https://www.farnamstreetblog.com/2017/05/confirmation-bias/?utm_source=CreativeMornings+HQ+%F0%9F%91%8B&utm_campaign=fc32de13c1-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_04_24&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_1768cc808f-fc32de13c1-323268945&mc_cid=fc32de13c1&mc_eid=91c20746e9 Confirmation Bias Article with Probing Questions at the end.
https://www.farnamstreetblog.com/2017/05/confirmation-bias/?utm_source=CreativeMornings+HQ+%F0%9F%91%8B&utm_campaign=fc32de13c1-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_04_24&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_1768cc808f-fc32de13c1-323268945&mc_cid=fc32de13c1&mc_eid=91c20746e9 The Web of Belief (Philosophy & Religion) 2nd Edition by W. V. Quine (Author), J. S. Ullian (Author)
https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-art-thinking-clearly/201306/the-overconfidence-effect UT ethical quiz = http://news.utexas.edu/2014/09/22/how-ethical-are-you-test-your-decision-making-skills
Huffington Post article on Overconfidence: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/dan-solin/this-test-proves-youre-ov_b_7482810.html Do you know what you know quiz = http://confidence.success-equation.com/
Introduction to unconscious bias
Introduction to Unconscious Bias
June 5, 2017
Karen M. Landolt, J.D.
Understand two assumptions:
1. Most people want to do the right thing
2. Economic actors can choose the proper ethical path when
they put their minds to it (act intentionally)
Understand heuristics – what they are and how
they can impede ethical decision-making
Learn how to rationally recognize and resolve
Recognize limits in our decision-making and
judgment processes that might lead to unethical
decisions without full realization
Heuristics = mental shortcuts used to ease
the cognitive load of making a decision.
“rule of thumb,”
Limitations of Human Judgment
Beware of the following traps that can
impede ethical decision making
Biases: Obedience to Authority
Egil “Bud” Krogh – the Head “Plumber” in the Watergate scandal, didn’t
question if it was wrong – it was just what the President wanted.
When you are the boss, do you get to define ethical
Biases: Obedience to Authority
E is the experimenter, S is the subject (at the controls
of the electronic apparatus, and A is the confederate
(actor) responding to the actions of S.
The mental anguish suffered by subjects of the
Milgram experiment is sometimes cited as a reason
why American universities instituted strict controls on
experiments involving human subjects.
The Milgram Experiment
Our own tendency to choose evidence
that supports our existing beliefs.
We seek out confirmation whilst avoiding
anything that detracts from our belief.
“What the human being is best at
doing is interpreting all new
information so that their prior
conclusions remain intact.”
— Warren Buffett
Willard V Quine and J.S. Ullian:
…The desire to have been right…is the
pride that goeth before a fall. It stands in
the way of our seeing we were wrong,
and thus blocks the progress of our
68% of the faculty at the
University of Nebraska rated
themselves in the top 25% for
93% of U.S. students estimated
themselves to be “above
84% of Frenchmen estimate that
they are above-average lovers
I am more ethical than my
peers = 85%
Huff Post: Test Your Overconfidence
As noted by Andrew Macken, a senior
analyst at Montgomery Investment
Management, Michael Mauboussin,
author of The Success Equation, has
posted an online test that permits you to
assess your own level of confidence.
Macken indicates that more than 700
people have taken this test. Their
accuracy rate in responding to the
questions posed is 60.5 percent, but their
confidence level is 70 percent.
"Rationalization" is a backward flow from
conclusion to selected evidence.
describe something in a way that explains
it and makes it seem proper
Tendency to accept that which helps us and
reject that which hurts us
We look for examples that reinforce our
We tend to attribute their successes to dispositional
factors, and their failures to situational factors.
For example: “I did well on the test because I am
“I did poor on the test because I didn’t get enough
We don’t like inconsistency or contradictions.
Think about a time you succumbed to
Fundamental Attribution Error.
Jot down your thoughts.
Turn to your neighbors and discuss.
What are questions you could ask
yourself or someone else before
committing this error?
To whom am I responsible?
For what am I responsible?
What is fair treatment of stakeholders?
What are the minimum
What are the ideal role expectations?
*Q’s from Markkula Center for Applied Ethics