laws 6. Moving towards increasing ideality. Every stage of evolution will move closer to the ideal system. 7. Moving from complicated system to simplified system. 8. Elemination of redundant stages and Transition towards the super-system Source: http://www.trizsite.com/triztools/evolutiontrends.asp
  • Move Predict the Trend Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 59
  • Trends in Technology Evolution • Transition from single to double to multiple Monolithic items are split into multiple components for efficiency and convenience. Single purpose products are made multi-purpose products. For example, pen with single color ink to pen with different color ink. • The transition from rigid to flexible to wave technologies. According to this trend the products are moving from rigidity to flexibility. The future stages of the product will be more and more flexible. For example, fixed gates to collapsible gates, fixed tables to openable and ajustable tables etc. • The transition from mechanical to thermal to electronic energy application. Machines are becoming more automated. Human operated machines are converted to petrol operated to battery operated machines. Many are converted to solar and atomic energy operated. For example, bi-cycle to motor-cycle, mechanical watch to battery operated watch, electric lights to solar lights, steam engine trains to diessel engine to electric engine etc.
  • Trends in Technology Evolution • Transition from large to small Products are moving from large size to small size. For example, Old generation computers were large, which were replaced by small personal computers. Current age laptops and palmtops are still smaller. This shows a trend towards future computers of even smaller size. Another example, Large clocks to small wrist watches to macro clocks. • Straight lines to curves Flat surfaces are made curved surfaces for convenience of use. For example, reclangular tv-remotes are made curved to fit better with the shape of human palms. Flat rests are made curved rests to give better support to the back. • Manual to automatic, or moving towards decreasing human involvement Products move towards reduced human involvements. As human time is precious products intend to work automatically without being operated by human beings. For example, thermostats in car engine fans, tv-timer to switch of tv automatically ater some time. • Transition towards controllability Products become more and more controllable. Better products have higher controllability. For example, electronic equipments, space shuttles.
  • Cooking Stoves : Electrical Microwave Wood fuel Kerosene LPG heating heating Time Transportation : Electric Horse Cart Petrol Car CNG ? / Hybrid Car Trend : Solid Liquid Gas Field Field Shankar, July 2009 Flow of Ideas into Innovation Time
  • Cutting Technology Solid Liquid Gas Field Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 63
  • Dynamization Trend in Technology Evolution F Immobile Single Joint Multiple Joint Fully Flexible Liquid Gas Field 8/29/2009Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 64
  • Dynamization Trend in Technology Evolution F Immobile Single Joint Multiple Joint Fully Flexible Liquid Gas Field 8/29/2009Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 65
  • Ideality & Resource utilization – New Product Development Developed by Japanese telecom NTT DoCoMo, it uses bones as an extension of the phone. • When someone calls, the phone sends vibrations through the bones in the user’s hand. • The user then sticks his finger into his ear to listen to the conversation. Source: Kraev’s Korner – System Ideality, TRIZ Journal http://www.triz-journal.com/archives/2007/02/08/
  • Technology Evolution Trends Space Segmentation trend : Geometric Evolution trend : Shankar, July 2009 Flow of Ideas into Innovation
  • Comb – Geometric Evolution Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 68
  • Technology Evolution Trends Surface Segmentation Trend : Controllability trend : Shankar, July 2009 Flow of Ideas into Innovation
  • Move Jump the S- Curve Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 70
  • Technology Evolution Potential Shankar, July 2009 Flow of Ideas into Innovation
  • Study Technology Evolution Predict the Trend Jump the S-Curve Move !nnovation flow Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 72
  • !nnovation flow Focus on the Innovation Opportunity - balance depth Vs breadth Escape from Psychological Inertia - stretch the Paradigms Align the creative solutions to critical problems - resolve all contradictions Move constantly towards Ideality - transcend to next-gen technologies
  • Mantra for !nnovation flow Focus Escape Move & Align Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 74
  • Take up one idea. Make that one idea your life - think of it, dream of it, live on that idea. Swami Vivekananda Innovators Vs Inventors Shankar.M.V 75
  • !nnovation flow Don’t aim at Innovation – the more you aim at it the more you are going to miss it. For Innovation cannot be pursued; it must ensue …as the unintended effect of one’s personal dedication to an Idea greater than oneself Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 76
  • TRIZ Resources • http://trizindia.ning.com/ • TRIZ Books Altshuller, Genrich (1973). Innovation Algorithm. Worcester, MA: Technical Innovation Center. ISBN 0-9640740-2-8. Altshuller, Genrich (1984). Creativity as an Exact Science. New York, NY: Gordon & Breach. ISBN 0-677-21230-5. Altshuller, Genrich (1994). And Suddenly the Inventor Appeared. translated by Lev Shulyak. Worcester, MA: Technical Innovation Center. ISBN 0-9640740-1-X. • TRIZ Journal : http://www.triz-journal.com/ - excellent articles - archives from 1996 available • TRIZ Opensource: http://www.opensourcetriz.com/ - Excellent collection of TRIZ problem solving illustrations & case studies, eBooks - free downloads • Other TRIZ Resources The Altshuller Institute for TRIZ Studies http://www.aitriz.org/index.php?option=com_frontpage&Itemid=1 • TRIZ site - http://www.trizsite.com/startup/default.asp?menuno=999001TM • TRIZ-learning platform http://triz.it/eng/ - good collection of examples of the 40 Inventive principles • TRIZ Overview articles: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TRIZ , http://www.mazur.net/triz/ Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 77
  • Thanks Dr. Shankar M.V Principal Scientist, Dow R&D, Pune. Shankar.Venugopal07@gmail.com 8/29/2009Shankar, 27 Aug'09 !nnovation flow at NCL, Pune 78