Stem cell transplantation

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Stem cell transplantation

  1. 1. STEM CELLTRANSPLANTATION
  2. 2. STEM CELL• BASIC HUMAN CELLSThat can continuously produce unaltered daughters.Also has the ability to produce daughter cells that havedifferent, more restricted propertiesProcedure that replaces unhealthy cells with healthy onesis called asSTEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION
  3. 3. STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATIONstem for allDegenerative disordersNOW
  4. 4. HISTORY• Mid 19thcentury– Marrow was the source of blood cells.– It is just a chemical factor - transferred by eating themarrow.• 20thcentury - Formulate the idea that a– small number of cells in the marrow might be responsiblefor the development of all blood cells.– They began to refer to them as “stem cells”.• End of world war-II– Scientific exploration of marrow transplantation began
  5. 5. STEM CELL SOURCESTransplants can come from three sources:• PERIPHERAL BLOOD• MARROW• UMBILICAL CORD
  6. 6. MARROWAdvantagesCells can be frozen for yearsRetain stem cells.Good number of stem cells.DisadvantagesDonor has to undergo several health examinationSurgical procedureDonor’s body replaces the donated bone marrow in four tosix weeks that makes immunologically weak.
  7. 7. PERIPHERAL BLOODAdvantages• Released from the marrow into the blood.• Easy to collect• It don’t need any surgical process.• No recovery period.Disadvantages• Small number
  8. 8. UMBILICAL CORDAdvantagesCord Blood Transplants May Result In Less GVHD.• Collection & storage is easy &possibleDisadvantages• Less availability• Tissue rejection
  9. 9. TYPES OF TRANSPLANTATION• Syngeneic transplantation• Autologous stem cell infusion (autotransplant)• Allogeneic transplantation
  10. 10. SYNGENEIC TRANSPLANTATION• Donor and recipient are identical twins, with identicalgenetic make up & same tissue type• No treatments are needed to prevent GVHD
  11. 11. AUTOLOGOUS STEM CELLINFUSION (AUTOTRANSPLANT)• Technique that obtains stem cells from an individual’s blood ormarrow & then infuses them back into the same individual.• Principal concerns are that-– Number of stem cells harvested is adequate to obtain fullengraftment when returned to the patient.– Insufficient contaminating tumor cells in the autograph toreestablish the tumor in the patient.
  12. 12. AUTOTRANSPLANT
  13. 13. ALLOGENEIC TRANSPLANTATION• Technique of transplant with donor cells.• Two types donors-– Related Allogenic donors(sibling donors)– Unrelated Allogenic donors this is also calledtransplantation from a matched unrelateddonor(MUD)
  14. 14. ALLOGENEIC TRANSPLANTATION
  15. 15. GRAFT VERSUS HOST DISEASE• Acceptability between donor & patient stem cell isexpressed as GVHD.It may be– Acute– ChronicThis can be identified with……..
  16. 16. SIGNS ARE USUALLY–Rash–Blistering– Jaundice–Loss of apetite– Nausea– Vomiting– Diarrhea–Abnormal cramps
  17. 17. TREATMENT FOR GVHD• Chemotherapy• Immuno suppressants
  18. 18. ADVERSE EFFECTS• Gastrointestinal tract : Ulcers & dysfunction ofGIT occur frequently.• Skin: Rashes may develop.• Hair follicles: Hair loss occurs temporary• Lungs: Pneumonia• Blood vessels: Inflammation-damaged blood vessels• Liver : Jaundice
  19. 19. APPLICATIONSTreat inherited blood disorders-– Sickle cell disease– Thalassemia– Abnormal monocytesCancer– Bone marrow– Blood
  20. 20. SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL EFFECTSPRACTICAL CHALLENGES-• FINANCES• DEPRESSION

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