On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
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Receptor is a molecule found on the surface of
a cell, which receives specific chemical signals from
A molecule which binds to a receptor is called
a ligand or other small molecule, such as
a neurotransmitter, a hormone, a pharmaceutical
drug, or a toxin.
Each kind of receptor can bind only certain ligand
• Olfactory receptors are responsible for the detection
of odor molecules.
• Olfactory receptors are type of G protein-coupled
• In humans, but not in mice or dogs, the majority of
OR genes have become pseudogenes, suggesting that
OR genes in humans evolved than in other
• To explore this further ,we compare OR gene of
humans with the genome of closest evolutionary
Based on protein sequence similarity, mammalian OR genes
are divided into two classes, 17 families and ∼250
When human or gene formed analysis was done by
searching the human genome database, we identified 339
intact OR genes and 297 OR pseudogenes.
Olfactory epithelium is present at at the top of the nasal
Each olfactory neuron in the epithelium has at least 10
hair-like cilia that protrude into a thin bath of mucus at the
Somewhere on these cilia, scientists were convinced,
there must be receptor proteins that recognize and bind
odorant molecules, thereby stimulating the cell to send
signals to the brain.
In 2004 Linda B. Buck and Richard Axelwon the
Olfactory receptor, family 4,subfamily D, member 11
[ Homosapiens ][ Pseudogene]
Official Symbol-OR4D11 or OR4D11P
Official Full Name-Olfactory receptor, family 4, subfamily
Gene type-Protein coding
Olfactory receptor 4D11 is a protein that in humans is
encoded by the 4D11 gene.
OR share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many
neurotransmitter & hormone receptors & are responsible
for the recognisation & G-protein mediated transduction
Chromosome: 11;Location: 11q12.1
Homologs of the OR4D11 gene: The OR4D11 gene
is conserved in chimpanzee, dog, mouse, and rat.
KEGG pathway: Olfactory transduction
Evidence at transcript
Cell membrane; Multipass membrane protein
Belongs to the
receptor 1 family.
Response to stimulus
Integral to plasma
Comparison of Chimpanzee &
•Scientists have found that humans are 96 percent
similar to the great ape species.
•Because chimpanzees are our closest relatives, it is
easy to understand human biology and evolution.
•The researchers have identified sequences of
genetic code that differ between human and chimp.
•These sequences may hold good for determining
what creates human-specific traits such as speech.
The no. of genetic differences between
humans and chimps is 10 times smaller
than that between mice and rats.
Scientists discovered that some classes of
genes are changing quickly in both humans
& chimpanzees, as compared with other
These classes include genes involved in the
perception of sound & transmission of
Despite the similarities in human & chimp
genomes, the scientists identified some 40
million differences among 3 billion
nucleotides in each genome however only a
couple thousand were significant.
Human & chimp sequences differ by only
1.2 % in terms of single-nucleotide
changes to the genetic code.
But 2.7 % of the genetic difference
between humans and chimps genetic
segments code are copied many times in
Humans & chimps originate from a common
ancestor & scientists believe they diverged
some 6 million years ago.
A few important mutations are responsible for
the differences between the 2 species,
according to Wen-Hsiung Li, a molecular
Scientists agree that many questions remain
unanswered but the chimp genome provides
important clues to understanding what makes
Using SDSC Workbench
Optimal Primer Pair/Probe
or4d11 RIGHT PRIMER opt
PRIMER3, 20 bp
or4d11 LEFT PRIMER opt
PRIMER3, 20 bp
SEQUENCE SIZE: 936INCLUDED REGION SIZE: 936
PRODUCT SIZE: 215, PAIR ANY COMPL: 6.00, PAIR 3' COMPL: 2.00
or4d11 LEFT PRIMER 3
PRIMER3, 20 bp
or4d11 RIGHT PRIMER 3
PRIMER3, 20 bp
PRODUCT SIZE: 222, PAIR ANY COMPL: 4.00, PAIR 3' COMPL: 1.00
RESULTS OF BLASTN
OF Homo sapiens
RESULTS OF NUCLEOTIDE BLAST
OF Homo sapiens & Pan troglodytes
Blastp of Homo sapiens
BALL AND STICK
Refrences for Literature:
1_050831_chimp_genes.htm l- National – National