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    Structure of bacteria1 Structure of bacteria1 Presentation Transcript

    • 1BacteriaBacteriaStructure and FunctionStructure and Function
    • 2Prokaryote &Prokaryote &EukaryoteEukaryoteEvolutionEvolution
    • 3Cellular EvolutionCellular Evolution• Current evidenceCurrent evidenceindicates thatindicates that eukaryoteseukaryotesevolved from prokaryotesevolved from prokaryotesbetween 1 and 1.5 billionbetween 1 and 1.5 billionyears agoyears ago• Two theories:Two theories:1.1. Infolding theoryInfolding theory2.2. Endosymbiotic theoryEndosymbiotic theory
    • 4Infolding TheoryInfolding Theory• TheThe infolding of theinfolding of theprokaryotic plasmaprokaryotic plasmamembrane gave rise tomembrane gave rise toeukaryotic organelles.eukaryotic organelles.infolding organelle
    • 5Endosymbiotic TheoryEndosymbiotic Theory• Endosymbiosis refers toEndosymbiosis refers to oneonespecies living within anotherspecies living within another(the(thehost)host)• Movement ofMovement of smallersmallerphotosyntheticphotosynthetic && heterotrophicheterotrophicprokaryotesprokaryotes into larger prokaryoticinto larger prokaryotichost cellshost cells• FormedFormed cell organellescell organelles chloroplastmitochondria
    • 6Prokaryotic &Prokaryotic &Eukaryotic CellsEukaryotic Cells
    • 7EarliestEarliestProkaryotesProkaryotes• Most numerousMost numerousorganisms onEarth• Include allbacteriabacteria• Earliest fossilsEarliest fossilsdatedate 2.5 billionyears old
    • 8ClassificationClassificationof Lifeof Life
    • 9Three Domains ofThree Domains ofLifeLife• ArchaeaArchaea ––prokaryotes living inprokaryotes living inextreme habitatsextreme habitats• BacteriaBacteria--Cyanobacteria andCyanobacteria andeubacteriaeubacteria• EukaryaEukarya ––Protozoans, fungi,Protozoans, fungi,plants, & animalsplants, & animals
    • 10Kingdoms of BacteriaKingdoms of BacteriaArchaebacteria:Archaebacteria: Found inFound in harshharshenvironmentsenvironments UnderseaUndersea volcanic ventsvolcanic vents,,acidicacidic hot springshot springs,, saltysaltywaterwater
    • 11ArchaebacteriaArchaebacteria
    • 12Kingdoms of BacteriaKingdoms of BacteriaEubacteria:Eubacteria: Called theCalled the truetruebacteriabacteria Most bacteriaMost bacteria are inare inthis groupthis group Include photosyntheticInclude photosyntheticCyanobacteriaCyanobacteria
    • 13EubacteriaEubacteria
    • 14CharacteristicsCharacteristicsof Bacteriaof Bacteria
    • 15Bacterial StructureBacterial Structure• MicroscopicMicroscopic prokaryotesprokaryotes• NoNo nucleus or membrane-nucleus or membrane-bound organellesbound organelles• ContainContain ribosomesribosomes• Single, circularSingle, circularchromosome inchromosome in nucleoidnucleoidregionregion
    • 16Bacterial Cell
    • 17ProtectionProtection• Cell Wall made ofCell Wall made ofPeptidoglycanPeptidoglycan• May have a stickyMay have a stickycoating called thecoating called theCapsuleCapsule forforattachment to host orattachment to host orother bacteriaother bacteria
    • 18Sticky BacterialSticky BacterialCapsuleCapsule
    • 19BacterialBacterialStructureStructure• Have small rings ofHave small rings ofDNA calledDNA called PlasmidsPlasmids• UnicellularUnicellular• SmallSmall in size (0.5 toin size (0.5 to2μm)2μm)PLASMIDSPLASMIDS
    • 20
    • 21Bacterial StructureBacterial Structure• InfoldingsInfoldings of cellof cellmembrane carry onmembrane carry onphotosynthesis &photosynthesis &cellular respirationcellular respiration• Infoldings calledInfoldings calledMesosomesMesosomes
    • 22MesosomesMesosomesMESOSOME
    • 23Bacterial StructureBacterial Structure• Most grow best atMost grow best atpH of 6.5 to 7.0pH of 6.5 to 7.0• Many act asMany act asdecomposersdecomposers recyclingrecyclingnutrientsnutrients• Some causeSome cause diseasedisease
    • 24StaphylococcusStaphylococcusBacterialBacterial
    • 25Useful BacteriaUseful Bacteria• SomeSomebacteriabacteriacancandegrade oildegrade oil• Used toUsed toclean upclean up oiloilspillsspills
    • 26Useful BacteriaUseful Bacteria• Other usesOther usesfor bacteriafor bacteriaincludeincludemakingmakingyogurt,yogurt,cheese, andcheese, andbuttermilk.buttermilk.
    • 27FlagellaFlagella• Bacteria thatBacteria thatareare motilemotile havehaveappendagesappendagescalledcalled flagellaflagella• Attached byAttached byBasal BodyBasal Body• A bacteria canA bacteria canhavehave one orone ormanymany flagellaflagella
    • 28
    • 29FlagellaFlagella• Made ofMade of FlagellinFlagellin• Used forUsed for ClassificationClassification• Monotrichous:Monotrichous: 1 flagella1 flagella• Lophotrichous:Lophotrichous: tuft attuft atone endone end• Amphitrichous:Amphitrichous: tuft attuft atboth endsboth ends• Peritrichous:Peritrichous: all aroundall aroundbacteriabacteria
    • 30Monotrichous LophotrichousAmphitrichous Peritrichous
    • 31Question:Question:What is this type ofWhat is this type ofbacteria ?bacteria ?
    • 32PiliPili• Short proteinShort protein appendagesappendages• SmallerSmaller than flagellathan flagella• AdhereAdhere bacteria tobacteria tosurfacessurfaces• Used inUsed in conjugationconjugation forforExchange of geneticExchange of geneticinformationinformation• AidAid FlotationFlotation bybyincreasing buoyancyincreasing buoyancy
    • 33Pili in ConjugationPili in Conjugation
    • 34BacterialBacterialShapesShapes
    • 35Shapes Are Used toShapes Are Used toClassifyClassify• Bacillus:Bacillus: Rod shapedRod shaped• Coccus:Coccus: Spherical (round)Spherical (round)• Vibrio:Vibrio: Comma shaped withComma shaped withflagellaflagella• Spirillum:Spirillum: Spiral shapeSpiral shape• Spirochete:Spirochete: wormlikewormlikespiral shapespiral shape
    • 36
    • 37Grouping of BacteriaGrouping of Bacteria• DiploDiplo- Groups of- Groups oftwotwo• StreptoStrepto- chains- chains• StaphyloStaphylo- Grapelike- Grapelikeclustersclusters
    • 38
    • 39
    • 40DiplococcusDiplococcus
    • 41Streptococcus CausesStreptococcus CausesStrep ThroatStrep Throat
    • 42StaphylococcusStaphylococcus
    • 43Bacillus -Bacillus - E. coliE. coli
    • 44StreptobacilliStreptobacilli
    • 45SpirillumSpirillum
    • 46SpirochetesSpirochetes
    • 47LeptospiraLeptospira
    • 48
    • 49BacterialBacterialKingdomsKingdoms
    • 50ArchaebacteriaArchaebacteria• Lack peptidoglycanLack peptidoglycan in cellin cellwallswalls• HaveHave different lipidsdifferent lipids inintheir cell membranetheir cell membrane• Different types ofDifferent types ofribosomesribosomes• VeryVery different genedifferent genesequencessequences
    • 51ArchaebacteriaArchaebacteria• Archaebacteria can live inArchaebacteria can live inextremely harshextremely harshenvironmentsenvironments• TheyThey do not require oxygendo not require oxygenand can live inand can live in extremelyextremelysaltysalty environments as well asenvironments as well asextremely hotextremely hot environmentsenvironments• Called theCalled the Ancient bacteriaAncient bacteria
    • 52ArchaebacteriaArchaebacteria• Subdivided into 3Subdivided into 3groups:groups:MethanogensMethanogensThermoacidophilesThermoacidophilesExtreme HalophilesExtreme Halophiles
    • 53MethanogensMethanogens• Live inLive in anaerobicanaerobicenvironments (no oxygen)environments (no oxygen)• Get energy byGet energy by changing Hchanging H22& CO& CO22 into methane gasinto methane gas• Found inFound in swampsswamps,, sewagesewagetreatmenttreatment plants,plants, digestivedigestivetractstracts of animalsof animals
    • 54MethanogensMethanogens• Break downBreak downcellulose in acellulose in acow’scow’sstomachstomach• ProduceProducemarshmarsh(methane)(methane)gasgas
    • 55Extreme HalophilesExtreme Halophiles• Live in veryLive in verysalty watersalty water• UseUse salt tosalt togenerategenerateATPATP (energy)(energy)• Dead Sea,Dead Sea,Great SaltGreat SaltLakeLakeinhabitantsinhabitants
    • 56Thermoacidophiles orThermoacidophiles orThermophilesThermophiles• Live inLive inextremely hotextremely hotenvironmentsenvironments• Found inFound involcanicvolcanic vents,vents,hot springs,hot springs,cracks on oceancracks on oceanfloor that leakfloor that leakacidacid
    • 57KingdomKingdomEubacteriaEubacteriaTrue BacteriaTrue Bacteria
    • 58CharacteristicsCharacteristics• 3 basic shapes3 basic shapes (coccus,(coccus,bacillus, spirilla)bacillus, spirilla)• Most areMost are heterotrophicheterotrophic(can’t make their own food)(can’t make their own food)• May beMay be aerobic oraerobic oranaerobicanaerobic• Identified byIdentified by Gram stainingGram staining
    • 59Gram StainingGram Staining• Developed inDeveloped in 1884 by1884 byHans GramHans Gram• Bacteria treated withBacteria treated withpurple Crystal Violet & redpurple Crystal Violet & redSafranin stainsSafranin stains• Cell wallsCell walls either staineither stainpurple or reddish pinkpurple or reddish pink
    • 60Gram PositiveGram Positive• HaveHave thick layerthick layerof peptidoglycanof peptidoglycan(protein-sugar(protein-sugarcomplex)complex)• Single lipidSingle lipidlayerlayer• StainStain purplepurple• Can be treatedCan be treatedwithwith antibioticsantibiotics
    • 61Gram PositiveGram PositiveBacteriaBacteriaLactobacilliLactobacilli (makes yogurt &(makes yogurt &buttermilk)buttermilk)Actinomycetes (Actinomycetes (makemakeantibiotics)antibiotics)ClostridiumClostridium (lockjaw bacteria)(lockjaw bacteria)StreptococcusStreptococcus (strep throat)(strep throat)Staphylococcus (Staphylococcus (staphstaphinfections)infections)
    • 62Gram NegativeGram NegativeBacteriaBacteria• Thin layer of peptidoglycanThin layer of peptidoglycan inincell wallcell wall• ExtraExtra thick layer of lipidsthick layer of lipids• StainStain pink or reddishpink or reddish• Hard to treatHard to treat with antibioticswith antibiotics• SomeSome photosyntheticphotosynthetic butbutmake sulfur not oxygenmake sulfur not oxygen• SomeSome fix nitrogenfix nitrogen for plantsfor plants
    • 63Gram NegativeGram Negative• RhizobacteriaRhizobacteriagrow in rootgrow in rootnodules ofnodules oflegumeslegumes(soybeans,(soybeans,peanuts)peanuts)• Fix NFix N22 from airfrom airinto usableinto usableammoniaammonia
    • 64Gram NegativeGram Negative• RickettsiaeRickettsiae areareparasiticparasiticbacteria carriedbacteria carriedby ticksby ticks• CauseCause LymeLymedisease & Rockydisease & RockyMountainMountainSpotted FeverSpotted Fever
    • 65CyanobacteriaCyanobacteria• GramGram negativenegative• PhotosyntheticPhotosynthetic• CalledCalled blue-green bacteriablue-green bacteria• ContainContain phycocyaninphycocyanin (red-(red-blue) pigments &blue) pigments &chlorophyllchlorophyll
    • 66CyanobacteriaCyanobacteria• May be red, yellow, brown, black,May be red, yellow, brown, black,or blue-greenor blue-green• May grow inMay grow in chainschains ((OscillatoriaOscillatoria))• HaveHave HeterocystsHeterocysts to help fix Nto help fix N22• First to re-enterFirst to re-enter devastateddevastatedareasareas• Some causeSome cause EutrophicationEutrophication (use up(use upO2 when die & decompose inO2 when die & decompose inwater)water)
    • 67CyanobacteriaCyanobacteria
    • 68SpirochetesSpirochetes• GramGram positivepositive• Flagella at each endFlagella at each end• Move inMove in corkscrewcorkscrewmotionmotion• SomeSome aerobicaerobic;;othersothers anaerobicanaerobic• May beMay be free living,free living,parasitic, orparasitic, orsymbioticsymbiotic
    • 69Enteric BacteriaEnteric Bacteria• GramGram negativenegative• Can live inCan live in aerobic &aerobic &anaerobicanaerobic habitatshabitats• IncludesIncludes E. coliE. coli ininintestinesintestines• SalmonellaSalmonella –– causes foodcauses foodpoisoningpoisoning
    • 70ChemoautotrophsChemoautotrophs• GramGram negativenegative• Obtain energy fromObtain energy fromminerals like ironminerals like iron• Found inFound in freshwaterfreshwaterpondsponds
    • 71Nutrition,Nutrition,Respiration,Respiration,andandReproductionReproduction
    • 72Modes of NutritionModes of Nutrition• SaprobesSaprobes – feed on dead– feed on deadorganic matterorganic matter• ParasitesParasites – feed on a host– feed on a hostcellcell• PhotoautotrophPhotoautotroph – use– usesunlight to make foodsunlight to make food• ChemoautotrophChemoautotroph – oxidize– oxidizeinorganic matter such asinorganic matter such asiron or sulfur to make foodiron or sulfur to make food
    • 73Methods of RespirationMethods of Respiration• Obligate AerobesObligate Aerobes – require O– require O22(tuberculosis bacteria)(tuberculosis bacteria)• Obligate AnaerobesObligate Anaerobes – die if– die ifOO22 is present (tetanus)is present (tetanus)• Facultative AnaerobesFacultative Anaerobes – don’t– don’tneed Oneed O22, but aren’t killed by, but aren’t killed byit (it (E. coliE. coli))
    • 74Bacterial RespirationBacterial Respiration• AnaerobesAnaerobescarry oncarry onfermentationfermentation• AerobesAerobescarry oncarry oncellularcellularrespirationrespiration
    • 75ReproductionReproduction• Bacteria reproduceBacteria reproduceasexually by binary fissionasexually by binary fission• Single chromosomeSingle chromosomereplicatesreplicates & then cell& then celldividesdivides• RapidRapid• All new cellsAll new cells identicalidentical(clones)(clones)
    • 76Cellular organism copies it’s genetic informationCellular organism copies it’s genetic informationthen splits into two identical daughter cellsthen splits into two identical daughter cells
    • 77Binary FissionBinary Fission E. coliE. coli
    • 78ReproductionReproduction• Bacteria reproduceBacteria reproducesexually by Conjugationsexually by Conjugation• Form aForm a tube between 2tube between 2bacteriabacteria to exchangeto exchangegenetic materialgenetic material• Held together byHeld together by pilipili• New cellsNew cells NOT identicalNOT identical
    • 79ConjugationConjugation
    • 80Spore FormationSpore Formation• FormForm endosporeendosporewhenever whenwhenever whenhabitat conditionshabitat conditionsbecomebecome harshharsh(little food)(little food)• Able toAble to survive forsurvive forlong periods oflong periods oftimetime as endospermas endosperm• Difficult toDifficult todestroy (heatdestroy (heatresistant)resistant)
    • 81Transduction &Transduction &TransformationTransformation• Genetically changeGenetically change bacteriabacteria• May becomeMay become antibiotic resistantantibiotic resistant• Transformed bacteriaTransformed bacteria pick uppick uppieces of DNA from deadpieces of DNA from deadbacterial cellsbacterial cells• TransductionTransduction – viruses carry– viruses carryforeign DNA to bacteria;foreign DNA to bacteria; usedusedto make insulinto make insulin
    • 82PathenogenicPathenogenicBacteriaBacteria
    • 83PathogensPathogens• CalledCalled germs or microbesgerms or microbes• CauseCause diseasedisease• May produceMay produce poisons orpoisons ortoxinstoxins• EndotoxinsEndotoxins released afterreleased afterbacteria die (bacteria die (E. coliE. coli))• ExotoxinsExotoxins released by Gramreleased by Gram+ bacteria (+ bacteria (C. tetaniC. tetani))
    • 84