Panayiotis Zaphiris Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering Dept. Institute of Gerontology Wayne State University Detroit...
Know the User <ul><li>Seniors are the fastest growing group on the internet. </li></ul><ul><li>25% of seniors with compute...
Why <ul><li>The World Wide Web is not (should not be) just for young people ! </li></ul>
Today’s Presentation <ul><li>What attracts elders to the internet ? </li></ul><ul><li>What changes with aging ? </li></ul>...
What Attracts Elders to the Internet? <ul><li>Connectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chat online with friends and family </li>...
What Attracts Elders to the Internet? <ul><li>Self-paced Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic and Interactive </li></ul><...
What changes with Aging? <ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of field of vision may diminish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
What changes with Aging? <ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some older adults have slower response times </li></ul></...
What changes with Aging? <ul><li>Hearing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearing loss or diminishment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pr...
Guidelines - Layout <ul><li>Layout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large areas of white space and small blocks of text increase read...
Guidelines - Style <ul><li>Style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose fonts based on their legibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A...
Guidelines -  Color <ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use color effectively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pick colors from ...
Guidelines <ul><li>Contrast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greatest contrast exists between black & white. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Depth Vs Breadth <ul><li>Depth vs Breadth trade-off is a hot topic in menu selection.  </li></ul><ul><li>Depth seems to be...
Previous Research <ul><li>Analytical models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lee and MacGregor (1985) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paap...
Lee MacGregor model
Proposed Modified Model Where a1 and a2 are age related parameters.
Sample contour plots <ul><li>Young users with t = 0.25, k = 0.5, c = 0.5 </li></ul><ul><li>TE = Exhaustive, TS = Self - te...
Sample contour plots <ul><li>Seniors with t = 0.25, k = 0.5, c = 0.5 </li></ul><ul><li>TEA = Exhaustive, TSA = Self - term...
 
 
Optimization Results Results being the optimum number of items per screen.  E = Exhaustive, S = Self terminating,  EA = Ex...
Further research <ul><li>Structural Equation Modeling to more accurate measure the aging factor in information retrieval a...
Conclusions <ul><li>Sensitivity to age related differences and web design. </li></ul><ul><li>Web should be as universal an...
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Mathematical Modeling of Age Differences in Hierarchical Navigation Systems

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This poster presents a modification to an existing mathematical model for depth-breath tradeoff of menu selection to account for age related differences.

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Mathematical Modeling of Age Differences in Hierarchical Navigation Systems

  1. 1. Panayiotis Zaphiris Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering Dept. Institute of Gerontology Wayne State University Detroit, MI Older Adults and the World Wide Web
  2. 2. Know the User <ul><li>Seniors are the fastest growing group on the internet. </li></ul><ul><li>25% of seniors with computers are online </li></ul><ul><li>70% are using their computers daily [Morris, D. C. (1996)]. </li></ul><ul><li>Important to develop age-friendly web pages. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why <ul><li>The World Wide Web is not (should not be) just for young people ! </li></ul>
  4. 4. Today’s Presentation <ul><li>What attracts elders to the internet ? </li></ul><ul><li>What changes with aging ? </li></ul><ul><li>Web Design and Aging - Guidelines ? </li></ul><ul><li>Search Engines (case study) </li></ul><ul><li>Depth Vs Breadth (an other issue) </li></ul>
  5. 5. What Attracts Elders to the Internet? <ul><li>Connectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chat online with friends and family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Express their opinions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feel less socially isolated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start second careers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research health issues </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. What Attracts Elders to the Internet? <ul><li>Self-paced Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic and Interactive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The web can become a means of socializing and maintaining contact with the outside world (especially for older adults suffering from loneliness, feelings of isolation and depression) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anonymity </li></ul>
  7. 7. What changes with Aging? <ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of field of vision may diminish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty in following fast moving objects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many experience short-sightedness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in perception of color </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. What changes with Aging? <ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some older adults have slower response times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May have difficulty performing multiple tasks (especially new ones) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less able to ignore irrelevant stimuli (eg. Banner advertisements) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline in spatial abilities. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. What changes with Aging? <ul><li>Hearing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearing loss or diminishment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems hearing high frequencies and in distinguishing speech. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motor Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small movements or finite mouse control can be troublesome (especially for people suffering with arthritis). </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Guidelines - Layout <ul><li>Layout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large areas of white space and small blocks of text increase readability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep layouts and the interface similar from page to page and make sure all the important navigation elements stay consistent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t limit window size of your pages </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Guidelines - Style <ul><li>Style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose fonts based on their legibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid colors that are exceptionally bright or vibrant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animation or any quickly flashing or blinking elements or banners are highly distracting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make all graphical links and buttons large and easy to click on. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Guidelines - Color <ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use color effectively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pick colors from opposite sides of the color wheel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid combinations of blue - yellow and red - green. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Guidelines <ul><li>Contrast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greatest contrast exists between black & white. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>View your pages on a black and white monitor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Font </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger type is easier to read. Twelve to fourteen points is good font size for seniors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t limit ability to set his/her own font. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul>
  14. 14. Depth Vs Breadth <ul><li>Depth vs Breadth trade-off is a hot topic in menu selection. </li></ul><ul><li>Depth seems to be the driving force in reaction time. </li></ul><ul><li>Previous research has shown that previous studies on menu selection apply to web hierarchies. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Previous Research <ul><li>Analytical models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lee and MacGregor (1985) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paap and Roske-Hofstrand (1986) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Empirical studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous menu related breadth vs depth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very few web related (but replicate menu related studies). </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Lee MacGregor model
  17. 17. Proposed Modified Model Where a1 and a2 are age related parameters.
  18. 18. Sample contour plots <ul><li>Young users with t = 0.25, k = 0.5, c = 0.5 </li></ul><ul><li>TE = Exhaustive, TS = Self - terminating searching </li></ul>
  19. 19. Sample contour plots <ul><li>Seniors with t = 0.25, k = 0.5, c = 0.5 </li></ul><ul><li>TEA = Exhaustive, TSA = Self - terminating searching (aging) </li></ul>
  20. 22. Optimization Results Results being the optimum number of items per screen. E = Exhaustive, S = Self terminating, EA = Exhaustive aging, SA = Self terminating aging.
  21. 23. Further research <ul><li>Structural Equation Modeling to more accurate measure the aging factor in information retrieval and searching on the web. </li></ul><ul><li>Usability testing and participant observation. </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys. </li></ul>
  22. 24. Conclusions <ul><li>Sensitivity to age related differences and web design. </li></ul><ul><li>Web should be as universal and accessible as possible for people of all ages. </li></ul>

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