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สัปดาห์ที่ 11 conflict theory marx
 

สัปดาห์ที่ 11 conflict theory marx

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    สัปดาห์ที่ 11 conflict theory marx สัปดาห์ที่ 11 conflict theory marx Presentation Transcript

    • สัปดาห์ที่ 11 เอกสารประกอบการสอนวิชา 427-303 Sociological Theories เทอม 1/2553 เรื่อง Conflict Theory : Marx
    • Conflict Theory By: Erin Lepird, Sicily Canny, Mago Saldana
    • Conflict theory vs Marxism
      • Conflict theory: power is the core of ALL social relationships
      • Marxism: much like conflict theory but power is gained through economics
          • Characterized by an economic struggle between the haves and have-nots.
    • Conflict Theory
        • Alternative to functionalism
        • Macrosociological theoretical perspective
        • Resentment and hostility are constant elements of society
        • Power differences among social classes
        • Special interest groups fight over scarce resources of society
          • Interest groups fight to gain advantages over others
    • Conflict Theory (Cont’d)
      • Competition puts society off-balance until dominant group gains control and stability through power
    • Influences
      • Karl Marx (1818-1883)
        • Humanist: wanted all individuals to reach their full human potential
        • Believed humans make their own history ( historical method)
          • Controlling material production  division of labor  formation of economic social classes  Class struggle
        • Trying to combine material and ideal factors/ structural and cultural factors
    • Marx (cont’d)
      • Society was a two-class system:
      • Bourgeoisie (owners of the means of production)
      • Proletariat (workers)
    • Marx (cont’d)
      • Class differences have a lot to do with possession of personal property
      • Believed the exploited would become conscious and unite  communism  elimination of class struggle
      • Main ideas behind communism are stated in the communist manifesto
    • Max Weber (1864-1920)
      • Agreed with Marx (economics played a central role in power distinction).
      • Believed in Two other factors:
        • Social prestige (status)
          • Example: someone could be poor and still hold a lot of power because of social prestige  Mother Theresa
        • Political influence
          • Example: Politician who has great power, but does not earn a big salary
    • Max Weber (cont’d)
      • Weber defined power as “the ability to impose one’s will on another, even when the other objects” (p. 72 CST)
      • Authority: legitimate power; used with consent of the ruled
      • Distribution of power and authority = basis of social conflict
      • HOWEVER: if subordinates believe in the authority= avoided conflict
        • If authority is not recognized as a legitimate= conflict
    • Max Weber (cont’d)
      • People with power want to keep it
      • People w/out power want to seek it
      • 3 types of authority:
        • Rational-legal
        • Traditional
        • charismatic
    • Georg Simmel (1858-1918)
      • Wanted to develop a mathematics of society
        • Collection of statements about human relationships and social behavior
      • Disagreed with Marx that social classes are formed horizontally
      • There are differences in power and opinions within each group.
    • Georg Simmel (1858-1918)
      • Concepts and contributions:
        • Rejects organic theory
        • Saw society as the sum of individual interaction
        • The most important relationship is between leaders and followers, superior and subordinates
          • Superiordinate and subordinate have a reciprocal relationship
    • Georg Simmel (1858-1918)
      • Believed social action always involves harmony and conflict, love and hatred (p.74)
      • Secrecy : people who hold secrets are in a position of power.
      • Some groups are formed around secrets and are known as secret societies
        • are usually in conflict with the greater society
        • Initiation creates hierarchy
    • Modern Conflict Theory
      • Ideas of Marx, Weber, and Simmel resurfaced in America in the 1950’s through two German Sociologists:
      • Lewis Coser
      • Ralph Dahrendorf
    • Lewis Coser (1913-2003)
      • Defined conflict as “a struggle over values and claims to scarce status, power and resources in which the aims of the opponents are to neutralize, injure, or eliminate their rivals.”
      • Conflicts between intergroups and intragroups are part of social life
    • Lewis Coser (1913-2003)
      • Conflict is part of relationships and is not necessarily a sign of instability
      • Conflict serves several functions:
      • Leads to social change
      • Can stimulate innovation
      • During times of war threat, can increase central power
    • Lewis Coser (1913-2003)
      • Explored sixteen propositions of conflict through functions
      • Thought that conflict= boundaries between different groups  unity between individual members of that group and determines boundaries of power
    • Ralf Dahrendorf (1929- )
      • Social order is maintained by force from the top
      • Tension is constant
      • Extreme social change can happen at any time
      • “ there cannot be conflict unless some degreee of consensus has already been established” (p. 89)
      • Once reached, conflict temporarily disappears
    • C. Wright Mills (1916-1962)
      • Work centered around power
      • Several dimensions of inequality (like Weber)
      • Power can be independent from economic class
      • Version of conflict theory-closer to Weber’s than Marx
    • C. Wright Mills (1916-1962)
      • Concept of power elite, rather than ruling class=difference between Marx and Mills
      • There is a triangle of power:
      • Military
      • Industry
      • Politics
      • White-collar world kept power elite on top
    • C. Wright Mills (1916-1962)
      • There are three types of power:
      • Authority: power justified by the beliefs of the voluntarily obedient
      • Manipulation: power wielded unknown to the powerless
      • Coercion: the “final” form of power, where the powerless are forced to obey the powerful
    • Randall Collins (1941- )
      • “power and status are fundamental relational dimensions at the micro level of social interaction and perhaps at the macro level as well” (p. 96)
      • Collins believes there are certain goods that every group wants to pursue
        • Wealth, power, and prestige
      • “Concluded that coercion and the ability to “force” others to behave a certain way are the primary basis of conflict” (p.96)
    • Randall Collins (1941- )
      • Had a stratified approach to conflict that had 3 basic principles and 5 principles of conflict analysis
      Social Structure Individual actions
    • Relevancy
      • Maintains that what social order does, is the result of power elites’ coercion of masses
      • Those without power seek social change
      • Two class system by Marx
      • Contemporary conflict theorists don’t limit power to just economics, but also look at other issues
    • Relevancy (cont’d)
      • Three criticisms of conflict theory:
      • Ignores other ways (i.e. non-forceful ways in which people reach agreements
      • Sides with people who lack power
      • Focuses on economic factors as the sole issue for all conflict in society
          • This primarily is for Marx’s approach
    • Relevancy (cont’d)
      • Differences in power are in all types of interaction
      • Power used to be physical, but now, it’s legal and economic