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Heizer om10 ch09 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. 9 - 1© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall9 Layout StrategiesPowerPoint presentation to accompanyHeizer and RenderOperations Management, 10ePrinciples of Operations Management, 8ePowerPoint slides by Jeff Heyl
  • 2. 9 - 2© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallOutline Global Company Profile:McDonald’s The Strategic Importance ofLayout Decisions Types of Layout Office Layout
  • 3. 9 - 3© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallOutline – Continued Retail Layout Servicescapes Warehousing and Storage Layouts Cross-Docking Random Docking Customizing Fixed-Position Layout
  • 4. 9 - 4© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallOutline – Continued Process-Oriented Layout Computer Software for Process-Oriented Layouts Work Cells Requirements of Work Cells Staffing and Balancing Work Cells The Focused Work Center and theFocused Factory
  • 5. 9 - 5© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallOutline – Continued Repetitive and Product-OrientedLayout Assembly-Line Balancing
  • 6. 9 - 6© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallLearning ObjectivesWhen you complete this chapter, youshould be able to:1. Discuss important issues in office layout2. Define the objectives of retail layout3. Discuss modern warehousemanagement and terms such as ASRS,cross-docking, and random stocking4. Identify when fixed-position layouts areappropriate
  • 7. 9 - 7© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallLearning ObjectivesWhen you complete this chapter, youshould be able to:5. Explain how to achieve a good process-oriented facility layout6. Define work cell and the requirements ofa work cell7. Define product-oriented layout8. Explain how to balance production flowin a repetitive or product-oriented facility
  • 8. 9 - 8© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallInnovations at McDonald’s Indoor seating (1950s) Drive-through window (1970s) Adding breakfast to the menu(1980s) Adding play areas (late 1980s) Redesign of the kitchens (1990s) Self-service kiosk (2004) Now three separate dining sections
  • 9. 9 - 9© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallInnovations at McDonald’s Indoor seating (1950s) Drive-through window (1970s) Adding breakfast to the menu(1980s) Adding play areas (late 1980s) Redesign of the kitchens (1990s) Self-service kiosk (2004) Now three separate dining sectionsSix out of theseven arelayoutdecisions!
  • 10. 9 - 10© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallMcDonald’s New Layout Seventh major innovation Redesigning all 30,000 outlets aroundthe world Three separate dining areas Linger zone with comfortable chairs andWi-Fi connections Grab and go zone with tall counters Flexible zone for kids and families Facility layout is a source ofcompetitive advantage
  • 11. 9 - 11© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallStrategic Importance ofLayout DecisionsThe objective of layout strategyis to develop an effective andefficient layout that will meet thefirm’s competitive requirements
  • 12. 9 - 12© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallLayout DesignConsiderations Higher utilization of space, equipment,and people Improved flow of information, materials,or people Improved employee morale and saferworking conditions Improved customer/client interaction Flexibility
  • 13. 9 - 13© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallTypes of Layout1. Office layout2. Retail layout3. Warehouse layout4. Fixed-position layout5. Process-oriented layout6. Work-cell layout7. Product-oriented layout
  • 14. 9 - 14© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallTypes of Layout1. Office layout: Positions workers,their equipment, and spaces/officesto provide for movement ofinformation2. Retail layout: Allocates shelf spaceand responds to customer behavior3. Warehouse layout: Addresses trade-offs between space and materialhandling
  • 15. 9 - 15© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallTypes of Layout4. Fixed-position layout: Addresses thelayout requirements of large, bulkyprojects such as ships and buildings5. Process-oriented layout: Deals withlow-volume, high-variety production(also called job shop or intermittentproduction)
  • 16. 9 - 16© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallTypes of Layout6. Work cell layout: Arrangesmachinery and equipment to focuson production of a single product orgroup of related products7. Product-oriented layout: Seeks thebest personnel and machineutilizations in repetitive orcontinuous production
  • 17. 9 - 17© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallLayout StrategiesObjectives ExamplesOffice Locate workers requiringfrequent contact close to oneanotherAllstate InsuranceMicrosoft Corp.Retail Expose customer to high-margin itemsKroger’s SupermarketWalgreen’sBloomingdale’sWarehouse(storage)Balance low cost storagewith low-cost materialhandlingFederal-Mogul’s warehouseThe Gap’s distribution centerProject (fixedposition)Move material to the limitedstorage areas around the siteIngall Ship Building Corp.Trump PlazaPittsburgh AirportTable 9.1
  • 18. 9 - 18© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallLayout StrategiesObjectives ExamplesJob Shop(processoriented)Manage varied material flowfor each productArnold Palmer HospitalHard Rock CafeOlive GardenWork Cell(productfamilies)Identify a product family,build teams, cross train teammembersHallmark CardsWheeled CoachStandard AeroRepetitive/Continuous(productoriented)Equalize the task time at eachworkstationSony’s TV assembly lineToyota ScionTable 9.1
  • 19. 9 - 19© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallGood Layouts Consider Material handling equipment Capacity and space requirements Environment and aesthetics Flows of information Cost of moving between variouswork areas
  • 20. 9 - 20© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallOffice Layout Grouping of workers, their equipment, andspaces to provide comfort, safety, andmovement of information Movement ofinformation is maindistinction Typically in state offlux due to frequenttechnologicalchanges
  • 21. 9 - 21© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallRelationship ChartFigure 9.1
  • 22. 9 - 22© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallSupermarket Retail Layout Objective is to maximizeprofitability per square foot offloor space Sales and profitability varydirectly with customer exposure
  • 23. 9 - 23© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallFive Helpful Ideas forSupermarket Layout1. Locate high-draw items around theperiphery of the store2. Use prominent locations for high-impulseand high-margin items3. Distribute power items to both sides ofan aisle and disperse them to increaseviewing of other items4. Use end-aisle locations5. Convey mission of store through carefulpositioning of lead-off department
  • 24. 9 - 24© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallStore LayoutFigure 9.2
  • 25. 9 - 25© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallRetail Slotting Manufacturers pay fees to retailersto get the retailers to display (slot)their product Contributing factors Limited shelf space An increasing number of newproducts Better information about salesthrough POS data collection Closer control of inventory
  • 26. 9 - 26© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallRetail Store Shelf SpacePlanogram Computerizedtool for shelf-spacemanagement Generated fromstore’s scannerdata on sales Often suppliedby manufacturer5 facingsShampooShampooShampooShampooShampooConditionerConditionerShampooShampooShampooShampooConditioner2 ft.
  • 27. 9 - 27© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallServicescapes1. Ambient conditions - backgroundcharacteristics such as lighting, sound,smell, and temperature2. Spatial layout and functionality - whichinvolve customercirculation path planning,aisle characteristics, andproduct grouping3. Signs, symbols, andartifacts - characteristicsof building design thatcarry social significance
  • 28. 9 - 28© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWarehousing and StorageLayouts Objective is to optimize trade-offsbetween handling costs and costsassociated with warehouse space Maximize the total “cube” of thewarehouse – utilize its full volumewhile maintaining low materialhandling costs
  • 29. 9 - 29© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWarehousing and StorageLayouts All costs associated with the transaction Incoming transport Storage Finding and moving material Outgoing transport Equipment, people, material, supervision,insurance, depreciation Minimize damage and spoilageMaterial Handling Costs
  • 30. 9 - 30© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWarehousing and StorageLayouts Warehouse density tends to varyinversely with the number of differentitems stored Automated Storage andRetrieval Systems (ASRSs)can significantly improvewarehouse productivity byan estimated 500% Dock location is a keydesign element
  • 31. 9 - 31© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallCross-Docking Materials are moved directly fromreceiving to shipping and are not placedin storage in the warehouse Requires tightscheduling andaccurate shipments,bar code or RFIDidentification used foradvanced shipmentnotification asmaterialsare unloaded
  • 32. 9 - 32© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallRandom Stocking Typically requires automatic identificationsystems (AISs) and effective informationsystems Random assignment of stocking locationsallows more efficient use of space Key tasks1. Maintain list of open locations2. Maintain accurate records3. Sequence items to minimize travel, pick time4. Combine picking orders5. Assign classes of items to particular areas
  • 33. 9 - 33© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallCustomizing Value-added activities performed atthe warehouse Enable low cost and rapid responsestrategies Assembly of components Loading software Repairs Customized labeling and packaging
  • 34. 9 - 34© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallShipping and receiving docksOfficeCustomizationConveyorStorage racksStagingWarehouse LayoutTraditional Layout
  • 35. 9 - 35© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWarehouse LayoutCross-Docking LayoutShipping and receiving docksOfficeShipping and receiving docks
  • 36. 9 - 36© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallFixed-Position Layout Product remains in one place Workers and equipment come to site Complicating factors Limited space at site Different materialsrequired at differentstages of the project Volume of materialsneeded is dynamic
  • 37. 9 - 37© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallAlternative Strategy As much of the project as possibleis completed off-site in a product-oriented facility This cansignificantlyimproveefficiency butis only possiblewhen multiplesimilar units need to be created
  • 38. 9 - 38© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallProcess-Oriented Layout Like machines and equipment aregrouped together Flexible and capable of handling awide variety of products orservices Scheduling can be difficult andsetup, material handling, andlabor costs can be high
  • 39. 9 - 39© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallSurgeryRadiologyERtriageroomER Beds PharmacyEmergency room admissionsBilling/exitLaboratoriesProcess-Oriented LayoutPatient A - broken legPatient B - erratic heartpacemakerFigure 9.3
  • 40. 9 - 40© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallLayout at Arnold Palmer HospitalCentral breakand medicalsupply roomsLocal linensupplyLocalnursing podPie-shapedroomsCentral nursesstation
  • 41. 9 - 41© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallProcess-Oriented Layout Arrange work centers so as tominimize the costs of materialhandling Basic cost elements are Number of loads (or people)moving between centers Distance loads (or people) movebetween centers
  • 42. 9 - 42© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallProcess-Oriented LayoutMinimize cost = ∑ ∑ Xij Cijni = 1nj = 1where n = total number of work centers ordepartmentsi, j = individual departmentsXij = number of loads moved fromdepartment i to department jCij = cost to move a load betweendepartment i and department j
  • 43. 9 - 43© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallProcess Layout Example1. Construct a “from-to matrix”2. Determine the space requirements3. Develop an initial schematic diagram4. Determine the cost of this layout5. Try to improve the layout6. Prepare a detailed planArrange six departments in a factory tominimize the material handling costs.Each department is 20 x 20 feet and thebuilding is 60 feet long and 40 feet wide.
  • 44. 9 - 44© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallDepartment Assembly Painting Machine Receiving Shipping Testing(1) (2) Shop (3) (4) (5) (6)Assembly (1)Painting (2)Machine Shop (3)Receiving (4)Shipping (5)Testing (6)Number of loads per week50 100 0 0 2030 50 10 020 0 10050 00Process Layout ExampleFigure 9.4
  • 45. 9 - 45© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallArea 1 Area 2 Area 3Area 4 Area 5 Area 660’40’Process Layout ExampleReceiving Shipping TestingDepartment Department Department(4) (5) (6)Figure 9.5Assembly Painting Machine ShopDepartment Department Department(1) (2) (3)
  • 46. 9 - 46© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallProcess Layout ExampleInterdepartmental Flow GraphFigure 9.610050501010030 MachineShop (3)Testing(6)Shipping(5)Receiving(4)Assembly(1)Painting(2)
  • 47. 9 - 47© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallProcess Layout ExampleCost = $50 + $200 + $40(1 and 2) (1 and 3) (1 and 6)+ $30 + $50 + $10(2 and 3) (2 and 4) (2 and 5)+ $40 + $100 + $50(3 and 4) (3 and 6) (4 and 5)= $570Cost = ∑ ∑ Xij Cijni = 1nj = 1
  • 48. 9 - 48© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallProcess Layout ExampleRevised Interdepartmental Flow GraphFigure 9.730505050 100100 MachineShop (3)Testing(6)Shipping(5)Receiving(4)Painting(2)Assembly(1)
  • 49. 9 - 49© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallProcess Layout ExampleCost = $50 + $100 + $20(1 and 2) (1 and 3) (1 and 6)+ $60 + $50 + $10(2 and 3) (2 and 4) (2 and 5)+ $40 + $100 + $50(3 and 4) (3 and 6) (4 and 5)= $480Cost = ∑ ∑ Xij Cijni = 1nj = 1
  • 50. 9 - 50© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallArea 1 Area 2 Area 3Area 4 Area 5 Area 660’40’Process Layout ExampleReceiving Shipping TestingDepartment Department Department(4) (5) (6)Figure 9.8Painting Assembly Machine ShopDepartment Department Department(2) (1) (3)
  • 51. 9 - 51© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallComputer Software Graphical approach only works forsmall problems Computer programs are available tosolve bigger problems CRAFT ALDEP CORELAP Factory Flow
  • 52. 9 - 52© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallCRAFT ExampleFigure 9.9TOTAL COST 20,100EST. COST REDUCTION .00ITERATION 0(a)A A A A B BA A A A B BD D D D D DC C D D D DF F F F F DE E E E E DTOTAL COST 14,390EST. COST REDUCTION 70ITERATION 3(b)D D D D B BD D D D B BD D D E E EC C D E E FA A A A A FA A A F F F
  • 53. 9 - 53© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallComputer Software Three dimensional visualizationsoftware allows managers to viewpossible layouts and assess process,materialhandling,efficiency,and safetyissues
  • 54. 9 - 54© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWork Cells Reorganizes people and machinesinto groups to focus on singleproducts or product groups Group technology identifiesproducts that have similarcharacteristics for particular cells Volume must justify cells Cells can be reconfigured asdesigns or volume changes
  • 55. 9 - 55© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallAdvantages of Work Cells1. Reduced work-in-process inventory2. Less floor space required3. Reduced raw material and finishedgoods inventory4. Reduced direct labor5. Heightened sense of employeeparticipation6. Increased use of equipment andmachinery7. Reduced investment in machinery andequipment
  • 56. 9 - 56© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallRequirements of Work Cells1. Identification of families of products2. A high level of training, flexibilityand empowerment of employees3. Being self-contained, with its ownequipment and resources4. Test (poka-yoke) at each station inthe cell
  • 57. 9 - 57© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallImproving Layouts UsingWork CellsCurrent layout - workersin small closed areas.Improved layout - cross-trainedworkers can assist each other.May be able to add a third workeras additional output is needed.Figure 9.10 (a)
  • 58. 9 - 58© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallImproving Layouts UsingWork CellsCurrent layout - straightlines make it hard to balancetasks because work may notbe divided evenlyImproved layout - in Ushape, workers have betteraccess. Four cross-trainedworkers were reduced.Figure 9.10 (b)U-shaped line may reduce employee movementand space requirements while enhancingcommunication, reducing the number ofworkers, and facilitating inspection
  • 59. 9 - 59© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallStaffing and BalancingWork CellsDetermine the takt timeTakt time =Total work time availableUnits requiredDetermine the numberof operators requiredWorkers required =Total operation time requiredTakt time
  • 60. 9 - 60© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallStaffing Work Cells Example600 Mirrors per day requiredMirror production scheduled for 8 hours per dayFrom a work balancechart totaloperation time= 140 secondsStandardtimerequiredOperationsAssemble Paint Test Label Pack forshipment6050403020100
  • 61. 9 - 61© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallStaffing Work Cells Example600 Mirrors per day requiredMirror production scheduled for 8 hours per dayFrom a work balancechart totaloperation time= 140 secondsTakt time = (8 hrs x 60 mins) / 600 units= .8 mins = 48 secondsWorkers required =Total operation time requiredTakt time= 140 / 48 = 2.91
  • 62. 9 - 62© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWork Balance Charts Used for evaluating operationtimes in work cells Can help identify bottleneckoperations Flexible, cross-trained employeescan help address labor bottlenecks Machine bottlenecks may requireother approaches
  • 63. 9 - 63© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallFocused Work Center andFocused Factory Focused Work Center Identify a large family of similar productsthat have a large and stable demand Moves production from a general-purpose,process-oriented facility to a large work cell Focused Factory A focused work cell in a separate facility May be focused by product line, layout,quality, new product introduction, flexibility,or other requirements
  • 64. 9 - 64© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallFocused Work Center andFocused FactoryTable 9.2Work Cell Focused Work Center Focused FactoryDescription: Work cellis a temporaryproduct-orientedarrangement ofmachines andpersonnel in what isordinarily a process-oriented facilityA focused work center isa permanent product-oriented arrangementof machines andpersonnel in what isordinarily a process-oriented facilityA focused factory is apermanent facility toproduce a product orcomponent in aproduct-orientedfacility. Many focusedfactories currentlybeing built wereoriginally part of aprocess-orientedfacilityExample: A job shopwith machinery andpersonnel rearrangedto produce 300 uniquecontrol panelsExample: Pipe bracketmanufacturing at ashipyardExample: A plant toproduce windowmechanism forautomobiles
  • 65. 9 - 65© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallRepetitive and Product-Oriented Layout1. Volume is adequate for high equipmentutilization2. Product demand is stable enough to justify highinvestment in specialized equipment3. Product is standardized or approaching a phaseof life cycle that justifies investment4. Supplies of raw materials and components areadequate and of uniform qualityOrganized around products or families ofsimilar high-volume, low-variety products
  • 66. 9 - 66© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallProduct-Oriented Layouts Fabrication line Builds components on a series of machines Machine-paced Require mechanical or engineering changesto balance Assembly line Puts fabricated parts together at a series ofworkstations Paced by work tasks Balanced by moving tasksBoth types of lines must be balanced so that thetime to perform the work at each station is the same
  • 67. 9 - 67© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallProduct-Oriented Layouts1. Low variable cost per unit2. Low material handling costs3. Reduced work-in-process inventories4. Easier training and supervision5. Rapid throughputAdvantages1. High volume is required2. Work stoppage at any point ties up thewhole operation3. Lack of flexibility in product or productionratesDisadvantages
  • 68. 9 - 68© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallMcDonald’s Assembly LineFigure 9.12
  • 69. 9 - 69© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallDisassembly Lines Disassembly is being considered in newproduct designs “Green” issues and recycling standards areimportant consideration Automotivedisassemblyis the 16thlargestindustry inthe US
  • 70. 9 - 70© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallAssembly-Line Balancing Objective is to minimize the imbalancebetween machines or personnel whilemeeting required output Starts with the precedencerelationships Determine cycle time Calculate theoreticalminimum number ofworkstations Balance the line byassigning specifictasks to workstations
  • 71. 9 - 71© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWing Component ExampleThis means thattasks B and Ecannot be doneuntil task A hasbeen completedPerformance Task Must FollowTime Task ListedTask (minutes) BelowA 10 —B 11 AC 5 BD 4 BE 12 AF 3 C, DG 7 FH 11 EI 3 G, HTotal time 66
  • 72. 9 - 72© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWing Component ExamplePerformance Task Must FollowTime Task ListedTask (minutes) BelowA 10 —B 11 AC 5 BD 4 BE 12 AF 3 C, DG 7 FH 11 EI 3 G, HTotal time 66 IGFCDHBEA101112543711 3Figure 9.13
  • 73. 9 - 73© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallIGFCDHBEA101112543711 3Figure 9.13Performance Task Must FollowTime Task ListedTask (minutes) BelowA 10 —B 11 AC 5 BD 4 BE 12 AF 3 C, DG 7 FH 11 EI 3 G, HTotal time 66Wing Component Example480 availablemins per day40 units requiredCycle time =Production timeavailable per dayUnits required per day= 480 / 40= 12 minutes per unitMinimumnumber ofworkstations=∑ Time for task iCycle timeni = 1= 66 / 12= 5.5 or 6 stations
  • 74. 9 - 74© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallWing Component ExampleIGFCDHBEA101112543711 3Figure 9.13Performance Task Must FollowTime Task ListedTask (minutes) BelowA 10 —B 11 AC 5 BD 4 BE 12 AF 3 C, DG 7 FH 11 EI 3 G, HTotal time 66480 availablemins per day40 units requiredCycle time = 12 minsMinimumworkstations = 5.5 or 6Line-Balancing Heuristics1. Longest task time Choose the available taskwith the longest task time2. Most following tasks Choose the available taskwith the largest number offollowing tasks3. Ranked positionalweightChoose the available task forwhich the sum of followingtask times is the longest4. Shortest task time Choose the available taskwith the shortest task time5. Least number offollowing tasksChoose the available taskwith the least number offollowing tasksTable 9.4
  • 75. 9 - 75© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall480 availablemins per day40 units requiredCycle time = 12 minsMinimumworkstations = 5.5 or 6Performance Task Must FollowTime Task ListedTask (minutes) BelowA 10 —B 11 AC 5 BD 4 BE 12 AF 3 C, DG 7 FH 11 EI 3 G, HTotal time 66Station1Wing Component ExampleStation2Station 3Station 3Station4Station5Station 6Station 6IGFHCDBEA10 1112543 7113Figure 9.14
  • 76. 9 - 76© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallPerformance Task Must FollowTime Task ListedTask (minutes) BelowA 10 —B 11 AC 5 BD 4 BE 12 AF 3 C, DG 7 FH 11 EI 3 G, HTotal time 66Wing Component Example480 availablemins per day40 units requiredCycle time = 12 minsMinimumworkstations = 5.5 or 6Efficiency =∑ Task times(Actual number of workstations) x (Largest cycle time)= 66 minutes / (6 stations) x (12 minutes)= 91.7%
  • 77. 9 - 77© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallAll rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrievalsystem, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.Printed in the United States of America.