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Anabolic steroid

Anabolic steroid

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Final anabolic steroid Document Transcript

  • 1.  Anabolic Steroids  ANABOLIC STEROIDSDefinition: A synthetic steroid hormone that resembles testosterone in promoting thegrowth of muscle. Such hormones are used medicinally to treat some forms of weightloss and (illegally) by some athletes and others to enhance physical performance.Bharath Institute Of Technology-Pharmacy Page 1
  • 2.  Anabolic Steroids History:With so many issues on steroids, does anybody wonder why steroids become so popular?How does steroids came into existence? Is it thru an in-depth research or just by merediscovery? From the different sources on the internet as well as other publications andjournals, steroids were so popular because of its effects and the issues that always comewith it. Whether we treat steroids as a harmful drug or a pill that gives many benefits to itsusers, a better understanding is a must.This will serve as a guide in understanding of what these steroids can do or will do to itsusers. The purpose of creating these steroids and its beginnings will probably change ourperception to this drug.Heres a timeline of the discovery and development of steroids. The issues and people whocontributed to the advancement of steroids are also presented.1849 - A scientist named Berthold conducted an experiment on cockerels (Dog)byremoving their testicles. The bird lost several of its malecharacteristics including sexual functions. It was in thisexperiment that they found out that testicles had a systemiceffect on the entire organism. It has an effect on the blood ofthe animals experimented.1929 - Another experiment was conducted to produce anextract of potent activity from bulls testicles.Bharath Institute Of Technology-Pharmacy Page 2
  • 3.  Anabolic Steroids 1935 - A more purified form of the extract from bull’s testicles was created.1954(second world war) - This is the time where the use of steroids in sports began. TheSoviets team was reported to have used steroids in theWorld Weightlifting Championships in Vienna, Austria.1955 - John Zeigler began administering straighttestosterone to his weightlifters.1960 -at this period, many scientists and doctors beganto conduct numerous studies on the effects of steroids.1967- the International Olympic Council banned theuse of anabolic steroids.1970 - most major sporting organizations had also banned steroids.1972 - the International Olympic Council began a full scale drug-testing program.1990 - the Germans had finally gotten caught, and the ensuing scandal was one whichhelped give anabolic steroids the bad reputation they have had ever since.2000 - survey among 12 graders were reported that 2.5% used steroids at least once in theirlives.2004 to present - there was an increase in the usage among young people. The statisticsshows 3.4%anabolic steroids were continuously used by most weightlifters andbodybuilders.Bharath Institute Of Technology-Pharmacy Page 3
  • 4.  Anabolic Steroids MECHANISM OF ACTION:As fat-soluble hormones, anabolic steroids are membrane-permeable and influencethe nucleus of cells by direct action. The action of anabolic steroids begins when theexogenous hormone penetrates the membrane of the target cell and binds to anandrogen receptor located in the cytoplasm of that cell. From there, the compoundhormone-receptor diffuses into the nucleus, where it either alters the expression ofgenes or activates processes that send signals to other parts of the cell.The effect of anabolic steroids on muscle mass is caused in at least two ways: first,they increase the production of proteins; second, they reduce recovery time byblocking the effects of stress hormone cortisol on muscle tissue, so that catabolism ofmuscle is greatly reduced. It has been hypothesized that this reduction in musclebreakdown may occur through anabolic steroids inhibiting the action of other steroidhormones called glucocorticoids that promote the breakdown of muscles. Anabolicsteroids also affect the number of cells that develop into fat-storage cells, byfavouring cellular differentiation into muscle cells instead. Anabolic steroids can alsodecrease fat by increasing basal metabolic rate (BMR), since an increase in musclemass increases BMR.Bharath Institute Of Technology-Pharmacy Page 4
  • 5.  Anabolic Steroids PHARMACOKINETICSAbsorption:The absorption after oral dose is rapid but there is extensive first pass metabolism forall anabolic drugs except those substituted at the 17 alpha position (methyl-testosterone and fluoxymesterone).such drugs,(which undergo extensive first-passeffect) are principally given by intramuscular or deep subcutaneous injectionThe rate of absorption from subcutaneous or intramuscular depots depends on theproduct and its formulation.Absorption is slow for the lipid soluble esters such as the cypionate or enanthate andfor oily suspensions.Distribution:They are highly protein bound and are carried in plasma by a specific protein calledsex-hormone binding protein.Metabolism: The metabolism of drug is very rapid. Free(de-esterified) anabolic drugs are metabolisied by hepatic mixed function oxidases. The elimination half-life from plasma is very short. Some entero hepatic circulation is also seen.Elimination:90% of drug is excreted through urine as metabolites while 6% through faeces.Bharath Institute Of Technology-Pharmacy Page 5
  • 6.  Anabolic Steroids PHARMACODYNAMICSAnabolic effects:They include protiene synthesis from amino acids , increased appetite , increases boneremodeling and growth and stimulation of bone marrow, which increases theproduction of redblood cells , remodeling and growth of bone .Virilizing (androgenic) effects:They are growth of the clitoris in females and the penis in male children(the adultpenis does not grow even when exposed to high doses of androgen), increased vocalcord size, deepening the voice ,increased libido, suppression of natural sex hormonesand impaired production of sperm.Skeletal muscles:Anabolic steroids stimulate the formation of the muscles and hence cause an increasein the size of muscle fibres , leading to increased muscle mass and strength.thisincrease in muscle mass is mostly due to larger skeletal muscle,and is caused by bothincreased production of muscle proteins as well as a decline in the breakdown rate ofthese proteins.Fat metabolism:A high testosterone dose(or high dose of an anabolic steroids) also decreases theamount of fat and muscles,while increasing protein content. There is an overalldecrease in fat content.Psychological effect:Some researches have speculated that the real effect of anabolic steroids is a creationof a “psychosomatic state” characterisied by sensation of well being ,euphoria,increased aggressiveness and tolerance to stress, allowing the athlete to train harder.Bharath Institute Of Technology-Pharmacy Page 6
  • 7.  Anabolic Steroids USESAnabolic steroids have been manufactured to enhance the anabolic properties(tissue binding)to the androgens and minimize the androgenic(sex- linked) properties. However, no steroidhas eliminated the androgenic effects because the so called androgenic effects are reallyanabolic effects in sex-linked tissuses. The effects of male hormones on accessorie sexglands, genital hair growth and oilyess of the skin are anabolic processes in those tissuses.The steroids with the most potent anabolic effect aare also those with the greatest androgeniceffects.Glossing over what prompts people resorting to anabolic steroids useHere some points: Men suffering from behavior syndrome , believing they look small and insignificant even though they are muscular , use anabolic steroids. Similarly women, with this problem take the drug as they tend to think they are flabby,thoughinactual they are quite lean and muscular. It is seen that people who have suffered physical or sexual abuse in the past often take recource to the drug with the belief that it will make them look stronger and abler thus discouraging any future attacks. Adolescent youth get a kick out of doing risky things , like driving fast ,drinking atrociously,and such like .they are easily attracted to anabolic steroid use.Usually,in case of following sufferings doctors prescribe anabolicsteroids: Catabolic states such as chronic infections , extensive surgery , burns, or severe trauma. anemia is associated with renal insufficiency, sickle cells anemia, aplastic anemia and bone marrow failure, some kinds of breast cancer in women. Growth failure , including short stature assosiciated with turner syndrome . Angioedema that causes swelling of face , arms, legs, throat, windpipe, bowels, or sexual organs .Bharath Institute Of Technology-Pharmacy Page 7
  • 8.  Anabolic Steroids Severe anemia:Bone marrow stimulation in the theraphy for hypoplasticanemias due to leukemia or kidneyfailure, especially aplastic anemia ,fanconis anemia , sickle cell anemia andhaemolyticanaemia..Weight gain for chronic nutritional deficiency or AIDS Wasting syndrome.Bharath Institute Of Technology-Pharmacy Page 8
  • 9.  Anabolic Steroids SIDE EFFECTSSHORT TERM SIDE EFFECTS:The short term, more immediate side effects of steroid abuse are a veritable buffet ofproblems. Let’s start with the men. Acne, testicular atrophy, decreased sperm count,gynecomastia (enlarged breasts in men), high blood pressure, increased LDL (bad)cholesterol, decreased HDL (good) cholesterol, fluid retention, abnormal liverfunction,Anabolic steroids can affect women differently than men, and in some cases,dramatically so. Women can experience many of the same dangerous effects as menincluding high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and liver damage. Many of theproblems,however,are exclusively feminine representations of natural malecharacteristics such as male pattern balding, deepening of the voice, facial and bodyhair growth, and coarsening of the skin.For both sexes, increased aggressiveness, otherwise known as "roid rage," commonlyaccompaniesthe use of steroids. Now let’s break some of these down into further detail. ACNE One common side effect is the onset of acne or, in cases of adolescents where acne is already present, a much more severe case can present itself. The scientific explanation is quite colorful. Steroids enlarge the sebaceous glands in theskin. Then, they cause these glands to increase sebum (oil) production. The increasedsebum leads to plug formation and serves as "food" for bacteria.Normal hormones surge at puberty, which is why teens develop armpit and pubic hair,and why boys develop facial hair and deeper voices. This hormonal surge alsocontributes to the cause of acne in teens. Introducing steroids to this delicate balanceis just asking for trouble.SHRUNKEN TESTICLESTesticular atrophy, a fancy term for shrunken balls, isn’t just a cosmetic problem.Bharath Institute Of Technology-Pharmacy Page 9
  • 10.  Anabolic Steroids Because an outside source of testosterone is being introduced to the body, the testesno longer get the signal to produce their share. The brain is also being told to slowdown the sperm factory, and that the body is getting sperm from an outside source,usually the hypodermic needle. The brain then sends a signal back to the testicles totake a break. This new function can cause temporary sterility, and the jury is still outon whether steroids are linked with permanent sterility or not. But why take thechance? GYNECOMASTIA Gynecomastia, a pretty word for man-boobs, is another not-so- good side effect of abuse that comes from the improper balance of testosterone. When the body converts the additional testosterone into estrogen and other female hormones in the male body, femalebreast tissue is sometimes formed. Often, surgery with a painful recovery time is theonly method of removing the female tissue build-up. Basically, the surgeon enlargesthe area to be liposuctioned with a large amount of sterile fluid then employsultrasonic liposuction using sound waves to break up the fat.HIGH BLOOD PRESSUREThe next effect on our list is high blood pressure, which is caused when the steroidforces the body to hold onto extra salt and water, rather than flushing it out as usual.Steroids also cause an increase in the bodys red blood cell count and hematocritlevels, resulting in higher blood pressure. The long term effects of high blood pressureare a list all their own. It causes the heart to get larger, which may lead to heartfailure. Small bulges (aneurysms) can form in blood vessels, the main artery from theheart (aorta), arteries in the brain, legs, and intestines; and the artery leading to thespleen. Blood vessels in the kidney can narrow, which may cause kidney failure.Arteries throughout the body can "harden" faster, especially those in the heart, brain,kidneys, and legs. This can cause a heart attack, stroke, kidney failure or amputationof part of the leg. Blood vessels in the eyes may burst or bleed, which can causevision changes and can result in blindness.HIGH CHOLESTEROLBharath Institute Of Technology-Pharmacy Page 10
  • 11.  Anabolic Steroids High blood pressure is also often a result of high (LDL) bad cholesterol levels and/orlow (HDL) good cholesterol levels. Steroids change the levels of lipoproteins thatcarry cholesterol in the blood. Steroids, particularly oral steroids, increase the level oflow-density lipoprotein (LDL) and decrease the level of high-density lipoprotein(HDL). This increases the risk of atherosclerosis, a condition in which fattysubstances are deposited inside arteries and disrupt blood flow. If blood is preventedfrom reaching the heart, the result can be a heart attack. If blood is prevented fromreaching the brain, the result can be a stroke. LIVER MALFUNCTION Let’s move on to the liver, where just about everything you put in your body gets processed. In other words, just try to live without your liver. It won’t happen. Steroid abuse has been associated with liver tumors and a rare condition called peliosishepatis, in which blood-filled cysts form in the liver. Both the tumors and the cysts can rupture, causing internal bleeding. Keep in mind, we’re talking short term effects. Long term liver effects,you don’t want to know, but we’ll get into that a little later.ENLARGED PROSTATENext, the issue of prostate enlargement, which is a problem seen with aging males.This is not something you typically see in younger men, unless they’re takinganabolic steroids. Over the course of an average life span, the male prostate glandnaturally grows thirty times its original size. It doesn’t need the help of additionaltestosterone to grow to the size of a grapefruit. However, when large amounts ofsynthetic testosterone are involved, the prostate grows faster. The long term effect ofthat is prostate cancer. It is medically proven that the cancer loves the taste oftestosterone, which feeds the growth of cancer cells.BALDINGBaldness in women steroid abusers is caused by the body’s confused over-productionof DHT- a hair inhibitor enzyme, which generally affects both sexes similarly.Bharath Institute Of Technology-Pharmacy Page 11
  • 12.  Anabolic Steroids MALE CHARACTERISTICS IN FEMALESA deepening voice is another naturally male characteristic that can develop in womenabusers simply because of the large amounts of testosterone sending male signals tothe brain, the control room for hormone production, and the various glands thatmanage the hormone output. Steroids play havoc with the entiresystem.Excess facial and body hair growth and coarse skin, both male characteristics, areunsavory by-products of steroid abuse by women caused by an overabundance ofmale hormones. While aggressiveness and heightened libido are side effects that canbe experienced by both genders, some effects are uniquely female. For example, theenlarged or lengthened clitoris is inherently female as well as a confused and erraticmenstrual cycle. Other traits may include shrinking breasts, anxiety, depression, andhigh levels of stress. All of these characteristics can be caused by introducing theamounts of synthetic steroids in the female body necessary to see a change in muscledevelopment.Bharath Institute Of Technology-Pharmacy Page 12
  • 13.  Anabolic Steroids AGGRESSION In both men and women steroid abusers, evidence of “roid rage” or increased aggression from too much testosterone is a hotly contested topic. However, in animal studies, the relationship between steroids and aggression has always been prettyclear.LONG TERM SIDE EFFECTSOnly in recent years have researchers been able to define the long term effects ofsteroid abuse. They are learning more each year as abusers age and problems presentthemselves.HIVOne of the deadliest side effects, scoffed at by many abusers, is HIV. Intravenousneedle sharing, combined with a heightened sex drive and libido function can be avery dangerous combination. This is especially true in adolescent teens and youngadults who often have weaker decision-making skills and a high susceptibility to peerpressure. HIV and AIDS-related deaths are on the rise and the epidemic is not aspopular in the media as in past decades. Most people adopt a “that stuff happens toother people” attitude, and many steroid abusers, already practiced rationalizers don’teven consider it at all.Bharath Institute Of Technology-Pharmacy Page 13
  • 14.  Anabolic Steroids CARDIOVASCULAR PROBLEMSHigh blood cholesterol levels, as discussed earlier in thisarticle, can lead to premature heart conditions, heartattacks and stroke. The increase in muscle mass can putundue strain on the rest of a body that is not prepared forthe surprisingly fast new muscle development. The heartis put under more pressure to provide blood to moremuscle tissue, while processing greater levels of badcholesterol. Moreover, high blood pressure due to salt and water retention can puteven further undue stress on the heart. No doubt, steroid abuse over long periods oftime will inevitably cause damage.STUNTED GROWTHStudies have shown that adolescents who abuse steroids are at risk of being short forlife. Because the body responds to puberty by slowing and eventually stoppinggrowth, the pubescent period of life is crucial to future development. When theadolescent brain senses a certain level of hormones in the body, it will send messagesto the bones to stop growing, closing the growth plates in the long bones. Young maleabusers can expect to be permanently shorter than average height.LIGAMENT AND JOINT INJURYSteroids increase muscle mass and muscle strength, but they leave the joints andligaments out of the equation. Steroid abusers can expect to eventually put too muchstrain on ligaments that cannot properly anchor the new muscle strength, leading topossibly severe injury and future surgery to correct torn shoulder joints or kneeligaments. The muscles are exerted, and the joints simply can’t handle it.WEIGHT PROBLEMSSteroid abusers who stop abusing often deal with atrophied muscle mass whichBharath Institute Of Technology-Pharmacy Page 14
  • 15.  Anabolic Steroids converts to fat. Many former abusers report a problem managing weight gain, orlosing excess flab and soft tissue that occurs when the muscles are no longer being fedhigh doses of testosterone. Excess body weight contributes to a host of long-termproblems including the aforementioned cardiovascular issues.NEUROLOGICAL ISSUESStudies have confirmed steroid abuse has a long term effect on the neurological pathways ofthe brain. Depending on the age when steroids are taken, the effects can sometimes bepermanent. For example, abusing steroids in the teenage years of development has shown toaffect the brain’s ability to properly produce serotonin, the enzyme tied with our sense ofwell-being. This tampering with serotonin can lead to permanent increases in depression andaggression. In women, this hormonal tampering can also lead to significantly lower levels ofprogesterone and estrogen,The Dangers of Anabolic Steroid AbuseWhen improperly used, anabolic steroids can cause serious health problems such ashigh blood pressure and heart disease; liver damage and cancers; and, stroke andblood clots. Other side effects of steroids include: nausea and vomiting, increased riskof ligament and tendon injuries, headaches, aching joints, muscle cramps, diarrhea,sleep problems and severe acne.While the total impact of anabolic steroid abuse is not known, health care providershave observed the following problems:Psychological Mood swings Aggressive, even violent behaviorBharath Institute Of Technology-Pharmacy Page 15
  • 16.  Anabolic Steroids  Depression Psychotic episodes AddictionBecause anabolic steroids are derived from testosterone, they can have profoundeffects on the hormone levels of both male and female abusers.These effects can cause any or all of the following problems in men: Temporary infertility or sterility (reversible) Altered sex drive Prostate enlargement, and increased prostate cancer risk Irreversible breast enlargement Painful erections Shrinkage of the testicles Reduced levels of testosterone Abnormal sperm production Increased levels of estrogenHealth care providers have reported the following problems in women: Increased risk of cervical and endometrial cancer Increased risk of osteoporosis Temporary infertility or sterility (reversible) Altered sex drive Birth defects in future children Changes in fat distribution Growth of facial and body hair Deepening of the voice Shrinkage of the breasts and uterus Clitoral enlargement Menstrual irregularityBharath Institute Of Technology-Pharmacy Page 16
  • 17.  Anabolic Steroids Changes in the male reproductive system are often reversible, if anabolic steroidshave not been abused for a long period of time. Unfortunately, some of the changes inwomen are NOT reversible.Prolonged abuse of anabolic steroids very often results in physical addiction. Abusersmust undergo a strict, medically-supervised withdrawal program.HIV/AIDS RiskSometimes, athletes who use anabolic steroids may share the needles, syringes orother equipment they use to inject these drugs. By sharing needles, syringes or otherequipment, a person becomes a high risk for HIV transmission. HIV is the virus thatcauses AIDS.If a person shares needles, syringes and other equipment to inject steroids into thevein (IV), in the muscles or under the skin, small amounts of blood from the personinfected with HIV may be injected into the bloodstream of the next person to use theequipment.HIV attacks the bodys defense system, making the body less able to fight offinfections and cancers. Theres no vaccine or cure for HIV or AIDS. People who mayhave been exposed to HIV should be tested. If they find out they have the virus, theycan start treatment early.You cant tell just be looking at someone if he or she has HIV. And, since someonecan be infected with HIV for many years without having any symptoms, some peoplemay not know they have HIV. Anyone who has ever shared a needle to shoot anydrugs -- even once -- could become infected with HIV and should be tested.Bharath Institute Of Technology-Pharmacy Page 17
  • 18.  Anabolic Steroids Adverse effectsBone Premature closure of the Stunting of linear growth epiphyses in childrenBreast Atrophy in women Gynacomaestia can be gynocomaestia and enlarged pronounced and nipples in men painful;corrective surgery may be necessaryCardiovascular system Cardiac damage (left The link between longterm ventricular hypertrophy, anabolic steroids use and fibrosis and heart failure) cardiovascular events sudden cardiac death. remains to be clearly established but the evidence gatheredisfairly compelling.Hair Hirsutism in women , Hirsutism is at very best only acceleration of baldness in partially reversible on men, male- pattern baldness cessation of administration. in women.Liver Liver tumours(increased risk) GGT and CK, as ALT and AST can be raised by Hepatic cholestasis(bile canal excercise obstruction)Skin Cystic acne This can be very severe on the chest back and FaceVocal cords Lengethened in women Irreversible deepening of the voice can result in considerable distressOther Serious infection associated Needle-exchange with injected drugs toxicity programmes are helping to from unliscenced products. address this problem extent is unknowmBharath Institute Of Technology-Pharmacy Page 18
  • 19.  Anabolic Steroids ContraindicationsAndrogens and steroid anabolic agents are contra-indicated in children and in pregnantwomen. Their prescription to women gives signs of masculinization. In men, they are contra-indicated in patients with prostate cancer.Known or suspected cancer of the prostate or (inmen)breast. Pregnancy or breast-feeding. Known cardiovascular disease is a relativecontraindication.Preparation & DoseThere are three common forms in which anabolic steroids are administered : Oralpills Injectable steroids And skin patches Topical gelsOral administration is most convienent , but the steroid must be chemically modifiedso that the lever cannot break it down before it reaches the systemic circulation, theseformulations can cause lever damage in high doses.Injectable steroids are typically administered into the muscles , not into the vein toavoid sudden changes in the amount of the drugs in the blood streams.Transdermal patches(adhesive patches placed on the skin) may also be used to delivera steady dose through the skin and into the blood stream.injection is the most commonmethod used by the individuals administering anabolic steroids for non medicinalpurpose.SupplementsOver the counter dietary supplements, such as creatine, should be used with caution.Manufacturers claim they can build muscles and improve strength without the sideeffects of steroids. Taken in small doses, nutritional supplements may not be harmful.Bharath Institute Of Technology-Pharmacy Page 19
  • 20.  Anabolic Steroids Some Anabolic Steroids (Generic & Brand )NamesBrand Name Generic NameAndrostenediol Androsteder MyageBolasterone Turinabol, SteranabolClostebo Oral-TurinabolDehydrochloromethyltestosteron 19-Dio19-NorandrostenedioAnabolic Steroids in Sport & ExerciseIn most cases, people use anabolic steroids in sports and exercise. Sportspersons, includingathletes, bodybuilders, footballers and others, who put a lot of stake in improved performanceBharath Institute Of Technology-Pharmacy Page 20
  • 21.  Anabolic Steroids on the field, resort to frequent usage of the drug. The same goes for those who wish to buildmuscles and cut down on body fat, thereby presenting themselves with well-toned physique.Be that as it may, the fact that the drug can boost muscle size and ability to perform well inexerting games would mean that the use of anabolic steroids in sports and exercise is notgoing to go away forever. To that extent, the role of agencies to control the abuse of thesubstances is important.And indeed that is the reason why the US Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2004 has beenenacted to ban selling and using anabolic steroid and pro-hormone without relevant medicalprescription. To what extent the new act is able to check the abuse of anabolic steroids insport and exercise, while not unnecessarily preventing genuine medical reasons, remains to beseen.Anabolic Steroids and Sports: Winning at any costTo excel in athletic competition is admirable. Most high school, college, amateur andprofessional athletes participate in sports for the opportunity to pit their abilitiesagainst those of their peers, and to experience the satisfaction that comes from playingto their potential.Others do so to satisfy a desire for recognition and fame. Unfortunately, that createssome athletes who are determined to win at any cost. And, they may use thatdetermination to justify the use of anabolic steroids, despite evidence that these drugscan inflict irreversible physical harm and have significant side effects.Bharath Institute Of Technology-Pharmacy Page 21
  • 22.  Anabolic Steroids Why Some Athletes Abuse Anabolic SteroidsBelieving that anabolic steroids can improve competitiveness and performance,uninformed or misguided athletes, sometimes encouraged by coaches or parents,abuse these drugs to build lean muscle mass, promote aggressiveness, and increasebody weight.Some athletes frequently take two or more anabolic steroids together, mixing oraland/or injectable types, and sometimes adding other drugs, such as stimulants,painkillers, or growth hormones. This is called "stacking." The athlete believes thatdifferent drugs will produce greater strength or muscle size than by using just onedrug. What they dont know, or choose to ignore, is the damage to the body that abuseof these drugs can cause.Bharath Institute Of Technology-Pharmacy Page 22
  • 23.  Anabolic Steroids DopingHow Does Blood Doping Work?Blood doping is a method of increasing the number of red blood cells in the bodywhich in turn carry more oxygen to the muscles. It is most often used by athletes whocompete in high endurance races like cycling or cross-country skiing. In the past, aliter of blood would be removed from an athletes system and then frozen and storedfor several weeks. A day or two before a big race, the stored blood would be re-injected into the athletes system - creating extra red blood cells. These extra red bloodcells would carry more oxgen to the muscles - giving the athlete an advantage overthe other racers who dont use blood doping.Athletes dont re-inject blood very much anymore. Instead, cheating athletes willinject genetically engineered drugs which cause the body to create extra red bloodcells. The most common type of blood doping chemical used is called EPO - which isused to treat patients who have kidney disease. The one supposedly used by thosescamming skiers in Salt Lake City is called darbepoetin, which is also used to treatkidney disease.How Are Blood Dopers Busted?Athletes who use blood doping to increase their performance will have a higher redblood cell density. This can be detected by testing the athletes levels of hemoglobin(protein which causes blood to be the red color we see.) EPO and other blood dopingdrugs can be detected in an athletes system by urine tests. Its believed there are someblood doping drugs out there that drug testers dont know about which some athletesare using.Types Of Testes (Doping): S.No Tests 1 Urine Test 2 Blood Test 3 Sweat Test 4 Hair Test 5 Gene TestBharath Institute Of Technology-Pharmacy Page 23
  • 24.  Anabolic Steroids How To Identify Anabolic Steroid User:The negative effects anabolic steroids can have on the human body can be devastating. Theyrange from a minor case of oily skin, to major long-term health complications, and potentiallydeath. Fortunately, steroids have a variety of side effects, or changes experienced by themind and body of a user. These changes basically fit into three categories: 1. Internal changes such as high blood pressure or out of range liver values; 2. More private or personal changes like testicular atrophy (significant shrinking of the testicles); and 3. Noticeably external changes like severe acne or increased aggression.Should you suspect your child, sibling or friend of using anabolic steroids, you can look for avariety of short-term side effects that appear as symptoms. These include visible changes inappearance, mood and behavior. The following information will make it easier for you toidentify the specific symptoms, changes and habits of a steroid user.Physical changes are typically the most pronounced short-termsymptoms as they are not easily concealed by the novice user andinclude: Unusually greasy hair or oily skin (often with stretch marks on the inner joints) Small red or purplish acne, including breakouts on the shoulders and back Gynocomastia, the abnormally excessive development of the breast tissue in males Persistent bad breath Thinning hair throughout the head or receding hairline (male pattern baldness) Increased length and thickness in hair (on body parts other than the head) Hair loss in bed, shower, comb or brushBharath Institute Of Technology-Pharmacy Page 24
  • 25.  Anabolic Steroids Personality and Psychiatric changes oftenhappen suddenly and without visible triggersor reasons. They include: Extreme mood swings Increased aggression or irritability Becomes disrespectful or abusive (verbally and/or physically) Poor decision making stemming from feelings of invincibility Becomes secretive and/or starts lying Withdraws from family members Depression (usually when steroids are discontinued) Hallucinations - seeing or hearing things that arent there Paranoia - extreme feelings of mistrust or fearSocial changes may be mistaken for natural teenage distancing orindependence. These are: Closes and/or locks bedroom door more often Takes longer showers or baths (this time is often used for injecting) Phone conversations become more private Begins receiving more packages in the mail Asks for money more often, or has more money than usual Is stealing or losing belongings Begins taking naps and/or falls asleep in class Loss of focus or concentration (at work, school or home) Decline in gradesBharath Institute Of Technology-Pharmacy Page 25
  • 26.  Anabolic Steroids  Conclusion Anabolic drugs or steroids are synthetic version of the naturally occurring male hormone testosterone . They are primarily develop to treat hypogonadism but are now used for treatment of a variety of condition like severe anemia angioedema, wasting of body due to HIV infection etc…, This drugs unfortunately have been used by many weightlifters and athletes as performance – enhancers due to their anabolic effects and are hence considered as doping agents. Doping has serious adverse effects and long term use can be fatal. Doping poses serious questions on moral and ethical values and is banned by most of the international sports associations.Bharath Institute Of Technology-Pharmacy Page 26
  • 27.  Anabolic Steroids  REFERENCES1 Michael Powers, "Performance-Enhancing Drugs" in Joel Houglum, in Gary L. Harrelson,Deidre Leaver-Dunn, "Principles of Pharmacology for Athletic Trainers", SLACKIncorporated, 2005,ISBN 1-55642-594-5, p. 3302 Barrett-Connor E (1995). "Testosterone and risk factors for cardiovascular disease inmen". Diabete Metab 21 (3): 156–61.PMID 7556805.3Yamamoto Y, Moore R, Hess H, Guo G, Gonzalez F, Korach K, Maronpot R, Negishi M(2006). "Estrogen receptor alpha mediates 17alpha-ethynylestradiol causing hepatotoxicity". JBiol Chem 281(24): 16625–31. doi:10.1074/jbc.M602723200.PMID 16606610. 4 De Piccoli B, Giada F, Benettin A, Sartori F, Piccolo E (1991). "Anabolic steroid use in body builders: an echocardiographic study of left ventricle morphology and function". Int J Sports Med 12 (4): 408–12. doi:10.1055/s-2007-1024703. PMID 1917226.5Hartgens and Kuipers (2004), p. 5156 Kicman AT, Gower DB (July 2003). "Anabolic steroids in sport: biochemical, clinical andanalytical perspectives". Annals of clinical biochemistry 40 (Pt 4): 321–56.doi:10.1258/000456303766476977. PMID 12880534.7 Kuhn CM (2002). "Anabolic steroids". Recent Prog. Horm. Res.57 (1): 411–34. doi:10.1210/rp.57.1.411. PMID 12017555.8Hoberman JM, Yesalis CE (1995). "The history of synthetic testosterone". ScientificAmerican 272 (2): 76–81.doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0295-76. PMID 7817189.9 Freeman ER, Bloom DA, McGuire EJ (2001). "A brief history of testosterone". Journal ofUrology 165 (2): 371–373.10. Kashkin KB, Kleber HD. Hooked on hormones - an anabolic steroid addiction hypothesis.JAMA J Am Med Assoc 1989 Dec 8;262(22):3166-70.11 Giannini AJ, Miller N, Kocjan DK. Treating steroid abuse - a psychiatric perspective.Clinical Pediatrics 1991 Sep;30(9):538-42. by Trent Tschirgi, R. Ph. (c) 1992 University ofMaryland Office of Substance Abuse Studies.12. Strauss RH. Anabolic steroids. In: ed. Drugs and performance in sports. Philadelphia: WBSaunders, 1987:5, 59-67.Bharath Institute Of Technology-Pharmacy Page 27
  • 28.  Anabolic Steroids 13 Brower KJ, Catlin DH, Blow FC, Eliopulos GA, Beresford TP. Clinical assessment andurine testing for anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse and dependence. American Journal OfDrug And Alcohol Abuse 1991;17(2):161-71.14. Kleiner SM. Performance-enhancing aids in sport - health consequences and nutritionalalternatives. J Amer Coll Nutr 1991 Apr;10(2):163-76.12. Lorimer DA, Hart LL. Cardiac dysfunction in athletes receiving anabolic steroids. DICPAnn Pharmacother 1990 Nov;24(11):1060-1.15 .Goldfien A. The gonadal hormones & inhibitors. In: ed. Basic and clinical pharmacology.Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1987, 461-83.16.Yesalis CE, Wright JE, Bahrke MS. Epidemiological and policy issues in the measurementof the long term health effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids. Sports Medicine 1989Sep;8(3):129-38.Bharath Institute Of Technology-Pharmacy Page 28