Storage networking-technologies
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  • 1. EDUCATION Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage© Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved. Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage Howard Goldstein Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. Howard.Goldstein@HGAI.Com
  • 2. 2 EDUCATION Storage Networking Concepts • Objectives: – Identify what networking is and how it relates to storage – Examine storage networking technology similarities and differences – Clarify and explain the language of networking: Terminology – Uniquely inform and hopefully entertain Networking Technologies Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 3. 3 EDUCATION Outline Networking Technologies Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 4. 4 EDUCATION Outline • Network vs. Storage • ANs and ASes • Perspectives • Virtual SCSI Cables • Port vs. PHY • Switch vs. Router vs. Gateway • Circuit Switch vs. Packet Switch • Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless • Layered Protocols • Flow Control • Payload Integrity • Names vs. Addresses • Segmentation, Convergence, Reassembly & Offload • Bit Rate, Bandwidth, Throughput • Semantic Analysm • Future & Conclusions Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 5. 5 EDUCATION Network Vs. Storage Network Considerations Storage Considerations Information movement Information repository Data over Distance Data over Time Configuring and segmenting network topologies Formatting and partitioning hard disks, Creating logical volumes Hubs, Bridges, Switches, Routers, Gateways JBOD, RAID, Disk Controllers, Tape Controllers Client / Server Applications Initiator / Target Functions Email, Web Browsing, File Mgt, Network Interface Backup, Archive, Mirror, Block Mgt, I/O Interfaces Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 6. 6 EDUCATION Network Vs. Storage Network Considerations Storage Considerations Speed, Solid-State Capacity, Mechanical Movement Media – Copper, Fiber, Wireless Media – Disk, Tape, Paper Bits in Frames, CRC error checks every frame Bytes in Blocks, Parity check every byte Buffers and Link transfer rates – Kbps, Mbps, Gbps Cache and Disk/Tape I/O interface transfer rates - MBps Interconnectivity network and device latencies - bottlenecks Disk/Tape seek times and latencies – ms, us, ns Applications – HTTP, NFS, SMTP Transport Protocols – TCP/IP/Ethernet Logical Device Protocols – SCSI, ESCON, IDE/ATA Physical Protocols – Parallel SCSI, Fibre Channel, iSCSI/TCP/IP/Ethernet Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 7. 7 EDUCATION Storage Data Units of Measure Unit of Measure Abbreviation Approximate Size Byte Byte 8 bits Block Blk 512 Bytes Kilobyte KB 1,024 Bytes Megabyte MB 1 Million Bytes Gigabyte GB 1,000 MB Terabyte TB 1,000 GB Petabyte PB 1,000 TB Exabyte EB 1 Million TB Zetabyte ZB 1,000 EB Yottabyte YB 1,000 ZB How long would it take someone to download a one- yottabyte file using a 56 Kbps modem? 5.5 trillion years. ReallyReally BigBig NumbersNumbers Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 8. 8 EDUCATION Network Data Units of Measure 11 Unit of Measure Power of 10 Number milli - 3 One thousandth micro - 6 One millionth nano - 9 One billionth pico - 12 One trillionth femto - 15 One quadrillionth atto - 18 One quintillionth zepto - 21 One sextillionth yocto - 24 One septillionth ReallyReally SmallSmall NumbersNumbers Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 9. 9 EDUCATION Basic Storage Network Technology Direct-Attached Storage (DAS) Application File System Storage Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 10. 10 EDUCATION Basic Storage Network Technology Direct-Attached Storage (DAS) Application File System Storage Direct-Attached Storage (DAS) Application File System Storage Direct-Attached Storage (DAS) Application File System Storage Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 11. 11 EDUCATION Basic Storage Network Technology Network-Attached Storage (NAS) Application File System Storage Network Application File System Storage Direct-Attached Storage (DAS) Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 12. 12 EDUCATION Basic Storage Network Technology Network-Attached Storage (NAS) Application File System Storage Application Application Network Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 13. 13 EDUCATION Basic Storage Network Technology Network-Attached Storage (NAS) Storage Area Network (SAN) Application File System Storage Network Application File System Storage Direct-Attached Storage (DAS) Application File SystemNetwork Storage Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 14. 14 EDUCATION Basic Storage Network Technology Storage Area Network (SAN) Application File System Storage Network Storage Storage Application File System Application File System Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 15. 15 EDUCATION Basic Storage Network Technology Network-Attached Storage (NAS) Storage Area Network (SAN) Application File System Storage Network Application File System Storage Direct-Attached Storage (DAS) Application File System Network Storage Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 16. 16 EDUCATION Basic Storage Network Technology Network-Attached Storage (NAS) Storage Area Network (SAN) Application Storage Application File System Network Storage Network File System
  • 17. 17 EDUCATION Basic Storage Network Technology Network-Attached Storage (NAS) Storage Area Network (SAN) Application File System Storage Network Application File SystemNetwork Storage NAS & SAN
  • 18. 18 EDUCATION Application File System Storage File Request File RequestFile Block Request Block Request Blocks Blocks File DAS Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 19. 19 EDUCATION Network Attached Storage NAS •Messages •Files NFS/CIFS Client NFS/CIFS Server LAN NAS File File Request Blocks Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 20. 20 EDUCATION Storage Area Network SERVER NAS Gateway SAN Storage • Commands • Blocks • Control • Status Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 21. 21 EDUCATION Storage Area Network – “External SAN” SERVER SAN SCSI Initiator Client SCSI Target & LUN Server Read Command Request Blocks Status “External SAN” File File Request Application Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 22. 22 EDUCATION Network Network Network LAN MAN WAN Redundant Array of Independent Disks Disk Drives Controller A Controller B Network“SmAN” Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 23. 23 EDUCATION LAN/SAN Benefits • Greater Asset Utilization • Expanded connectivity • Port consolidation • Extended distance • Higher bandwidth • Potential performance improvement LAN SAN FC IP Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 24. 24 EDUCATION LAN & SAN Information Flow Requirements LAN SAN Ethernet IP TCP, UDP iSCSI, HTTP, SMTP, NFS, FTP, DNS Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 25. 25 EDUCATION “External SAN” I/O Request to Storage Controller Controller Controller SAN External Read Command Request Disk Disk Disk Disk Disk Disk External SCSI Target & LUN Blocks Blocks Status Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 26. 26 EDUCATION “Internal SAN” I/O Requests in Storage Controller Controller 2 Controller 1 Controller 1 Internal SCSI Initiator Client Internal SCSI Target & LUN (Disk Drive) Controller 1 Internal Read Command Request Blocks Status “Internal SAN” RAID Controller 1 Internal Read Command Request Internal SCSI Target & LUN (Disk Drive) External Read Command Request Disk Disk Disk Disk Disk Disk Status Blocks External SCSI Target & LUN Blocks Blocks Status FC Loop Switch SAN Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 27. 27 EDUCATION Controller 2 Controller 1 Internal SCSI Initiator Client Internal SCSI Target & LUN (Disk Drive) Controller 1 Internal Read Command Request Blocks Status “Internal SAN” RAID Controller 1 Internal Read Command Request Internal SCSI Target & LUN (Disk Drive) External Read Command Request Disk Disk Disk Disk Disk Disk Status Blocks External SCSI Target & LUN Blocks Blocks Status “Internal SAN” I/O Requests in Storage Controller FC Loop Switch Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 28. 28 EDUCATION Controller Controller Internal SCSI Initiator Client Internal SCSI Target & LUN (Disk Drive) Internal Read Command Request Blocks Status “Internal SAN” RAID Internal Read Command Request Internal SCSI Target & LUN (Disk Drive) External Read Command Request Disk Disk Disk Disk Disk Disk Status Blocks External SCSI Target & LUN Blocks Blocks Status “Internal SAN” I/O Requests in Storage Controller SAS Expander Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 29. 29 EDUCATION Virtual SCSI Cables on SCSI Bus Target Logical Units 0 1 2 62 63 Peripheral Controller SCSI Bus Logical Units 0 1 2 62 63 Peripheral Controller Host Adapter Host Computer Initiator Host Adapter Host Computer Initiator Host Adapter Host Computer Adapter Adapter Target Initiator P-SCSI Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 30. 30 EDUCATION Virtual SCSI Cables on SCSI Bus Target Logical Units 0 1 2 62 63 Peripheral Controller SCSI Bus Logical Units 0 1 2 62 63 Peripheral Controller Host Adapter Host Computer Initiator Host Adapter Host Computer Initiator Host Adapter Host Computer Adapter Adapter Target Initiator SCSI Bus: Arbitrate ID, Select ID, Identify LUN Blocks Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 31. 31 EDUCATION Virtual SCSI Cables Fibre Channel FC: Fabric Login, N_Port Login, FC-4 Login FC SAN Host Adapter Host Computer Initiator Host Adapter Host Computer Initiator Host Adapter Host Computer Initiator Logical Units 0 1 2 62 63 Peripheral Controller Adapter Target Logical Units 0 1 2 62 63 Peripheral ControllerAdapter Target Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 32. 32 EDUCATION Logical Units 0 1 2 62 63 Peripheral Controller Adapter Target Logical Units 0 1 2 62 63 Peripheral ControllerAdapter Target Host Adapter Host Computer Initiator Host Adapter Host Computer Initiator Host Adapter Host Computer Initiator Virtual SCSI Cables Fibre Channel FC Switch FC SAN Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 33. 33 EDUCATION Logical Units 0 1 2 62 63 Peripheral Controller Adapter Target Logical Units 0 1 2 62 63 Peripheral ControllerAdapter Target Host Adapter Host Computer Initiator Host Adapter Host Computer Initiator Host Adapter Host Computer Initiator Virtual SCSI Cables Fibre Channel FC Switch FC Point-to-Point: Direct Routing FC Loop: Arbitrate, Open Loop Circuit FC Fabric: Switch Routing Blocks Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 34. 34 EDUCATION Virtual SCSI Cables SAS Target Logical Units 0 1 2 62 63 Peripheral Controller Host Adapter Host Computer Initiator Host Adapter Host Computer Initiator Host Adapter Host Computer Initiator Adapter Target Logical Units 0 1 2 62 63 Peripheral Controller Adapter SAS Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 35. 35 EDUCATION Virtual SCSI Cables SAS Target Logical Units 0 1 2 62 63 Peripheral Controller Host Adapter Host Computer Initiator Host Adapter Host Computer Initiator Host Adapter Host Computer Initiator Adapter SAS Expander Target Logical Units 0 1 2 62 63 Peripheral Controller Adapter SAS Serial Attached SCSI: Open, Information, Close Blocks Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 36. 36 EDUCATION Virtual SCSI Cables IP Storage (iSCSI) Target Logical Units 0 1 2 62 63 Peripheral Controller Host Adapter Host Computer Initiator Host Adapter Host Computer Initiator Host Adapter Host Computer Initiator Adapter Target Logical Units 0 1 2 62 63 Peripheral Controller Adapter IP Storage Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 37. 37 EDUCATION Virtual SCSI Cables IP Storage (iSCSI) Target Logical Units 0 1 2 62 63 Peripheral Controller Host Adapter Host Computer Initiator Host Adapter Host Computer Initiator Host Adapter Host Computer Initiator Adapter Ethernet Switch Target Logical Units 0 1 2 62 63 Peripheral Controller Adapter Blocks Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 38. 38 EDUCATION M C Escher – Ascending & Descending Monks
  • 39. 39 EDUCATION SAS Storage Controller Perspective Host HBA Disks Root Edge Expanders Fanout Expander SAS “Expanse” Service Delivery Subsytem Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 40. 40 EDUCATION SAS Storage Network Perspective HBA Disk Edge Expanders Fanout Expander Root SAS “Expanse” Service Delivery Subsytem End Devices Expanders Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 41. 41 EDUCATION SAS Storage Network: Host – Disk Perspective HBAs Disks Edge Expanders Fanout Expander Roots Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 42. 42 EDUCATION SAS Storage Network: Host – Disk Perspective Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 43. 43 EDUCATION Parts of a Physical Transport Network? 1. 2. 3. Media or the “appearance of” media Ports - 2 or more (transceivers) Protocol ? Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 44. 44 EDUCATION Port vs. PHY = Ports vs. Docks Fibre Channel, Ethernet 1 Port – 1 PHY SAS, Infiniband 1 Port – Many PHYs Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 45. 45 EDUCATION Striping the Transmission Word 1 Link - 4 Phy Lanes 0 1 2 30 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 PCIe, InfiniBand does Striping (4x, 12x) SAS is not Striping – See connection path Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 46. 46 EDUCATION Striping the Transmission Word 1 Link - 4 Phy Lanes 0 1 2 30 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 10 Gbps Fibre Channel, PCIe, InfiniBand does Striping SAS is not Striping – See connection path Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 47. 47 EDUCATION SAS Expander – Open, Arbitration, Open Accept Node Node Node Node Expander ARB 02, 03 Frame Primitive ID 03 ID 04 ID 01 ID 02OPEN Accept OPEN 02, 03 AIP AIP Done OPEN 02, 03 Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 48. 48 EDUCATION SAS Expander – Move Node Node Node Node Expander Frame Primitive ID 03 ID 04 ID 01 ID 02 Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 49. 49 EDUCATION SAS Expander – Move Node Node Node Node ID 03 ID 04 ID 01 ID 02 Expander Frame Primitive Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 50. 50 EDUCATION What is a Physical Transport Network? • A group of connected systems - at least two! – Host, Node, Computer, Server, Workstation, Printer, Router, Storage Device Network Interface Cards (NICs), Host Bus Adapters (HBAs), Storage Adapters (SAs) • A media or the “appearance of” media – Unshielded Twisted Pair(s) (UTP), Coaxial Cable(s), Multi-Mode Fiber(s), Leased Line(s), RF • A connection protocol or method – Ethernet, Token Ring, PPP, Frame Relay, ATM, Fibre Channel, SONET/SDH, DWDM • Switches create an appearance of media Router File Server Switch Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 51. 51 EDUCATION Routing in Switches • Routing • Switch frame “steering” over one “appearance of media” Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 52. 52 EDUCATION Routing in Routers • Routing • Router packet “forwarding” across many “appearances of media” – A Day in the Life at Manhattan starts at home: – Walk to the bus stop – Get on the bus – Take the bus to the dock – Get off the bus and walk on to the Ferry boat – Sail across the river – Get off the boat and hop in a cab. – Drive to the office and get out of the cab. – Run to the elevator and hop in – Jump off the elevator and walk to your desk – How many subnets? 9 Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 53. 53 EDUCATION An Internetwork: Switch vs. Router • Routers join appearances of media File Server Router Switch File Server Router Switch File Server Switch File Server Switch Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 54. 54 EDUCATION Router vs. Gateway File Server Router Switch File Server Router Switch File Server Switch File Server Switch Gateway Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 55. 55 EDUCATION Circuit Switch – Packet Switch • Fixed path whether moving or not versus routing frames or packets on the current best path as they arrive and leave Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 56. 56 EDUCATION Circuit Switch • SAS Expanders Frame • FC Class 1 Frame • POTS (Plain Old Telephone Network) • Circuit Construction Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 57. 57 EDUCATION Packet (Frame) Switch • FC Class 3 Frame (switch) • IP Packet (router) • VOIP • Frame Direction Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 58. 58 EDUCATION Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless • Not path related! • Connection-oriented requires a state exchange to track communications • Connectionless takes things as they come Telephone Telegraph Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 59. 59 EDUCATION • Internet Protocol Suite – TCP connections start with negotiation setup between hosts • Similar to telephone connection – Call, Answer, Talk, Hang up • UDP connectionless – IP Connectionless – Handles packets as they come • Fibre Channel Class 2, 3 Switch Routing – Connectionless – Handles frames as they come TCP TCP IP IP IP IP Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 60. 60 EDUCATION Connection-Oriented FC Sessions - Login Fabric N-Port Login FC-4 Process Login Fabric Login Fabric Login Link Active Link Active Link Active Server Storage Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 61. 61 EDUCATION Layered Protocols • Protocol Data Units (PDUs) • They are both cake – Different ways to provide similar function! Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 62. 62 EDUCATION OSI & IPS (TCP/IP) Transport Session Presentation Application Physical Data Link Network End User Data Transport Application Services Network Interface Sublayer Internet End User Data Open Systems Interconnection Internet Protocol Suite Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 63. 63 EDUCATION OSI & Fibre Channel Architecture Transport Session Presentation Application Physical Data Link Network End User Data FC0 - Physical FC2 - Framing/Flow Control FC1 - Encode/Decode FC3 - Common Services FC4 - Upper Layer Mapping Channels IPI, SCSI, HIPPI, SBCCS Networks 802.2 (LE), IP, ATM End User Data Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 64. 64 EDUCATION OSI & Fibre Channel Architecture Transport Session Presentation Application Physical Data Link Network End User Data FC0 - Physical FC1 - Encode/Decode FC3 - Common Services FC4 - Upper Layer Mapping Channels IPI, SCSI, HIPPI, SBCCS Networks 802.2 (LE), IP, ATM End User Data FC2 - Framing/Flow Control Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 65. 65 EDUCATION Fibre Channel & IPS Internet Protocol SuiteFibre Channel Transport Application Services Network Interface Sublayer Internet FC0 - Physical FC2 - Framing/Flow Control FC1 - Encode/Decode FC3 - Common Services FC4 - Upper Layer Mapping Channels IPI, SCSI, HIPPI, SBCCS Networks 802.2 (LE), IP, ATM FC2 - Framing/Flow Control Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 66. 66 EDUCATION Flow Control • Fibre Channel – Credit-Based Fibre Channel – Advertise Credit • Internet Protocol Suite – TCP Sliding Window – IP Datagram Drop Congestion Control – Advertise Larger Windows Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 67. 67 EDUCATION SAS Flow Control- Expanders – Circuit Switches HBA Switch SASwitch Frame = ~1K Max Credit R-RDY = 1 Dword Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 68. 68 EDUCATION Fibre Channel Buffer-to-Buffer (Class 2, 3) N-Port E-Port HBA Switch N-Port SA F-Port Switch F-Port Frame = ~2K Max Credit R-RDY = 1 Word B-B B-B B-B E-Port Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 69. 69 EDUCATION Fibre Channel End-to-End (Class 1, 2) Fabric N-Port E-Ports N-PortF-PortF-Port Frame ACK Frame Node Node NodeNode E-E Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 70. 70 EDUCATION Internet - TCP Sliding Windows • Sliding Windows – Reduces overhead and delay of positive acknowledgments – Allows sending of multiple segments before ACK is required • Window Advertisements – Receivers advertise window sizes – Usually MSS multiple – Maximum 65,535 Bytes – Prevent “Silly window” syndrome • Slow Start – Congestion Window – Increments till congestion detected Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 71. 71 EDUCATION TCP Window Scale Factor • Multiplier for window field • Window field only 16 bits for maximum of 65,535 bytes • Both systems in a connection must agree to use this • Allows a maximum of 16 million bytes Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 72. 72 EDUCATION TCP Sliding Windows – TCP Segments 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 Send 6 Segments without Acknowledgement 2 Acknowledgements Send 2 More Segments Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 73. 73 EDUCATION TCP Sliding Windows 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Increasing 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Decreasing Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 74. 74 EDUCATION Payload Integrity • Do you always want payload integrity? • Not necessarily with Video and Voice • Performance vs. Quality tradeoffs – A pixel in a online-rented movie frame – A medical imaging application just prior to heart surgery where you want to be sure the speck of grey isn’t line noise! Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 75. 75 EDUCATION Names & Addresses Name Address Route Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 76. 76 EDUCATION Name, Address & Route • Addressing and Identification schemes • Address is used to locate • Names or identifiers uniquely represent something or someone Name Address Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 77. 77 EDUCATION Name, Address & Route • Name is a specific identification – Machine, User, Application - Unique target for data • Internet – Fully Qualified Domain Names WWW.SNIA.ORG – Media Access Control MAC ID – Physical Port Identifier • Storage – World Wide Node Names WWNN (Fibre Channel) – World Wide Port Names WWPN (Fibre Channel) – Enterprise Unique Identifier EUI (iSCSI) – iSCSI Qualified Name IQN (iSCSI) • Address identifies where the target is located – Hardware, Network, Port, Socket – Port ID FCID (Fibre Channel) – IP Address • Route identifies path to get to the destination Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 78. 78 EDUCATION Transport Addressing Ports • Ports are used to deliver information to relevant application services • Well-known and “Not-so-well-known” Transient • Comparable to Well known FCID Port ID Addresses – FFFFFC Name Server – FFFFFD Fabric Controller – FFFFFE Fabric Port Login Server Port Name Description 20 FTP-3DATA File Transfer (Data Channel) 21 FTP File Transfer (Control Channel) 22 TELNET Telnet 25 SMTP Simple Mail Transfer 53 DOMAIN Domain Name ServiceDNS Domain Name Services 3260 ISCSI Internet SCSI Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 79. 79 EDUCATION Comparative Address Ranges • 1 Address = 1 Gram • SATA Point-to-Point – 20 = 1 • SATA II “Port Multiplier” – 24 = 16 • SAS “Expanders” – 214 = 128 x 128 = 16,384 • All Fibre Channel – 224 = 16,777,216 • All IPv4 – 232 = 4,294,967,296 • All IPv6 – 2128 = 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 X 56 Billion Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 80. 80 EDUCATION Hierarchical, Routable Addressing • IP addresses can be divided into three parts – Network Address (NETID) – Subnetwork Address using (Subnetwork Mask 255.255.255.0) – Host IP Address • Example 172.16.2.6 – Network 172.16.0.0, Subnetwork 172.16.2.0, Host IP Address 172.16.2.6 • FC addresses can be divided into three parts – Domain (Domain ID) – Area (Area ID) – Device (Device ID) • Example 0102EF – Domain 01 (Switch 01), Area 02 (Port 02 on the Switch), Device EF (ALPA of Loop Device) Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 81. 81 EDUCATION Address Assignment • DHCP Mechanism for allocating and assigning IP addresses to clients – Automatic: Host requesting an address are provided with a permanent IP address – Dynamic: Hosts requesting an address are provided with a temporary address – Manual: Host IP addresses are manually configured and DHCP just delivers these assignments • Fibre Channel – Loop Initialization LISM, LIFA, LIPA, LIHA, LISA, LIRP, LILP, Close • Select Master, Fabric Assigned, Previously Assigned, Hard Assigned, Soft Assigned, Report Position, List Position, Close – Fabric Login Controller – Point-to-Point - Lowest World Wide Port Name (WWPN) Assigns Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 82. 82 EDUCATION Name Service • Internet – Domain Name Services for IP • Fully Qualified Domain Name FQDN to IP Address • Running on distributed servers • Storage – Name Services for Fibre Channel • WWPN to Fibre Channel Identifier FCID, Fabric service running in the Switch – iSNS Storage Name Service (iSNS) for iSCSI Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 83. 83 EDUCATION Segmentation & Offload • Segmentation, Convergence and Reassembly • Offload for Performance Acceleration Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 84. 84 EDUCATION Traditional FC SAN Host Applications Host Applications File ManagerFile Manager Device DriverDevice Driver SCSI ProtocolSCSI Protocol Operating System I/O Interface HBA FC2 FC1 FC3 FC4 FC0 Transport Application Services Internet Internet Protocol Suite Host NIC Network Interface Sublayer Ethernet FC2 Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 85. 85 EDUCATION Read 8K (6 FC frames with 4 - 2K Frames) Host HBA FC2 FC1 FC3 FC4 FC0 FC2 Fibre Channel Multi-Frame Sequence Minimizes Server I/O interrupts - 2 Read Command Data Data Data Data Status Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 86. 86 EDUCATION Traditional NAS Host Applications Host Applications File ManagerFile Manager Device DriverDevice Driver SCSI ProtocolSCSI Protocol Operating System I/O Interface HBA FC2 FC1 FC3 FC4 FC0 Transport Application Services Internet Internet Protocol Suite Host NIC Network Interface Sublayer Ethernet NFS/CIFS FC2 Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 87. 87 EDUCATION Get 8K (7 Ethernet Frames with 6 - 1.5K Frames) Host Host IP Fragmentation - 6 IP Packet Fragments, 6 – 1500 byte MTU Ethernet Frames, Maximizes Server I/O interrupts - 7 NIC Network Interface Sublayer Ethernet Transport Application Services Internet Get File Data Data Data Data Data Data NFS / CIFS / iSCSI Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 88. 88 EDUCATION iSCSI Full Offload Host Applications Host Applications File ManagerFile Manager Device DriverDevice Driver SCSI ProtocolSCSI Protocol Operating System I/O Interface Transport Application Services Internet Internet Protocol Suite Host Intelligent NIC/HBA Network Interface Sublayer Gigabit Ethernet i S C S I TCP IP iSCSI Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 89. 89 EDUCATION Read 8K (8 Ethernet frames with 6 – 1.5K) Host Offload IP Fragmentation (Like FC Multi-Frame Sequence) Minimizes Server I/O interrupts - 2 Read Command Data Data Data Status Intelligent NIC/HBA Network Interface Sublayer Gigabit Ethernet TCP IP iSCSI Data Data Data Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 90. 90 EDUCATION Serial Scaling Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 91. 91 EDUCATION Serial Scaling Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 92. 92 EDUCATION Serial Link Bit Rate Scaling 40 Bits = Tword 1 Bit 1 Bit @ 1.5 Gbps = .666ns Transmit Receive 1 Bit @ 3.0 Gbps = .333 ns 1 Bit 40 Bits = Tword Assume 40 Folds Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 93. 93 EDUCATION Bandwidth Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 94. 94 EDUCATION iSCSI Overhead iSCSI Standard Ethernet Ethernet with Non- Standard Jumbo Frames iSCSI/TCP/IP/ Standard Ethernet Overhead iSCSI/ TCP/IP/ Ethernet Overhead with Non- Standard Ethernet Jumbo Frames iSCSI Data Out or Data in PDU Header Bytes 52 52 TCP Header Bytes 20 20 IPv4 Header Bytes 20 20 Preamble Bytes 7 7 7 7 SFD Bytes 1 1 1 1 Destination Address Bytes 6 6 6 6 Source Address Bytes 6 6 6 6 Length/Type Bytes 2 2 2 2 Maximum Data/Pad Bytes 1,500 9,000 1,500 9,000 FCS Bytes 4 4 4 4 Ethernet Frame overhead including Preamble and SFD fields Bytes 26 26 26 26 Total Overhead Bytes 52 52 144 144 Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 95. 95 EDUCATION iSCSI Performance iSCSI Standard Ethernet Ethernet with Non- Standard Jumbo Frames iSCSI/TCP/IP/ Standard Ethernet Overhead iSCSI/ TCP/IP/ Ethernet Overhead with Non- Standard Ethernet Jumbo Frames Total Overhead Bytes 52 52 144 144 Payload Bytes 1,500 9,000 1,500 9,000 Efficiency % 98.30% 99.43% 91.24% 98.43% Bit Rate gbps 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 Data Rate MBps 122.87 124.28 114.05 123.03 Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 96. 96 EDUCATION Fibre Channel Performance Bytes Bytes Bytes Fibre Channel Fibre Channel Class 3 SCSI FC DATA Out or IN / Fibre Channel Class 3 SCSI FC DATA Out or IN / Fibre Channel Class 2 SOF Bytes 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Frame Header Bytes 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 Maximim Payload Bytes 2,112 2,048 2,048 2,112 2,048 2,048 2,112 2,048 2,048 CRC Bytes 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 EOF Bytes 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 InterFrame Word Minimum Bytes Bytes 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 Acknowledgement Frame Overhead 60 60 60 Total Overhead Bytes 60 60 120 60 60 120 60 60 120 Payload Bytes 2,112 2,048 2,048 2,112 2,048 2,048 2,112 2,048 2,048 Efficiency % 97.24% 97.15% 91.92% 97.24% 97.15% 91.92% 97.24% 97.15% 91.92% Bit Rate gbps 1.0625 1.0625 1.0625 2.125 2.125 2.125 4.25 4.25 4.25 Data Rate MBps 103.31 103.23 97.67 206.63 206.45 195.33 413.26 412.90 390.66 Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 97. 97 EDUCATION SAS Performance Bytes Bytes Serial Attached SCSI SAS SAS SOF Bytes 4 4 Frame Header Bytes 24 24 Maximum Payload Bytes 1,024 1,024 CRC Bytes 4 4 EOF Bytes 4 4 InterFrame Word Minimum Bytes (1 Align every 2048 dwords) Bytes 2 2 R-Rdy Frame Overhead Bytes 4 4 Acknowledgement Frame Overhead Bytes 4 4 Total Overhead Bytes 46 46 Payload Bytes 1,024 1,024 Efficiency % 95.70% 95.70% Bit Rate gbps 1.5 3 Data Rate MBps 143.55 287.10 Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 98. 98 EDUCATION Bandwidth does not equal bit rate Bit Rate Efficiency Data Rate Full Duplex Standard Gigabit Ethernet 1.25 Gbps 98.3% 123 MBps 246 MBps iSCSI / TCP / IP / Gigabit Ethernet Standard MTU 1508 1.25 Gbps 91.2% 114 MBps 228 MBps iSCSI / TCP / IP / Gigabit Ethernet Jumbo Frames MTU 9000 1.25 Gbps 99.43% 124.28 MBps 248.56 MBps Standard SCSI FCP Fibre Channel Class 3 1.0625 Gbps 97.2% 103.5 MBps 207 MBps SAS 1.5 Gbps 95.7% 143.55 MBps 287.10 MBps SAN Performance ComparisonSAN Performance Comparison Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 99. 99 EDUCATION Harry Newton’s Telecom Dictionary 17th edition • Delay – The wait time between two events, such as the time from when a signal is sent to the time it is received. – There are all sorts of reasons for delays • Propagation Delay • Queuing Delay • Processing Delay • Rotational Delay • Satellite Delay • Latency – A fancy term for waiting delay. The time it takes to get information through a network. – Accumulated delay Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 100. 100 EDUCATION Delay & Latency • Delay – A metric that measures how long something is not happening – (A packet waiting in a queue) • Latency – A metric that measures how long it is between things happening – (The time between when a packet arrives at a device and leaves a device • Throughput – Delay and Latency affect throughput Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 101. 101 EDUCATION Throughput does not equal Bandwidth Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 102. 102 EDUCATION Network Components • Network Topologies – Data Networks • Point-to-Point, Bus, Token Ring, Fabric – Storage Networks • Bus, Arbitrated Loop, Point-to-Point, Fabric – Hybrids • Network Types – Local Area, Metropolitan Area, Wide Area, Storage Area • Backbone Networks • Network Interconnectivity – Repeaters, Hubs, Bridges, Switches, Routers, Gateways Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 103. 103 EDUCATION Storage Network Choices Integrated Device Electronics (IDE) Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI) Bus Enterprise System Connectivity (ESCON) Serial ATA, Serial Attached SCSI Fibre Channel IP Storage InfiniBand iSCSI / TCP / IP / GE “Very Small “Very Skinny Fibre Channel Storage over IP iSCSI / TCP / IP / GE internet SCSI (iSCSI) Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Internet Protocol (IP) Gigabit Ethernet (GE) internet Fibre Channel Protocol (iFCP) Fibre Channel Internet Protocol (FCIP) internet Storage Name Service (iSNS) Infiniband SRP iSCSI Extension over RDMA (ISER) Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 104. 104 EDUCATION Semantic “Anal”yst: Beware of Semantics Switch Hub Router GatewayNetwork terminology misuse is rampant! • By the Storage Network Industry • By Vendors • By Media • By Educators Confusing the customer! Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 105. 105 EDUCATION Beware of Semantics Switch BROUTERSWOUTER GROUTER Hub Router Gateway Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 106. 106 EDUCATION Beware of Semantics Director BridgeSwitch BROUTERSWOUTER GROUTER HubRepeater Loop Switch Router Gateway Smart Intelligent Enterprise Storage Cluster Virtual Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 107. 107 EDUCATION Plumbing is Beautiful Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 108. 108 EDUCATION Storage Networking Futures • Upper layer protocol changes – Lazy and Hyper reads and writes – System SAN awareness, Dynamic discovery • Higher bandwidth rates for aggregation and higher speed processors for servers, storage and adapters • Focus on PCI Express and Infiniband • External SANs with Fibre Channel and iSCSI/TCP/IP/GE • Internal SANs with SAS and SATA • NAS & SAN integration Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 109. 109 EDUCATION Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage • Many – Storage Network Solutions – Storage Network Technologies – Many Opportunities for Benefit and Value • Thanks for coming! – Hope this helps!! – Please fill out your evaluation forms!!! – Good luck with Storage Networks Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 110. 110 EDUCATION Outline Networking Technologies Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved.
  • 111. 111 EDUCATION Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved. Q&A / Feedback • Please send any questions or comments on this presentation to the SNIA: tracknetworking@snia.org Many thanks to the following individuals for their contributions to this tutorial. SNIA Education Committee Howard Goldstein – Tutorial Manager, Developer & Presenter Greg Schulz – Tutorial Review SW Worth – Tutorial Review
  • 112. EDUCATION Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage© Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved. HGAI Storage Networking Web Links & Bibliography For more info contact: Howard.Goldstein@HGAI.Com
  • 113. 113 EDUCATION Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved. Web Links http://www.t10.org T10 (SCSI) http://www.ncits.org/ The NCITS home page http://www.symbios.com/t10.1/ The (former) T10.1 Task Group (SSA) home page http://www.t11.org/ The T11 Technical Committee home page (Fibre Channel, HIPPI, IPI, SBCON) http://www.scsita.org The T13 Technical Committee home page (ATA & ATAPI) http://www.fibrechannel.com Fibre Channel Industry Association (a trade association)
  • 114. 114 EDUCATION Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved. Web Links http://www.infostor.com Storage Industry information http://www.snia.org Storage Networking Industry Association (a trade association) http://www.1394ta.org/ IEEE 1394 Trade Association http://www.infinibandta.org Infiniband Trade Association http://www.ultra160-SCSI.com/ Information about Ultra160 SCSI http://searchstorage.com Useful storage informaton http://www.jobstor.com Jobs in the storage industry http://www.asnp.org Association of Storage Network Professionals http://www.storagenetworking.org Storage Networking User Groups
  • 115. 115 EDUCATION Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved. Bibliography • Fibre Channel – A Comprehensive Introduction Robert W. Kembel • IP SANs– A Guide to iSCSI, iFCP, and FCIP Protocols for Storage Area Networks Tom Clark • Building Storage Networks Marc Farley • iSCSI – The Universal Storage Connection John L. Hufferd • Resilient Storage Networks – Designing Flexible Scalable Data Infrastructures Greg Schulz • Using SANs and NAS W. Curtis Preston • Storage Area Network Essentials – A Complete Guide to Understanding and Implementing SANs Richard Barker & Paul Massiglia These texts were used in creating this course. Some of the course material contains references from this material
  • 116. 116 EDUCATION Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved. Bibliography • Storage Security – Protecting SANs, NAS, and DAS John Chirillo & Scott Blaul • Inside Windows Storage – Server Storage Technologies for Windows 2000, Windows 2003, and Beyond Dilip C. Naik • Successfully Implementing and Scaling SANs in the Enterprise - A Planning Guide for Storage Networking Professionals SearchStorage.Com • The Holy Grail of Network Storage Management Jon William Toigo • Storage Areas Networks for Dummies Christopher Poelker & Alex Nikitin • Practical Storage Area Networking Daniel Pollack • Designing Storage Area Networks – A Practical Reference for Implementing Fibre Channel and IP SANs Tom Clark These texts were used in creating this course. Some of the course material contains references from this material
  • 117. 117 EDUCATION Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved. Bibliography • Storage Area Networks – Designing and Implementing a Mass Storage System Ralph H. Thornburgh & Barry J. Schoenborn • Cisco Storage Networking Architecture Poster Cisco Press • IP Storage Networking – Straight to the Core Gary Orenstein • Fibre Channel for Mass Storage Ralph H. Thornburgh • Making SCSI Work – A Practical Guide The Paralan Staff • Fibre Channel for SANs Alan F. Benner • The Book of SCSI – A Guide for Adventurers Peter M. Ridge • The Holy Grail of Data Management – Modeling, Evaluating, Comparing, Implementing, Storage Management Options, and Solutions Jon William Toigo • Storage Network Performance Analysis Huseyin Simitci These texts were used in creating this course. Some of the course material contains references from this material
  • 118. 118 EDUCATION Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved. Bibliography • Fibre Channel – Gigabit Communications and I/O for Computer Networks Alan F. Benner • Building SANs with Brocade Fabric Switches – How to Design, Implement, and Maintain Storage Area Networks (SANs) with Brocade Fabric Switches Chris Beauchamp, Josh Judd, & Benjamin Kuo • Multiprotocol Routing for SANs Josh Judd • The Fibre Channel Bench Reference Jeffrey D. Stai • The SCSI Bus & IDE Interface – Protocols, Applications & Programming Friedhelm Schmidt • Fibre Channel Switched Fabric Robert W. Kembel • Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop Robert W. Kembel • Storage Networks Daniel Worden These texts were used in creating this course. Some of the course material contains references from this material
  • 119. 119 EDUCATION Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved. Bibliography • Disaster Recovery Planning – Preparing for the Unthinkable Jon William Toigo • Fibre Channel Volume 1: The Basics Gary R. Stephens & Jan V. Dedek • Small Computer System Interface – An In-Depth Exploration Of …. David Deming • What is Fibre Channel? Ancot Corporation • Fibre Channel Connection to the Future Fibre Channel Association FCA • Introduction to Storage Area Network, SAN Ravi Kumar Khattar, Mark S. Murphey, Giulio John Tarella, Kjell E. Nystrom These texts were used in creating this course. Some of the course material contains references from this material
  • 120. 120 EDUCATION Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved. Bibliography • FireWire System Architecture Second Edition IEEE 1394a MindShare, Inc. Don Anderson • PCI-X System Architecture MindShare, Inc. Tom Shanley • Storage Virtualization Technologies for Simplifying Data Storage and Management Tom Clark • Serial Attached SCSI: Beyond the Basics SAS Knowledge Tek Author: Hugh Curley • SAS Storage Architecture – Serial Atached SCSI MindShare, Inc. Mike Jackson These texts were used in creating this course. Some of the course material contains references from this material
  • 121. 121 EDUCATION Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved. Bibliography • Securing Storage A Practical Guide to SAN and NAS Security Himanshu Dwivedi • Storage Network Security – SNIA Technical Tutorial Roger Cummings & Hugo Fruehauf • Storage Virtualization – SNIA Technical Tutorial Frank Bunn, Nik Simpson, Robert Peglar & Gene Nagle • Storage Network Management – SNIA Technical Tutorial Roger Cummings • Network Storage Terms & Acronyms Storage Networking Industry Association SNIA These texts were used in creating this course. Some of the course material contains references from this material
  • 122. 122 EDUCATION Networking Technologies: Concepts in Internal and External Networked Storage © Copyright 2007 Howard Goldstein Associates, Inc. HGAI All Rights Reserved. Bibliography • Ethernet The Definitive Guide Charles E. Spurgeom • Gigabit Ethernet for Metro Area Networks Paul Begell • Gigabit Ethernet Networking David G. Cunningham, Ph.D. and William G. Lane, Ph. D. • High Performance TCP/IP Networking – Concepts, Issues, and Solutions Mahbub Hassan, Raj Jain • Gigabit Networks – Standards and Schemes for Next-Generation Networking Paul Izzo These texts were used in creating this course. Some of the course material contains references from this material