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Chapter 5 doping


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Chapter 5 of CBSE Grade XI students. New topics covered.

Published in: Education

Chapter 5 doping

  1. 1. 5.1 Concept and Classification of Doping 5.2 Prohibited Substances & Methods 5.3 Responsibilities of Athletes 5.4 Side Effects of Prohibited Substances 5.5 Ergogenic Aids and Doping in Sports 5.6 Doping Control Procedure (Testing In – Competition & Out – of – Competition)
  2. 2.  During the Olympic Games in 3rd Century B.C. the athletes were trying to increase their sports performance by taking mushrooms and opium.  In 1st Century AD , the Greek runners used to drink a herbal beverage to increase their strength and be capable to run long distance races.  In Modern Era, the use of performance enhancing substances and techniques by the top sports person of the world has been a persistent issue in the world of sports.
  3. 3. Use of Prohibited substances or methods to unfairly improve their sporting performances and to gain an advantage over their competitors. According to IOC ,“ Doping is the use of any method or substance that might harm the athlete, in a quest to gain an unfair advantage over his/her fellow competitors.” According to WADA ,“Doping is defined as the occurrence of one or more of the anti-doping rule violations set forth in Article 2.1 through Article 2.8 of the Code.”
  4. 4. Anti-Doping Rules: 1. Presence of Prohibited Substance or Methods 2. Use or Attempt to use a prohibited substance or method 3. Refusing to submit a sample collection after being notified 4. Failure to file athletes whereabouts after being notified 5. Tampering with any part of the doping control process 6. Possession of a prohibited substance or method 7. Trafficking a prohibited substance or method
  5. 5.  Performance Enhancing Substances  Physical Methods
  6. 6. 1) Stimulants : Stimulants are drugs that enhances alertness and physical activity by increasing heart rate and breathing rate and the functions of brain . They stimulates the body physically and mentally . Effects Usage Examples Mind is more alert By injection Cocaine Reduces feeling of fatigue By nasal spray Ephedrine More aggressive Orally Adrafinil Amphetamines
  7. 7. 2) Anabolic Steroids : They stimulates the growth of muscles and help athlete to train harder and recover rapidly. By boosting the muscle power and strength , they enhance the performance . Effects Usage Examples Muscle power growth By intramuscular injection Drostanolone Muscle size growth Orally Metenolone Rapid recovery Oxandrolone
  8. 8. 3) Peptide Hormone : These are the substances produced by glands in the body. They carry the oxygen and circulate in the blood . They increase the production of RBC and hence improves the growth of muscles . Additional intake of these hormones can enhance the performance hence prohibited In and Out of competitions.Effects Usage Examples Increase in RBC By injection Erothropoietin (EPO) Muscles growth Orally Insulin Hormonal imbalance Human growth hormones
  9. 9. 4) Beta-2-Agonists : These drugs are generally used to treat Asthma and it relax the muscles that surround the air way and opening of the air passage .It allows more oxygen to reach the blood .It enhances the respiratory function , increase their capacity for strenuous effort and shorten recovery time. Effects Usage Examples Increases oxygen in blood Inhalers Acebutolol Opens air passage Orally Betaxolol Rapid recovery Carteolol
  10. 10. 4) Beta-2-Agonists :
  11. 11. 5) Narcotics : It reduces or eliminate pain from injuries , Allow athletes to do persistent efforts for a longer time . By using Narcotics to ignore the injury , athletes increase further risk to damage their body . It also reduces anxiety , which enhances the performance . Effects Usage Examples Reduces pain By injection Morphine Improves stamina Orally Heroine Reduces anxiety Inhaling Pethidine
  12. 12. 6) Diuretics : These are non-performance enhancing drugs but are used in sports to remove fluids( water in particular) from the body, These are used to reduce the body weight rapidly as in weightlifting, boxing and wrestling etc. These drugs are also used to evade anti-doping test. These drugs are used by athletes in and out of competitions. Effects Usage Examples Rapid weight loss Orally Dexatran Remove fluid from the body By injection Amiloride Evade Anti-Doping Test Canreone
  13. 13. 7) Glucocorticosteroids : These drugs relieve fatigue and pain, giving more tolerance for pain and prepare the athletes to continue the efforts. 8) Cannabinoids : These are psycho active chemicals that cause a feeling of relaxation. Hashish and Marijuana are examples and their use is prohibited in competitions
  14. 14. 1. Blood Doping 2. Gene Doping
  15. 15. 1. Blood Doping : According to WADA ,the misuse of techniques or substances to increase one’s RBC count is Blood Doping . Athletes blood is taken a few weeks prior to competition and is frozen until one or two days before the competition when it is injected into the athlete. This procedure is known as Autologous Blood Doping. When the fresh blood of another person is taken and injected straight into the body of athlete, the procedure is known as Homologous Blood Doping .
  16. 16. Blood Doping : Another procedure of blood doping involves the injection of “Artificial Oxygen Carriers” . Haemoglobin Oxygen Carriers are chemicals or purified proteins which have the ability to carry oxygen . It enhances aerobic capacity . Blood Doping increases the number of RBC , hence the oxygen carrying capacity to the muscles is increased . Thereby enhancing the athlete’s performance .
  17. 17. 2. Gene Doping : It is the manipulation of cells or genes to enhance the body’s sports performance . Modifying genes enable faster reaction and increase physical strength . It is based on the principles of Gene Therapy . Gene Therapy may play a vital role in the growth and development of musculo – skeletal structures . It will speed up the repair of the injuries of muscles , tendons and ligaments etc.
  18. 18.  The substances and methods which are banned or prohibited from use in sports .  WADA is responsible for maintaining and updating these substances and methods annually .  If the substance or method is being used by the athlete for therapeutic use , he will take the permission from concerned authority . In this case the physician has to verify that :  Athlete would face vital health problem without drugs
  19. 19. Substance Prohibited at All Times or In–And–Out–of– Competition S.No. Name Reason Example 1. Anabolic Steroids Enhance the performance Serious side-effects Drostanolone Metenolone 2. Peptide Hormones Increase muscle growth & strength Increase RBC Count Erythropoietin (EPO) Human Growth Hormone (HGH ) 3. Beta-2-Agonists Enhances Respiratory efficiency Acebutolol Betaxolol 4. Diuretics Evades Anti Doping test Unfairly manages body weight Dextran Probencid 5. Hormones & Metabolic Modulators Interfere with function of Estrogen Tamoxifen Clomipherne
  20. 20. Methods Prohibited at All Times or In–And–Out–of– Competition S.No. Name Reason Example 1. Blood Doping It increases the RBC Counts Enhancing the oxygen carrying capacity Autologous Homologous Artificial Oxygen Carriers 2. Gene Doping Very significant in growth & development of musclo-skeletal structure Gene Doping 3. Chemical and Physical Manipulation An attempt to tamper the validity of collected sample Manipulation
  21. 21. Substances Prohibited In-Competition (Banned only In-Competition) S.No. Name Reason Example 1. Stimulants Improves the performance by stimulating mind & body artificially Amphetamines Ephedra (Caffeine is non- prohibited but monitored) 2. Narcotics Reduces pain & allow athlete for persistent effort Fentanyl Morphine Oxydcodone 3. Cannabinoids Gives feeling of relaxation Hashish Marijuana 4. Glucocortico - Steroids Gives relief from pain and fatigue Increases tolerance
  22. 22. Substances Prohibited in Particular Sports These substances keep heart rate low & reduces tremble in hand . S.No. Prohibited Substances Sports 1. Alcohol (ethanol) Archery Karate 2. Beta – blockers Archery Shooting Golf
  23. 23. There are various responsibilities of athletes regarding anti – doping policies formed by WADA . There should be no violation of code by the athletes . 1) To be aware & comply with all anti-doping policies. 2) To be available for sample collection at all times as some athletes take like dosages of EPO between two standard timings of sample collection. 3) To be responsible for ingest and use of any substance or method in context of anti-doping.
  24. 24. 4) To inform medical personnel of the team about any medical treatment taken and confirming that it does not violate anti-doping policies. 5) To report immediately to doping control station for testing unless delayed for valid reason. 6) To maintain control of the sample until its sealed.
  25. 25. Anabolic Steroids : 1) Cardiovascular Effects : a) Elevates the Blood Pressure & decrease High Density Lipoprotein (HDL). b) Increase the risk of atherosclerosis . c) May lead to sudden cardiac death. 2) Endocrinal Effects : a) Increases aggressiveness which may lead to criminal behaviour. b) Males become impotent, physical appearance changes , becomes bald.
  26. 26. Anabolic Steroids : 2) Endocrinal Effects : c) Females become muscular, excessive hair growth, deepening of voice, imbalance of female hormones . d) Causes liver tumour, cancer and jaundice. 3) Psychological Effects : a) Mood swings, Aggression, Depression, Withdrawal from the problem and dependence on other persons. b) May cause disturbances in personality traits
  27. 27. Stimulants : Increase heart rate & palpitation . Causes insomnia, anxiety, aggressiveness, dehydration & heart failure. Loss of judgement power (indecisiveness). Narcotics : Causes loss of balance & co-ordination, loss of concentration. False sense of security & power. Causes nausea, drowsiness, vomiting, constipation, fainting, coma etc.. Highly addictive & causes withdrawal symptoms when stopped.
  28. 28. Peptide Hormones : Erythropoitein (EPO) : Causes thickening of the blood. Increases risk of heart attack & pulmonary embolism. Human Growth Hormones (HGH) : Causes overgrowth of limbs & face. With the age muscles become weak. Increase sweating . Causes musculo - skeletal changes (enlargement of heart, headache, joint pain etc.). Insulin : Causes low blood sugar, weakness, shortness of breath, brain damage, death.
  29. 29. Beta -2- Agonists : Prolonged use causes trembling, headache & risk of cardiac arrest. Diuretics : Causes dehydration which can seriously affect the health. Lead to mineral imbalances, muscle weakness, irregular heart beat & low blood pressure. Sodium & Potassium are decreased in body. Causes damage to kidney.
  30. 30. Glucocorticoids : Prolonged use causes : Weak tendons, Torn muscle, High blood sugar, slower healing of wounds, Sodium & water retention leading to weight gain & edema. Physical dependence & chronic fatigue. Cannabinoids : Reduce concentration & co-ordination. Reduce lung capacity leading to poor endurance. Cause heart disease & lung cancer.
  31. 31. Name of Drugs Anabolic Steroids Cortico steroids Diuretics Stimulants Narcotic Analgesics Beta Blockers Effects Increase s Muscles Mass & Strength Increases Aggressiv e-ness, Reduces Fatigue & pain Reduces wt. quickly & mask other drugs Increases Alertness & delay fatigue Kill pain & induce feeling of calm Slow heart beat & study body movemen t Minor Compli cations Male , Female hormona ls imbalanc e Retard healing or foster infections Dehydratio n, cramps, loss of sodium & potassium Restless, Anxiety, Palpitation , Irregular Breathing Aggravatio n of injuries, Coma Causes Asthma , Decrease Mental Alertness More Severe Compli cations Heart & Liver diseases Damages Kidney, Pituitary Gland & Palpitation, Heart Attack, Kidney Erratic Heart Beats & severe Slow Breathing & Dangerous Heart rate is severely slowed
  32. 32. Ergogenic Aids – Definition Ergogenic aids are substances, devices, or practices that enhance an individual’s energy use, production, or recovery. Stretching and weight training are physical ergogenic aids. Visualization and hypnosis are mental ergogenic aids. Lighter weight running shoes and better designed golf clubs are mechanical ergogenic aids. But perhaps the most commonly recognized form of ergogenic aids is the dietary supplement.
  33. 33. Ergogenic Aids : Types Psychological Mechanical  Pharmacological  Physiological  Nutritional
  34. 34. Psychological Aids : Hypnosis The induction of a state of consciousness in which a person apparently loses the power of voluntary action and is highly responsive to suggestion or direction. Music Superstitions A widely held but irrational belief in supernatural influences, especially as leading to good or bad luck, or a practice based on such a belief.
  35. 35. Psychological Aids :  Performance Enhancement Techniques. Mental Game Coaching is the segment of sports psychology that concentrates specifically on helping athletes break through the mental barriers to achieve their peak potential.  Improve focus and deal with distractions  Grow confidence in athletes who have doubts  Develop coping skills to deal with setbacks and errors  Find the right zone of intensity for your sport  To instill a healthy belief system and identify irrational thoughts  Improve or balance motivation for optimal performance  Develop confidence post-injury  To develop game-specific strategies and game plans
  36. 36. Mechanical Aids : Clothing Equipment Heat and Cold Application Improved Body Mechanics. Definition: the use of one's body to produce motion that is: safe, energy conserving, and efficient, all of which allows the person to maintain balance and control Environment (Playing Conditions and Surface)
  37. 37. Pharmacological Aids : Over the Counter Drugs: Over-the-counter drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional Caffeine, Nicotine, Amphetamines, Melatonin….etc; Increased mental alertness/concentration (central nervous system stimulant) Elevated mood Decreased fatigue Improved muscular strength
  38. 38. Pharmacological Aids : “Recreational” Drugs: Recreational drugs are mind-altering chemical substances that are used for non-medicinal, leisure purposes (i.e. taking a substance for the sole purpose of getting 'high') Alcohol, Marijuana, Cocaine…….etc; Prescription Drugs: A prescription drug is a pharmaceutical drug that legally requires a medical prescription to be dispensed. Anabolic Steroids, Benzodiazepines, Beta-Adrenergic Agents…….etc;
  39. 39. Physiological Aids :  Blood Doping  Erythropoietin (EPO) The primary role of erythropoietin is red blood cell production.  Altitude Training Altitude training is training for several weeks at high altitude, preferably over 2,400 metres (8,000 ft) above sea level for endurance. “The effects of altitude training on body include an increase of endurance, reduced recovery time, weight loss etc.  Glycerol (for keeping the body hyper hydrated)
  40. 40. Nutritional Aids : Bee Pollen Carbohydrate Loading Coenzyme Q-10 Creatine Phosphate Water or Special Beverages
  41. 41. Nutritional Aids : Bee Pollen: Mixture of vitamins, minerals, amino acids and other nutrients thought to improve performance. Carbohydrate Loading The practice of eating high amounts of carbohydrates, sometimes after a period of low carbohydrate intake, for several days immediately before competing in an athletic event, especially a marathon, in order to store glycogen in the body, thereby providing greater reserves of energy. Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinon): It's used for energy production by every cell in your body, and is therefore vital for good health, high-energy levels, longevity, and general quality of life. Facilitates aerobic metabolism as part of the electron transport chain (classified as a vitamin)
  42. 42. Water or Special Beverages Water: Water causes bloating which will suppress thirst and therefore drinking; water contains no carbohydrate or electrolytes and it also increases urine output. Sports drinks: These enhance performance during exercise, have a good absorbability as they are isotonic (meaning that they have a similar composition to that of body fluids). Isotonic fluids, because of their good absorbability quickly replace fluids lost by sweating and supply a boost of carbohydrates.
  43. 43. Water or Special Beverages Juice: Juices are hypertonic, that means they have more carbohydrate or glucose molecules per ml. They may be nutritious but are not a good choice for hydration. The fructose or the fruit sugar in the juices reduces the rate of water absorption so the cells do not get hydrated quickly. Hypertonic fluids should be taken along with Isotonic solutions or in diluted form. They should normally be taken after exercise. Carbonated beverages: Carbonated beverages cause dehydration. They have caffeine and thus have a diuretic effect which means that they increase urine output. Also they have a bloating effect and give a feeling of fullness. This inhibits the natural thirst mechanism.
  44. 44. Legal Supplements / Behaviors:  Creatine Phosphate (equivocal) : Creatine phosphate is an organic compound that provides a quick source of energy for muscle fibers to contract when they need an initial burst of energy.  Caffeine : A substance that is found especially in coffee and tea and that makes you feel more awake
  45. 45. Testing of prohibited substances is mandatory in the field of sport. An Athlete can be called for dope testing at any time In or Out - of– Competition. Following are the tests: Urine Testing Blood testing
  46. 46. Urine Testing :  Sample is provided in the supervision of coach or doctor .  Sample is taken in presence of an official of same gender  Sample is split into two and sealed by the athlete.  Code is provided by the officials.  After sampling , medical declaration is done by the athlete.  Samples are sent to registered lab where sample ‘A’ is tested.  If sample is tested positive, athlete is notified.  Athlete or his representative is authorized to be present at the time of unsealing of sample ’B’ and testing .
  47. 47. Blood Testing :  It is used to detect EPO or Artificial Oxygen Carriers .  Two samples are taken in the presence of an Official.  Samples are sealed in the presence of Athlete.  Same procedure as mentioned for Urine test is followed.
  48. 48.  It is the testing period commencing twelve hours prior to the event for the athlete who is to compete , sample is taken for testing.  In-Competition testing is at International and National level.  A single doping control organization is responsible for In-Competition doping test.  It is for the detection of Anabolic Steroids , Stimulants and Blood Doping Hormones . LEVEL ORGANIZATION Olympic Games International Olympic Committee World Championship International Federation National Level National Anti – Doping Organization
  49. 49.  It is the testing of an athlete not In-Competition but is associated with the immediate participation in the event  It is initiated & directed by both International & National doping control organization .  World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) may take : A random test .  An advance notice test.  Any place of work .  Any time .