สัปดาห์ที่ 11 conflict theory marx

696
-1

Published on

Published in: Technology, Economy & Finance
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
696
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
27
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

สัปดาห์ที่ 11 conflict theory marx

  1. 1. สัปดาห์ที่ 11 เอกสารประกอบการสอนวิชา 427-303 Sociological Theories เทอม 1/2553 เรื่อง Conflict Theory : Marx
  2. 2. Conflict Theory By: Erin Lepird, Sicily Canny, Mago Saldana
  3. 3. Conflict theory vs Marxism <ul><li>Conflict theory: power is the core of ALL social relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Marxism: much like conflict theory but power is gained through economics </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by an economic struggle between the haves and have-nots. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Conflict Theory <ul><ul><li>Alternative to functionalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macrosociological theoretical perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resentment and hostility are constant elements of society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power differences among social classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special interest groups fight over scarce resources of society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interest groups fight to gain advantages over others </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Conflict Theory (Cont’d) <ul><li>Competition puts society off-balance until dominant group gains control and stability through power </li></ul>
  6. 6. Influences <ul><li>Karl Marx (1818-1883) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanist: wanted all individuals to reach their full human potential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed humans make their own history ( historical method) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling material production  division of labor  formation of economic social classes  Class struggle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trying to combine material and ideal factors/ structural and cultural factors </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Marx (cont’d) <ul><li>Society was a two-class system: </li></ul><ul><li>Bourgeoisie (owners of the means of production) </li></ul><ul><li>Proletariat (workers) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Marx (cont’d) <ul><li>Class differences have a lot to do with possession of personal property </li></ul><ul><li>Believed the exploited would become conscious and unite  communism  elimination of class struggle </li></ul><ul><li>Main ideas behind communism are stated in the communist manifesto </li></ul>
  9. 9. Max Weber (1864-1920) <ul><li>Agreed with Marx (economics played a central role in power distinction). </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in Two other factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social prestige (status) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: someone could be poor and still hold a lot of power because of social prestige  Mother Theresa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Politician who has great power, but does not earn a big salary </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Max Weber (cont’d) <ul><li>Weber defined power as “the ability to impose one’s will on another, even when the other objects” (p. 72 CST) </li></ul><ul><li>Authority: legitimate power; used with consent of the ruled </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of power and authority = basis of social conflict </li></ul><ul><li>HOWEVER: if subordinates believe in the authority= avoided conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If authority is not recognized as a legitimate= conflict </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Max Weber (cont’d) <ul><li>People with power want to keep it </li></ul><ul><li>People w/out power want to seek it </li></ul><ul><li>3 types of authority: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rational-legal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>charismatic </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Georg Simmel (1858-1918) <ul><li>Wanted to develop a mathematics of society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of statements about human relationships and social behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disagreed with Marx that social classes are formed horizontally </li></ul><ul><li>There are differences in power and opinions within each group. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Georg Simmel (1858-1918) <ul><li>Concepts and contributions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejects organic theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saw society as the sum of individual interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most important relationship is between leaders and followers, superior and subordinates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superiordinate and subordinate have a reciprocal relationship </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Georg Simmel (1858-1918) <ul><li>Believed social action always involves harmony and conflict, love and hatred (p.74) </li></ul><ul><li>Secrecy : people who hold secrets are in a position of power. </li></ul><ul><li>Some groups are formed around secrets and are known as secret societies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are usually in conflict with the greater society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiation creates hierarchy </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Modern Conflict Theory <ul><li>Ideas of Marx, Weber, and Simmel resurfaced in America in the 1950’s through two German Sociologists: </li></ul><ul><li>Lewis Coser </li></ul><ul><li>Ralph Dahrendorf </li></ul>
  16. 16. Lewis Coser (1913-2003) <ul><li>Defined conflict as “a struggle over values and claims to scarce status, power and resources in which the aims of the opponents are to neutralize, injure, or eliminate their rivals.” </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts between intergroups and intragroups are part of social life </li></ul>
  17. 17. Lewis Coser (1913-2003) <ul><li>Conflict is part of relationships and is not necessarily a sign of instability </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict serves several functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to social change </li></ul><ul><li>Can stimulate innovation </li></ul><ul><li>During times of war threat, can increase central power </li></ul>
  18. 18. Lewis Coser (1913-2003) <ul><li>Explored sixteen propositions of conflict through functions </li></ul><ul><li>Thought that conflict= boundaries between different groups  unity between individual members of that group and determines boundaries of power </li></ul>
  19. 19. Ralf Dahrendorf (1929- ) <ul><li>Social order is maintained by force from the top </li></ul><ul><li>Tension is constant </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme social change can happen at any time </li></ul><ul><li>“ there cannot be conflict unless some degreee of consensus has already been established” (p. 89) </li></ul><ul><li>Once reached, conflict temporarily disappears </li></ul>
  20. 20. C. Wright Mills (1916-1962) <ul><li>Work centered around power </li></ul><ul><li>Several dimensions of inequality (like Weber) </li></ul><ul><li>Power can be independent from economic class </li></ul><ul><li>Version of conflict theory-closer to Weber’s than Marx </li></ul>
  21. 21. C. Wright Mills (1916-1962) <ul><li>Concept of power elite, rather than ruling class=difference between Marx and Mills </li></ul><ul><li>There is a triangle of power: </li></ul><ul><li>Military </li></ul><ul><li>Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Politics </li></ul><ul><li>White-collar world kept power elite on top </li></ul>
  22. 22. C. Wright Mills (1916-1962) <ul><li>There are three types of power: </li></ul><ul><li>Authority: power justified by the beliefs of the voluntarily obedient </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulation: power wielded unknown to the powerless </li></ul><ul><li>Coercion: the “final” form of power, where the powerless are forced to obey the powerful </li></ul>
  23. 23. Randall Collins (1941- ) <ul><li>“power and status are fundamental relational dimensions at the micro level of social interaction and perhaps at the macro level as well” (p. 96) </li></ul><ul><li>Collins believes there are certain goods that every group wants to pursue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealth, power, and prestige </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“Concluded that coercion and the ability to “force” others to behave a certain way are the primary basis of conflict” (p.96) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Randall Collins (1941- ) <ul><li>Had a stratified approach to conflict that had 3 basic principles and 5 principles of conflict analysis </li></ul>Social Structure Individual actions
  25. 25. Relevancy <ul><li>Maintains that what social order does, is the result of power elites’ coercion of masses </li></ul><ul><li>Those without power seek social change </li></ul><ul><li>Two class system by Marx </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary conflict theorists don’t limit power to just economics, but also look at other issues </li></ul>
  26. 26. Relevancy (cont’d) <ul><li>Three criticisms of conflict theory: </li></ul><ul><li>Ignores other ways (i.e. non-forceful ways in which people reach agreements </li></ul><ul><li>Sides with people who lack power </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on economic factors as the sole issue for all conflict in society </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This primarily is for Marx’s approach </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Relevancy (cont’d) <ul><li>Differences in power are in all types of interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Power used to be physical, but now, it’s legal and economic </li></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×