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Ad and da convertor

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  • 1.  An electronic integrated circuit which transformsa signal from analog (continuous) to digital(discrete) form. Analog signals are directly measurablequantities. Digital signals only have two states. For digitalcomputer, we refer to binary states, 0 and 1.
  • 2.  Microprocessors can only perform complexprocessing on digitized signals. When signals are in digital form they are lesssusceptible to the deleterious effects of additivenoise. ADC Provides a link between the analog world oftransducers and the digital world of signalprocessing and data handling.
  • 3.  ADC are used virtually everywhere where ananalog signal has to be processed, stored, ortransported in digital form. Some examples of ADC usage are digital voltmeters, cell phone, thermocouples, and digitaloscilloscope. Microcontrollers commonly use 8, 10, 12, or 16bit ADCs, our micro controller uses an 8 or 10 bitADC.
  • 4.  Dual Slope A/D Converter Successive Approximation A/D Converter Flash A/D Converter Delta-Sigma A/D Converter OtherVoltage-to-frequency, staircase ramp or singleslope, charge balancing or redistribution, switchedcapacitor, tracking, and synchro or resolver
  • 5.  The general smart concept was narrowed downto a specific goal: to improve the performance ofa high-speed, high-resolution ADC in terms ofthe speed/power/accuracy trade-off. Two key-factors were investigated that have thepotential to enable high-performance ADconverters for high-speed/high-resolutionapplications, namely: Open-loop circuitry. Time-interleaving.
  • 6.  In electronics, a digital-to-analog converter (DACor D-to-A) is a device that converts a digital(usually binary) code to an analog signal(current, voltage, or electric charge). An analog-to-digital converter (ADC) performs the reverseoperation. Signals are easily stored andtransmitted in digital form, but a DAC is neededfor the signal to be recognized by human sensesor other non-digital systems. A common use of digital-to-analog converters isgeneration of audio signals from digitalinformation in music players.
  • 7.  A simplified functional diagram of an 8-bit DAC
  • 8.  The pulse-width modulator, the simplest DAC type. A stable current or voltage is switched into a low-pass analog filter with a duration determined by thedigital input code. This technique is often used for electric motor speedcontrol, but has many other applications as well.
  • 9.  Resolution: Maximum sampling rate Monotonicity: THD+N : Dynamic range:
  • 10.  The smart concept was applied to DA converterswith as aim to minimize the analog area as muchas possible, and to use digital processinginstead to solve the related accuracy problem.