Statistics Affects 23.6 million people in the U.S. - Diagnosed: 17.9 million people - Undiagnosed: 5.7 million people 7th leading cause of death in the U.S (2006)
What is Diabetes? A chronic disease in which the body can not properly use or make insulin. Insulin- a hormone made in the pancrease that turns sugar (glucose) into energy for the body to use
What happens without insulin? Lack of insulin ⇓ Build up of glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia) ⇓ Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus
Symptoms Frequent urination Excessive thirst Extreme hunger - Cells are starved for energy Unexplained weight loss - Insulin can not trigger the storage of fat Fatigue Delayed wound healing
Type I Diabetes Mellitus Juvenile diabetes Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus Autoimmune disorder The body destroys the cells that make the insulin Thus, the body can no longer produce insulin
Type I Diabetes Mellitus Usually diagnosed in children & young adults ( <30 years old) 5-10% of diabetics
Type I Diabetes Mellitus RISK factors: - Genetics - Autoimmune history Type I is not preventable
Type I Treatment Glucose monitoring often Insulin injections Exercise Diet Follow up with doctor Educate yourself!
Type II Diabetes Mellitus Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus Body makes insulin but most cells do not use insulin properly Insulin resistance Slowly, the pancreas stops making insulin.
Type II Diabetes Mellitus 90-95 % of diabetics RISK factors - Older age - Family history - Obesity - Physical Inactivity - Race and Ethnicity
Type II Risk Factors Obesity & Inactivity - Studies find a relationship between weight/activity level and Type II - Seeing an increase in Type II diabetes in children
Type II Diabetes Mellitus Race & Ethnicity - African Americans - Hispanic/Latino Americans - American Indians - Asian Americans - Pacific Islanders
Type II Prevention If have risk factors, prevent or delay the onset of Type II… - Healthy diet - Moderately intense exercise (walking 2 1/2 hours each week)
Type II Treatment Goal: Control blood sugar (glucose) - Glucose monitoring often - Oral medicine / Insulin injections - Diet - Exercise / Weight management - Follow up with doctor - Educate yourself!
Diet - Carb Counting Carbohydrates raise blood glucose levels Keep track of how many carbs you eat and set a limit for yourself Limit depends on your activity level and medications Talk to your doctor!
Diet - Create your plate Divide plate into 3 sections - Large section - non-starch veggies (spinach, cabbage, mushrooms) - Small section - starch (potatoes, whole grain breads) - Small section - meat (turkey, tuna, lean pork)
Diet - Individualized No one diet is appropriate for every diabetic person Work with your doctor to come up with a diet that is right for your situation
Complications of Diabetes Heart disease Blindness Kidney damage Diabetic neuropathy / nerve damage Prevent complications by managing your glucose level, diet, and activity!
Diabetes Awareness November is American Diabetes Month November 14 is World Diabetes DayFor more information: www.cdc.gov www.diabetes.org www.ndep.nih.gov