WHATARE MICRO CONTROLLERS?• A microcontroller is a small computer on a singleintegrated circuit containing a processor core, memory,and programmable input/output peripherals.• Microcontrollers are designed for embeddedapplications, in contrast to the microprocessors used inpersonal computers or other general purposeapplications.• A microcontroller is often small and low cost. Thecomponents are chosen to minimize size and to be asinexpensive as possible.
WHY MICRO CONTROLLERS AREPREFERRED IN WASHING MACHINE?• Adds a digital user interface with push buttonsrather than knobs• Control and sensing go hand in hand, sotracking of speed of motors , watertemperature, electrical failures, etc. is possibleeasily• Have easier control over machine operation(timing profiles, intensity, motor speed, etc)
BREADBOARD OF WASHING MACHINESWITH MICROCONTROLLER:
WORKING (IN SIMPLE TERMS):--Chip has number of input and output pins--The chip monitors the states of thewashing machine according to the inputselected by user--Chip also has some analogue inputs andoutputs . Analogue input for comparing thetemp. and for perferming certain operationsat defiined temp.and analogue outputs tovary the motor speed or water flow rate.
ACTUALWORKING:• Used for controlling both the IGBTs formotor drive and the system.•Need the capability to efficiently controlthe torque and the amount of watersuitable for the amount of laundry.•Generally microcontrollers with VectorEngines are used for controlling multiplemotors efficiently and smoothly.
• The Vector Engine is a dedicated hardware thatautomatically performs basic processing of theVector control and executes the PI controller tocontrol electric current.• Circuits of the Vector Engine consist of thefollowing sections:-Arithmetic unit to execute processing (called atask for Vector Engine).-Scheduler to control the operation of tasks.-Interface between an AD converter and PWMoutput.
• An interrupt signal from an AD converter activates theVector Engine. The Vector Engine acquires data andexecutes computing such as coordinate transformationand aspect conversion. Complex computation usingcomplicated software is no longer required, becausethe Vector Engine automatically performs the PIcontrol for controlling speed, aspect conversion usingspace vector and puts data into the PWM output circuit
Advantages:• It works more efficiently then the earlier knobs• It helps to maintain the water levels and alsohelps to perform specific operations at specifictime