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# Transducers

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### Transducers

1. 2. Introduction <ul><li>A transducer is an electronic device that converts energy from one form to another for various purposes like measurement or Information transfer eg.,Pressure sensors. </li></ul><ul><li>Common examples include microphones, loudspeakers, thermometers, position and pressure sensors, and antenna. </li></ul>
2. 3. Transducer efficiency <ul><li>Efficiency is an important consideration in any transducer. Transducer efficiency is defined as the ratio of the power output in the desired form to the total power input. Mathematically, if P represents the total power input and Q represents the power output in the desired form, then the efficiency E is given by: </li></ul><ul><li>E = Q/P </li></ul>
3. 4. Contd.. <ul><li>No transducer is 100-percent efficient; some power is always lost in the conversion process. Usually this loss is manifested in the form of heat. Some antennas approach 100-percent efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>The worst transducers, in terms of efficiency, are incandescent lamps. A 100-watt bulb radiates only a few watts in the form of visible light. Most of the power is dissipated as heat </li></ul>
4. 5. Transducer Types <ul><li>Electromagnetic </li></ul><ul><li>Electrochemical </li></ul><ul><li>Electromechanical </li></ul><ul><li>Electro acoustic </li></ul><ul><li>Photoelectric </li></ul><ul><li>Electrostatic </li></ul><ul><li>Thermoelectric </li></ul><ul><li>Radio acoustic </li></ul>
5. 6. Electromagnetic transducers <ul><li>Antenna - converts electromagnetic waves into electric current and vice versa. </li></ul><ul><li>Cathode ray tube (CRT) - converts electrical signals into visual form </li></ul><ul><li>Fluorescent lamp, light bulb - converts electrical power into visible light </li></ul><ul><li>Tape head - converts changing magnetic fields into electrical form </li></ul>
6. 7. ANTENNA Fluorescent lamp
7. 8. CATHODE RAY TUBE
8. 9. Electrochemical Transducers <ul><li>pH probes-an electronic instrument used to measure the pH (acidity or basicity) of a liquid. </li></ul><ul><li>An electro galvanic fuel cell- an electrical device used to measure the concentration of oxygen gas in medical equipment. </li></ul>
9. 10. pH probes Electro galvanic fuel cells
10. 11. Electromechanical transducers <ul><li>Galvanometer-an instrument for detecting and measuring electric current. It is an analog electromechanical transducer that produces a rotary deflection, through a limited arc, in response to electric current flowing through its coil. </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerometer- a device for measuring acceleration and gravity induced reaction forces. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotary motor, linear motor , Vibration powered generator are some examples of this type. </li></ul></ul>
11. 12. GALVANOMETER ACCELEROMETER
12. 13. Electroacoustic transducers <ul><li>Geophone - convert a ground movement (displacement) into voltage . </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrophone - converts changes in water pressure into an electrical form. </li></ul><ul><li>Loudspeaker, earphone - converts changes in electrical signals into acoustic form. </li></ul><ul><li>Microphone - converts changes in air pressure into an electrical signal. </li></ul>
13. 14. GEOPHONES
14. 15. LOUDSPEAKERS EARPHONES
15. 16. Photoelectric transducers <ul><li>Laser diode, light-emitting diode - convert electrical power into forms of light </li></ul><ul><li>Photodiode, photo resistor, phototransistor, photomultiplier tube - converts changing light levels into electrical form. </li></ul>
16. 17. LIGHT EMITTING DIODE PHOTO MULTIPLIER TUBE
17. 18. Electrostatic transducers <ul><li>Electrometer-an electrical instrument for measuring electric charge or electrical potential difference. </li></ul>
18. 19. Thermoelectric transducers <ul><li>RTD(Resistance Temperature Detector)-To predict change in electrical resistance of some materials with changing temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Thermocouple-to convert thermal potential difference into electric potential difference. </li></ul><ul><li>Thermistor are some of the examples of this type of transducers. </li></ul>