THE ORACLES
-DEVI WAGHDARE
FATEMA HUSAIN
SAILEE GURAV
SNEHA SAMALA
 Receptors-

INTRODUCTION

 Receptor is a molecule found on the surface of

a cell, which receives specific chemical sig...
Olfactory receptors
• Olfactory receptors are responsible for the detection

of odor molecules.
• Olfactory receptors are ...
Classification
 Based on protein sequence similarity, mammalian OR genes

are divided into two classes, 17 families and ∼...
OR4D11
 Olfactory receptor, family 4,subfamily D, member 11









[ Homosapiens ][ Pseudogene]
Official Symbol-...
LOCATION
Chromosome: 11;Location: 11q12.1

General Gene
information

Markers:OR4D11__6029 (e-PCR)
Homologs of the OR4D11 g...
Protein attributes
Sequence length

311 AA.

Sequence status

Complete.

Protein existence
Biological process
Cellular com...
Comparison of Chimpanzee &
Human Genome
•Scientists have found that humans are 96 percent
similar to the great ape species...
 The no. of genetic differences between

humans and chimps is 10 times smaller
than that between mice and rats.

 Scient...
 Despite the similarities in human & chimp

genomes, the scientists identified some 40
million differences among 3 billio...
Mutations
 Humans & chimps originate from a common

ancestor & scientists believe they diverged
some 6 million years ago....


Homo sapiens olfactory receptor, family 4, subfamily D, member 11 (OR4D11), mRNA
ATGGAGTTGGGAAATGTCACCAGAGTAAAAGAATTTAT...
 olfactory receptor 4D11 [Homo sapiens]

MELGNVTRVKEFIFLGLTQSQDQSLVLFLFLCLV
YMTTLLGNLLIMVTVTCESRLHTPMYFLLRNLAI
LD
ICFSSTT...
PRIMER DESIGNING
Using SDSC Workbench
Optimal Primer Pair/Probe
 or4d11 RIGHT PRIMER opt
PRIMER3, 20 bp
>or4d11_RIGHT_PRI...
RESULTS OF BLASTN
OF Homo sapiens
RESULTS OF NUCLEOTIDE BLAST
OF Homo sapiens & Pan troglodytes
Blastp of Homo sapiens
PHYLOGENETIC TREE

Homo sapiens
Pan troglodytes
Macaca mulatta
Eqqus caballus



RIBBON FORM

WIREFRAME
STICKS

BACKBONE
SPACEFILL

BALL AND STICK
CARTOONS
STRANDS
MOLECULAR SURFACE
BIBLOGRAPHY

Refrences for Literature:

 http://genome.cshlp.org/content/15/2/224.long-

Genome
 http://www.genecards.or...
References for BLAST,sequences,SDSC workbench,protein
structures,etc.
 http://seqtool.sdsc.edu/CGI/BW.cgi#!

 http://bla...
Or4d11 Olfactory Receptors
Or4d11 Olfactory Receptors
Or4d11 Olfactory Receptors
Or4d11 Olfactory Receptors
Or4d11 Olfactory Receptors
Or4d11 Olfactory Receptors
Or4d11 Olfactory Receptors
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Or4d11 Olfactory Receptors

  1. 1. THE ORACLES -DEVI WAGHDARE FATEMA HUSAIN SAILEE GURAV SNEHA SAMALA
  2. 2.  Receptors- INTRODUCTION  Receptor is a molecule found on the surface of a cell, which receives specific chemical signals from neighboring cells.  A molecule which binds to a receptor is called a ligand or other small molecule, such as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, a pharmaceutical drug, or a toxin.  Each kind of receptor can bind only certain ligand shapes.
  3. 3. Olfactory receptors • Olfactory receptors are responsible for the detection of odor molecules. • Olfactory receptors are type of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). • In humans, but not in mice or dogs, the majority of OR genes have become pseudogenes, suggesting that OR genes in humans evolved than in other mammals. • To explore this further ,we compare OR gene of humans with the genome of closest evolutionary relative chimpanzee.
  4. 4. Classification  Based on protein sequence similarity, mammalian OR genes are divided into two classes, 17 families and ∼250 subfamilies .  When human or gene formed analysis was done by searching the human genome database, we identified 339 intact OR genes and 297 OR pseudogenes. Location  Olfactory epithelium is present at at the top of the nasal cavity.  Each olfactory neuron in the epithelium has at least 10 hair-like cilia that protrude into a thin bath of mucus at the cell surface.  Somewhere on these cilia, scientists were convinced, there must be receptor proteins that recognize and bind odorant molecules, thereby stimulating the cell to send signals to the brain. Discovery  In 2004 Linda B. Buck and Richard Axelwon the
  5. 5. OR4D11  Olfactory receptor, family 4,subfamily D, member 11        [ Homosapiens ][ Pseudogene] Official Symbol-OR4D11 or OR4D11P Official Full Name-Olfactory receptor, family 4, subfamily D, member Gene type-Protein coding Organism-Homo sapiens Lineage-Eukaryota, Metazoa,Chordata, Craniata,Vertebrata,Euteleostomi,Mammalia,Eutheria,Euar chontoglires,Primates,Haplorrhini,Catarrhini,Hominidae,H omo. Olfactory receptor 4D11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the 4D11 gene. OR share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter & hormone receptors & are responsible for the recognisation & G-protein mediated transduction
  6. 6. LOCATION Chromosome: 11;Location: 11q12.1 General Gene information Markers:OR4D11__6029 (e-PCR) Homologs of the OR4D11 gene: The OR4D11 gene is conserved in chimpanzee, dog, mouse, and rat. Pathways KEGG pathway: Olfactory transduction
  7. 7. Protein attributes Sequence length 311 AA. Sequence status Complete. Protein existence Biological process Cellular component Evidence at transcript level. Olfaction Sensory transduction Gene information Function Odorant receptor Subcellular location Cell membrane; Multipass membrane protein Sequence similarities Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. Cell membrane Biological process Coding sequence diversity Polymorphism Domain Transmembrane helix Molecular function G-protein coupled receptor Transducer PTM Technical term Cellular component Response to stimulus Sensory perception of smell Integral to plasma membrane Disulfide bond Glycoprotein Complete proteome Molecular function Olfactory receptor activity
  8. 8. Comparison of Chimpanzee & Human Genome •Scientists have found that humans are 96 percent similar to the great ape species. •Because chimpanzees are our closest relatives, it is easy to understand human biology and evolution. •The researchers have identified sequences of genetic code that differ between human and chimp. •These sequences may hold good for determining what creates human-specific traits such as speech.
  9. 9.  The no. of genetic differences between humans and chimps is 10 times smaller than that between mice and rats.  Scientists discovered that some classes of genes are changing quickly in both humans & chimpanzees, as compared with other mammals.  These classes include genes involved in the perception of sound & transmission of nerve signals.
  10. 10.  Despite the similarities in human & chimp genomes, the scientists identified some 40 million differences among 3 billion nucleotides in each genome however only a couple thousand were significant.  Human & chimp sequences differ by only 1.2 % in terms of single-nucleotide changes to the genetic code.  But 2.7 % of the genetic difference between humans and chimps genetic segments code are copied many times in the genome.
  11. 11. Mutations  Humans & chimps originate from a common ancestor & scientists believe they diverged some 6 million years ago.  A few important mutations are responsible for the differences between the 2 species, according to Wen-Hsiung Li, a molecular evolutionist.  Scientists agree that many questions remain unanswered but the chimp genome provides important clues to understanding what makes us human.
  12. 12.  Homo sapiens olfactory receptor, family 4, subfamily D, member 11 (OR4D11), mRNA ATGGAGTTGGGAAATGTCACCAGAGTAAAAGAATTTATATTTCTGGGACTTACTCAATCCC AAGACCAGA GTTTGGTCTTGTTTCTTTTTTTATGTCTTGTGTACATGACGACTCTGCTGGGAAACCTCCT CATCATGGT CACCGTGACCTGTGAGTCTCGCCTTCACACCCCCATGTACTTCCTGCTCCGCAATCTAG CCATCCTTGAC ATCTGCTTCTCCTCCACAACTGCTCCTAAAGTCTTGCTGGACCTTCTGTCAAAGAAAAAG ACCATATCCT ATACAAGCTGCATGACACAGATATTTCTCTTCCACCTCCTTGGTGGGGCAGACATTTTTTC TCTCTCTGT GATGGCGTTTGACTGCTACATGGCCATCTCCAAGCCCCTGCACTATGTGACCATCATGAG TAGAGGGCAA TGCACTGCCCTCATCTCTGCCTCTTGGATGGGGGGCTTTGTCCACTCCATCGTGCAGAT CTCCCTGTTGC TGCCTCTCCCTTTCTGTGGACCCAATGTTCTTGACACTTTCTACTGCGATGTCCCCCAGG TCCTCAAACT CACTTGCACTGACACTTTTGCTCTTGAGTTCTTGATGATTTCCAACAATGGCCTGGTCAC TACCCTGTGG TTTATCTTCCTGCTTGTGTCCTACACAGTCATCCTAATGACGCTGAGGTCTCAGGCAGGA GGGGGCAGGA GGAAAGCCATCTCCACTTGCACCTCCCACATCACTGTGGTGACCCTGCATTTTGTGCCC TGCATCTATGT CTATGCCCGGCCCTTCACTGCCCTCCCCACAGAAAAGGCCATCTCTGTCACCTTCACTG TCATCTCCCCT CTGCTGAACCCTTTGATCTACACTCTGAGGAACCAGGAAATGAAGTCAGCCATGAGAAG ACTGAAGAGAA GACTCGTGCCTTCTGAAAGGGAATAG
  13. 13.  olfactory receptor 4D11 [Homo sapiens] MELGNVTRVKEFIFLGLTQSQDQSLVLFLFLCLV YMTTLLGNLLIMVTVTCESRLHTPMYFLLRNLAI LD ICFSSTTAPKVLLDLLSKKKTISYTSCMTQIFLFH LLGGADIFSLSVMAFDCYMAISKPLHYVTIMSRG Q CTALISASWMGGFVHSIVQISLLLPLPFCGPNVL DTFYCDVPQVLKLTCTDTFALEFLMISNNGLVTT LW FIFLLVSYTVILMTLRSQAGGGRRKAISTCTSHIT VVTLHFVPCIYVYARPFTALPTEKAISVTFTVISP LLNPLIYTLRNQEMKSAMRRLKRRLVPSERE
  14. 14. PRIMER DESIGNING Using SDSC Workbench Optimal Primer Pair/Probe  or4d11 RIGHT PRIMER opt PRIMER3, 20 bp >or4d11_RIGHT_PRIMER_opt CAAACGCCATCACAGAGAGA  or4d11 LEFT PRIMER opt PRIMER3, 20 bp >or4d11_LEFT_PRIMER_opt GACCTGTGAGTCTCGCCTTC SEQUENCE SIZE: 936INCLUDED REGION SIZE: 936 PRODUCT SIZE: 215, PAIR ANY COMPL: 6.00, PAIR 3' COMPL: 2.00  or4d11 LEFT PRIMER 3 PRIMER3, 20 bp >or4d11_LEFT_PRIMER_3GACCTGTGAGTCTCGCCTTC  or4d11 RIGHT PRIMER 3 PRIMER3, 20 bp >or4d11_RIGHT_PRIMER_3TAGCAGTCAAACGCCATCAC PRODUCT SIZE: 222, PAIR ANY COMPL: 4.00, PAIR 3' COMPL: 1.00 
  15. 15. RESULTS OF BLASTN OF Homo sapiens
  16. 16. RESULTS OF NUCLEOTIDE BLAST OF Homo sapiens & Pan troglodytes
  17. 17. Blastp of Homo sapiens
  18. 18. PHYLOGENETIC TREE Homo sapiens Pan troglodytes Macaca mulatta Eqqus caballus
  19. 19.   RIBBON FORM WIREFRAME
  20. 20. STICKS BACKBONE
  21. 21. SPACEFILL BALL AND STICK
  22. 22. CARTOONS STRANDS
  23. 23. MOLECULAR SURFACE
  24. 24. BIBLOGRAPHY Refrences for Literature:  http://genome.cshlp.org/content/15/2/224.long- Genome  http://www.genecards.org/cgi- bin/carddisp.pl?gene=OR4D11-Genecards  http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8NGI4-Uniprot  http://www.ebi.ac.uk/s4/summary/molecular?term=OR 4D11&classification=9606&tid=nameOrgENSG0000017 6200-EMBL-EBI  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&C md=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=219986-NCBI  http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/08/083 1_050831_chimp_genes.htm l- National – National geographic
  25. 25. References for BLAST,sequences,SDSC workbench,protein structures,etc.  http://seqtool.sdsc.edu/CGI/BW.cgi#!  http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nucleotide/55636126?report=genbank&log$=n ucltop&blast_rank=5&RID=ZGU8HDAG01N  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/55636127?report=fasta  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/  http://www.pdb.org/pdb/home/home.do  http://www.uniprot.org/  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ • http://highwire.stanford.edu/

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