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Industrial uses
Industrial uses
Industrial uses
Industrial uses
Industrial uses
Industrial uses
Industrial uses
Industrial uses
Industrial uses
Industrial uses
Industrial uses
Industrial uses
Industrial uses
Industrial uses
Industrial uses
Industrial uses
Industrial uses
Industrial uses
Industrial uses
Industrial uses
Industrial uses
Industrial uses
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Industrial uses


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  • 1. Industrial Uses Petroleum and Kerosene
  • 2. The Petroleum Age
    • The petroleum industry produces a diverse range of materials that are essential to our modern life.
    • Petroleum is the source of many important materials known as petrochemicals or petroleum products.
    • The most prominent application of petroleum products is in their use as fuels
    • However there are many more applications of petrochemicals
  • 3. Petro-FUELS
  • 4. Petroleum Fuels
    • There are numerous fuels that are derived from crude oil.
    • Different fuels have different properties and therefore are used for distinct purposes. (i.e. different vehicles require different fuels)
    • Some of these fuels include: petrol, LPG, diesel, kerosene (jet fuel) and fuel oils
  • 5. The Internal Combustion Engine
    • Burning a hydrocarbon gives off heat, water and carbon dioxide.
    • Modern engines take advantage of the heat released by the combustion of hydrocarbons in order to power things such as cars and machinery.
    • The heat energy is converted into mechanical energy which in turn operates the pistons that drive the mechanisms of the apparatus.
  • 6. The General Formula of Combustion
    • The equation for the combustion of hydrocarbons is given by the following:
    • The amount of heat, water and carbon dioxide is determined by the length of the carbon chain and the properties of the hydrocarbon.
  • 7. How the Engine Works
    • Most engines in cars these days are “four stroke”
    • The liquid fuel vaporises and mixes with air in the combustion chamber.
    • This mixture is compressed and then a spark triggers combustion.
    • The piston is forced downwards and then moves up again to expel the waste products of H 2 O and CO 2 .
  • 8. The Four Strokes
  • 9. Petrol as a Fuel
    • Petrol is the most common fuel.
    • Used in most modern cars.
    • Contains carbon chains between 6 and 12. But is primarily comprised of Octane, C 8 H 18.
    • Equation of combustion:
  • 10. Diesel as a Fuel
    • Diesel is used primarily in trucks.
    • This is because it is more efficient and can be taken advantage of during long cargo routes
    • Contains carbon chains of around 12 to 18. Is commonly estimated to C 14 H 30.
    • Equation of combustion:
  • 11. Non Fuel Petrochemical USe
  • 12. Non Fuel Petroleum Products
    • Petrochemicals are not limited to serving only as fuels.
    • Pesticides, plastics, fibres, solvents, paints, glue, fertilizers, pharmaceuticals, bitumen, asphalt, lubricants, synthetic rubbers and explosives all are derived from petroleum products
    • Many byproducts from the refinery of petroleum are used to produce a diverse range of versatile materials, here are just a few.
  • 13. Petroleum Jelly
    • Known as soft paraffin (or Vasoline), a cream like mix of hydrocarbons with chain lengths above 25 Carbons.
    • Resists oxidation and is used to coat metals.
    • Used cosmetically to protect skin, can also seal wounds.
    • May be employed as a lubricant but potentially “gums” up.
  • 14. Lubricating Oils
    • Blends of Hydrocarbons with just less than 20 carbons.
    • Do not vapourise at standard temperatures and will remain liquid even at 121˚C.
    • Reduce wear and friction between moving parts in a piece of equipment.
    • Lubricate machinery and vehicles which operate at high temperatures.
  • 15. Plastics
    • Polymerised chains of hydrocarbons become plastics.
    • A single Polymer can contain over 100,000 molecules of its constituent monomer.
    • PolyEythlene (Ethlyene), PolyPropylene (Propylene) and Polystryene (Stryrene). Are three of the most common plastics, (the monomers have been given in brackets).
    • Plastics can be molded into an abundance of items, including, computer housing, car parts, toys, containers, prothestics, cds, dvds, etc.
  • 16. What Plastics Look like…
    • … on a molecular scale
  • 17. Solvents
    • Solvents dissolve substances
    • Work on the principle that “like dissolves like”
    • Hydrocarbon solvents are ideal for cleaning greasy and oily residue, due to this principle.
    • Most cleaners contain some form of petrochemical for this purpose
  • 18. Kerosene
  • 19. Kerosene
    • Kerosene, most notably used in jet engines as a fuel base.
    • Predominantly used as a heating oil for lamps in the early 1900s.
    • Has several more applications and is representative of the versatility of petroleum products.
  • 20. Kerosene in the Fuel of Jets
    • Jet fuel is not solely comprised of kerosene.
    • Many additives such a benzene and toluene are added to increase the favourable properties of kerosene, which includes its resistance to gelling.
    • Its high enthalpy makes it ideal for jet speed flight.
    • Jet engines (gas turbines) use the combustion of kerosene with air to achieve motion
    • Equation of Combustion:
  • 21. Kerosene – the Other Uses
    • Solvent, particularly for tar and grease
    • Pesticide, its low density allows it float on water and suffocate mosquito larvae
    • Heating oil, combustion of kerosene is used for camp stoves, heating units and some lamps
  • 22. Environmental Consequences
    • Combustion of kerosene produces the greenhouse gases CO 2 and water vapour
    • When used as a pesticide endangers other flora and fauna
    • Volatile and can cause fires especially when used in a camp stove or lamp.
    • Products of Petroleum often not biodegradable, such as plastics, synthetic rubbers, oils, paints, glues and solvents.