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Industrial uses

Industrial uses






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    Industrial uses Industrial uses Presentation Transcript

    • Industrial Uses Petroleum and Kerosene
    • The Petroleum Age
      • The petroleum industry produces a diverse range of materials that are essential to our modern life.
      • Petroleum is the source of many important materials known as petrochemicals or petroleum products.
      • The most prominent application of petroleum products is in their use as fuels
      • However there are many more applications of petrochemicals
    • Petro-FUELS
    • Petroleum Fuels
      • There are numerous fuels that are derived from crude oil.
      • Different fuels have different properties and therefore are used for distinct purposes. (i.e. different vehicles require different fuels)
      • Some of these fuels include: petrol, LPG, diesel, kerosene (jet fuel) and fuel oils
    • The Internal Combustion Engine
      • Burning a hydrocarbon gives off heat, water and carbon dioxide.
      • Modern engines take advantage of the heat released by the combustion of hydrocarbons in order to power things such as cars and machinery.
      • The heat energy is converted into mechanical energy which in turn operates the pistons that drive the mechanisms of the apparatus.
    • The General Formula of Combustion
      • The equation for the combustion of hydrocarbons is given by the following:
      • The amount of heat, water and carbon dioxide is determined by the length of the carbon chain and the properties of the hydrocarbon.
    • How the Engine Works
      • Most engines in cars these days are “four stroke”
      • The liquid fuel vaporises and mixes with air in the combustion chamber.
      • This mixture is compressed and then a spark triggers combustion.
      • The piston is forced downwards and then moves up again to expel the waste products of H 2 O and CO 2 .
    • The Four Strokes
    • Petrol as a Fuel
      • Petrol is the most common fuel.
      • Used in most modern cars.
      • Contains carbon chains between 6 and 12. But is primarily comprised of Octane, C 8 H 18.
      • Equation of combustion:
    • Diesel as a Fuel
      • Diesel is used primarily in trucks.
      • This is because it is more efficient and can be taken advantage of during long cargo routes
      • Contains carbon chains of around 12 to 18. Is commonly estimated to C 14 H 30.
      • Equation of combustion:
    • Non Fuel Petrochemical USe
    • Non Fuel Petroleum Products
      • Petrochemicals are not limited to serving only as fuels.
      • Pesticides, plastics, fibres, solvents, paints, glue, fertilizers, pharmaceuticals, bitumen, asphalt, lubricants, synthetic rubbers and explosives all are derived from petroleum products
      • Many byproducts from the refinery of petroleum are used to produce a diverse range of versatile materials, here are just a few.
    • Petroleum Jelly
      • Known as soft paraffin (or Vasoline), a cream like mix of hydrocarbons with chain lengths above 25 Carbons.
      • Resists oxidation and is used to coat metals.
      • Used cosmetically to protect skin, can also seal wounds.
      • May be employed as a lubricant but potentially “gums” up.
    • Lubricating Oils
      • Blends of Hydrocarbons with just less than 20 carbons.
      • Do not vapourise at standard temperatures and will remain liquid even at 121˚C.
      • Reduce wear and friction between moving parts in a piece of equipment.
      • Lubricate machinery and vehicles which operate at high temperatures.
    • Plastics
      • Polymerised chains of hydrocarbons become plastics.
      • A single Polymer can contain over 100,000 molecules of its constituent monomer.
      • PolyEythlene (Ethlyene), PolyPropylene (Propylene) and Polystryene (Stryrene). Are three of the most common plastics, (the monomers have been given in brackets).
      • Plastics can be molded into an abundance of items, including, computer housing, car parts, toys, containers, prothestics, cds, dvds, etc.
    • What Plastics Look like…
      • … on a molecular scale
    • Solvents
      • Solvents dissolve substances
      • Work on the principle that “like dissolves like”
      • Hydrocarbon solvents are ideal for cleaning greasy and oily residue, due to this principle.
      • Most cleaners contain some form of petrochemical for this purpose
    • Kerosene
    • Kerosene
      • Kerosene, most notably used in jet engines as a fuel base.
      • Predominantly used as a heating oil for lamps in the early 1900s.
      • Has several more applications and is representative of the versatility of petroleum products.
    • Kerosene in the Fuel of Jets
      • Jet fuel is not solely comprised of kerosene.
      • Many additives such a benzene and toluene are added to increase the favourable properties of kerosene, which includes its resistance to gelling.
      • Its high enthalpy makes it ideal for jet speed flight.
      • Jet engines (gas turbines) use the combustion of kerosene with air to achieve motion
      • Equation of Combustion:
    • Kerosene – the Other Uses
      • Solvent, particularly for tar and grease
      • Pesticide, its low density allows it float on water and suffocate mosquito larvae
      • Heating oil, combustion of kerosene is used for camp stoves, heating units and some lamps
    • Environmental Consequences
      • Combustion of kerosene produces the greenhouse gases CO 2 and water vapour
      • When used as a pesticide endangers other flora and fauna
      • Volatile and can cause fires especially when used in a camp stove or lamp.
      • Products of Petroleum often not biodegradable, such as plastics, synthetic rubbers, oils, paints, glues and solvents.