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Transducers

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Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. Introduction
    • A transducer is an electronic device that converts energy from one form to another for various purposes like measurement or Information transfer eg.,Pressure sensors.
    • Common examples include microphones, loudspeakers, thermometers, position and pressure sensors, and antenna.
  • 3. Transducer efficiency
    • Efficiency is an important consideration in any transducer. Transducer efficiency is defined as the ratio of the power output in the desired form to the total power input. Mathematically, if P represents the total power input and Q represents the power output in the desired form, then the efficiency E is given by:
    • E = Q/P
  • 4. Contd..
    • No transducer is 100-percent efficient; some power is always lost in the conversion process. Usually this loss is manifested in the form of heat. Some antennas approach 100-percent efficiency.
    • The worst transducers, in terms of efficiency, are incandescent lamps. A 100-watt bulb radiates only a few watts in the form of visible light. Most of the power is dissipated as heat
  • 5. Transducer Types
    • Electromagnetic
    • Electrochemical
    • Electromechanical
    • Electro acoustic
    • Photoelectric
    • Electrostatic
    • Thermoelectric
    • Radio acoustic
  • 6. Electromagnetic transducers
    • Antenna - converts electromagnetic waves into electric current and vice versa.
    • Cathode ray tube (CRT) - converts electrical signals into visual form
    • Fluorescent lamp, light bulb - converts electrical power into visible light
    • Tape head - converts changing magnetic fields into electrical form
  • 7. ANTENNA Fluorescent lamp
  • 8. CATHODE RAY TUBE
  • 9. Electrochemical Transducers
    • pH probes-an electronic instrument used to measure the pH (acidity or basicity) of a liquid.
    • An electro galvanic fuel cell- an electrical device used to measure the concentration of oxygen gas in medical equipment.
  • 10. pH probes Electro galvanic fuel cells
  • 11. Electromechanical transducers
    • Galvanometer-an instrument for detecting and measuring electric current. It is an analog electromechanical transducer that produces a rotary deflection, through a limited arc, in response to electric current flowing through its coil.
    • Accelerometer- a device for measuring acceleration and gravity induced reaction forces.
      • Rotary motor, linear motor , Vibration powered generator are some examples of this type.
  • 12. GALVANOMETER ACCELEROMETER
  • 13. Electroacoustic transducers
    • Geophone - convert a ground movement (displacement) into voltage .
    • Hydrophone - converts changes in water pressure into an electrical form.
    • Loudspeaker, earphone - converts changes in electrical signals into acoustic form.
    • Microphone - converts changes in air pressure into an electrical signal.
  • 14. GEOPHONES
  • 15. LOUDSPEAKERS EARPHONES
  • 16. Photoelectric transducers
    • Laser diode, light-emitting diode - convert electrical power into forms of light
    • Photodiode, photo resistor, phototransistor, photomultiplier tube - converts changing light levels into electrical form.
  • 17. LIGHT EMITTING DIODE PHOTO MULTIPLIER TUBE
  • 18. Electrostatic transducers
    • Electrometer-an electrical instrument for measuring electric charge or electrical potential difference.
  • 19. Thermoelectric transducers
    • RTD(Resistance Temperature Detector)-To predict change in electrical resistance of some materials with changing temperature.
    • Thermocouple-to convert thermal potential difference into electric potential difference.
    • Thermistor are some of the examples of this type of transducers.
  • 20. Radioacoustic transducers
    • Geiger-Muller tube used for measuring radioactivity.
    • Radio Receiver.
    GM COUNTER
  • 21. BY