Decisionmaking in groups


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A look at our style of decision making and how we make group decisions.

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Decisionmaking in groups

  1. 1. Decision Making Our Style Our Groups Jim Marteney
  2. 2. Top 10 Ways to Make a BadDecision Play up information that confirms your current point of view. Make a decision based on money and time youve already spent. Ignore information that doesnt confirm your current point of view. Pay too much attention to the first thing you hear, or the first data you receive. Frame a decision only on the benefits OR risks, but not both.
  3. 3. Top 10 Ways to Make a BadDecision Wear doom-colored glasses when you are estimating the results. Wear rose-colored glasses when you are estimating the results. Believe that your "gut" is the smartest person in the room. Use nothing but data. Dont use data at all.
  4. 4. Everyone Has Their OwnStyle Communication That leads to a style of Decision Making
  5. 5. Workstyle Communication Patient Fast Owl Eagle Systematic Direct Notice my efficiency I want it done now Task Better Safe Than Sorry Notice My Accomplishments Considerate SpiritedPeople and feelings important Ain’t we got fun People Is Everyone Comfortable? Don’t Confuse Me With Facts Dove Roadrunner
  6. 6. Decision Making Style Observing Knowing Bloodhound Bull Analytical Direct We need more Strike while Unemotional data to be the iron is sure. hot. Amiable Expressive This idea Emotional Will decision make sounds like us comfortable? fun. Bee Eagle
  7. 7. Develop Alternatives Two important steps Ideation Judgment
  8. 8. Develop Alternatives Brainstorming Goal is Quantity No Criticism Build on Ideas
  9. 9. Develop Alternatives “If you only have a hammer, you tend to see every problem as a nail.” Abraham Maslow
  10. 10. Develop Alternatives Problem: How Do You get people in a park to throw away their trash? Traditional “hammer” what punishment would get them to not litter? Reframe problem: How do you make throwing trash away fun?
  11. 11. Develop AlternativesThe World’s Deepest Trashcan
  12. 12. Analyze Alternatives Appraise Strengths Appraise Weaknesses
  13. 13. Analyze Alternatives
  14. 14. Select Alternative Continuum of Certainty Preponderance Reasonable of Evidence Doubt 0% 51% 100%
  15. 15. Inference Test The number one skill of the human mind Recognizing Patterns
  16. 16. eading a Supportive Group Every group has a unique personality Syntality
  17. 17. eading a Supportive Group Group strength from effective merging of participants individual energy Synergy
  18. 18. eading a Supportive Group Two Challenges Managing Group Tension Groupthink Abilene Paradox
  19. 19. Groupthink Mismanagement of Disagreement Irving Janis
  20. 20. Groupthink 1972 Groupthink occurs when a homogenous highly cohesive group is so concerned with maintaining unanimity that they fail to evaluate all their alternatives and options.
  21. 21. Groupthink “The psychological drive for consensus at any cost that suppresses dissent and appraisal of alternatives in Irving cohesive Janis decision-making groups”
  22. 22. Groupthink
  23. 23. Groupthink Pearl Harbor Bay of Pigs Challenger
  24. 24. Groupthink RFK was quoted as approaching Schlesinger and saying: “You may be right or wrong, but the President has made up his mind. Don’t push it any further. Now is the time to Bay of Pigs help him all we can.”
  25. 25. Groupthink Schlesinger stopped his usual role as devil’s advocate and critic and began to sanction his own challenges. Bay of Pigs
  26. 26. Groupthink Challeng er Shuttle
  27. 27. Groupthink
  28. 28. Groupthink Iraq Decision “While the intention of this book is not to evaluate the Decision to Invade Iraq, the cumulative evidence to date strongly suggests that it is a classic case of groupthink.” Author: Ph.D, Deborah L. MacKenzie
  29. 29. GroupthinkAccording to a scathingreport released by theSenate IntelligenceCommittee, the United Stateswent to war with Iraq onthe basis of flawedintelligence assessments.
  30. 30. GroupthinkThe CIA analysts suffered acase of Groupthink thatrendered them incapable ofconsideringthat Iraq might havedismantled its weaponsprograms. Senate Intelligence Committee July 10 2004
  31. 31. Groupthink “I cannot imagine any condition which would cause a ship to founder” Edward J. Smith, Captain of the Titanic
  32. 32. Groupthink “I cannot imagine any condition which would cause a ship to founder” Edward J. Smith, Captain of the Titanic
  33. 33. Groupthink Members avoid being too harsh in their judgments of their leader’s or their colleagues’ ideas.
  34. 34. Groupthink They adopt a soft line of criticism, even in their own thinking.
  35. 35. Groupthink At their meetings, all the members are amiable and seek complete concurrence on every important issue, with no bickering or conflict to spoil the cozy, “we- feeling” atmosphere. ----Psychology Today
  36. 36. GroupthinkSymptoms Pressure for Conformity Self-Censorship Illusion of Unanimity Mindguards
  37. 37. GroupthinkNegative Outcomes Examining few alternativesNot being critical of each others ideas Not examining early alternatives Not seeking expert opinion Being highly selective in gathering information Not having contingency plans
  38. 38. Groupthink Preventing Refrain from stating preference Encourage member’s objections Assign a Devil’s Advocate Seek expert input Call a “Second Chance Meeting” Split into Sub-groups
  39. 39. Groupthink The Key: Someone with the courage to disagree.
  40. 40. Abilene ParadoxThe Mismanagement of Agreement Occurs when a group takes action contrary to the desires of the members and thus, defeats the purpose of the group.
  41. 41. Abilene ParadoxThe Mismanagement of Agreement
  42. 42. Abilene Paradox“Taking the trip to Abilene” Jerry Harvey
  43. 43. Group ClimateTwo Basic Group Climates  Supportive  Defensive
  44. 44. Build a Consensus
  45. 45. Build a Consensus
  46. 46. Build a Consensus Where all Group Members at least partially agree are committed to the decision
  47. 47. Build a Consensus
  48. 48. Build a Consensus Avoid Arguing for Just your Opinion Avoid Win/Lose Situations Seek Differences of Opinion Use Group Pronouns Orient Towards Group Goal
  49. 49. Implement Alternative There will always be resistance
  50. 50. Implement Alternative Change has considerable impact on the human mind. To the fearful, it is threatening because it means things may get worse. To the hopeful, it is encouraging because things may get better. To the confident, it is inspiring because the challenge exists to make things better.
  51. 51. Implement Alternative Obviously then, ones character and frame of mind determine how one relates to change.
  52. 52. “When you assemble anumber of (people) tohave advantage oftheir joint wisdom,you assemble withthose (people), alltheir
  53. 53. Prejudices, theirpassions, their errorsof opinion, their localinterest, and theirselfish views.From such an assemblycan a perfect productionbe expected?” BenFranklinConstitutional Convention September15, 1787