ICT-based distance learning
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ICT-based distance learning

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ICT-based distance learning ICT-based distance learning Presentation Transcript

  • GROUP 9 ICT (Information Communication Technology) is defined as computer based tools used by people to work with the information and communication processing needs of an organization. By itself, information and communication technologies (ICTs) literacy rate have become key tools that has a revolutionary impact of how we see the world and how we live in it.
  • ICT literacy is the capability (knowledge, skills and aptitude) of a person to identify, search effectively and present specific information in order to build knowledge and develop critical and creative thinking pertinent to a field of study. This phenomenon has given birth to the contemporary and advances in our ways of life. ICTs are having a revolutionary impact on educational methodology both at conventional and distance education levels globally. However, this revolution is not widespread and needs to be strengthened to reach a large percentage of the population (Mac-Ikemenjima, 2005).
  • DISTANCE LEARNING Distance education, also called open or distance learning is a form of education which there is normally a separation between teachers and learners. Distance learning is a form of delivering education and instruction, often on an individual basis, to students who aren’t physically present in a traditional setting such as a classroom. Distance learning provides access to learning when the source of information and the learners are separated by time and distance, or both. Distance learning can also be refer to as a type of education, typically college level, where students work on their own at home or at the office and communicate with faculty and other conferencing, chat rooms, bulletin boards, instant messaging and other forms of computer based communication.
  • INSTRUCTIONAL COMMUNICATION FUNCTION  Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)  Computer Managed Instruction (CMI)  Computer Aided Design (CAD)  Programming and Problem solving. Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI): It is the term used to describe the use of computers to provide instruction to students by stimulating teaching and learning situation. (Abimbola, 1988), opportunities in the classroom are in the area of drill and practice, stimulation, demonstration, designing, data collection, analysis and games.
  • Computer Aided Design (CAD): This is another dramatic use of computer in the classroom. In recent years, CAD system has evolved dramatically and now offers a variety of 3-dimensional and modeling and visualization features. With computer, images can be rendered completely from a 3D description of a building, with shadows, shading, texture and reflections added. Programming: computer programming is the art of concerning a problem in terms of the steps to its solution and expressing those steps as instructions for the computer system to follow. Problem solving: Computer is invading the educational system in a way unparalleled in previous education history.
  • DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BROADCAST RADIO AND AUDIO TELECONFERENCING Broadcasting is otherwise known as webcasting via the web from one source to many individuals. While teleconferencing means meeting through a telecommunication medium, it is a generic term for linking people between two or more locations by electronics. Teleconferencing refers to “interactive electronic communication among people located at two or more different places, a teleconference or teleseminar is the live exchange and mass articulation of information among several persons and machines remote from one another but linked by a telecommunication system. Terms such as audio-conferencing, telephone conferencing are also sometimes used to refer to teleconferencing.
  • Broadcast Radio is a one way wireless transmission over radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. While audio teleconferencing involves the live/real time-exchange of voice messages over a telephone network. Broadcast radio stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast syndication or simulcast or both, while audio teleconferencing has to do with the process of holding a meeting via telephone-hookup. ONLINE TECHNOLOGIES FOR DISTANCE LEARNING Distance learning fall into two main categories of technology, namely: 1. Synchronous Learning 2. Asynchronous Learning
  • Synchronous learning: In synchronous learning, all participants are present at the same time. In this regard, it resembles traditional classroom teaching methods despite the participants being located remotely. It requires a time table to be organized. Web conferencing, video conferencing, educational television, instructional televisions are examples of synchronous technology. As are direct-brand cast satellite (DBS), internet radio, live streaming, telephone, and web-based VoIP, online meeting software such as Adobe connect has helped to facilitate meetings in distance learning course.
  • Asynchronous learning: Participants access course materials flexibly on their own schedules. Students are not required to be together at the same time. Mail correspondence which is the oldest form of distance education is an asynchronous delivery technology, as are message board forums, e-mails, video and audio recordings, print materials, voice mail and fax.
  • RELEVANCE OF ICT IN DISTANCE LEARNING Unquestionably, ICTs has impacted on the quality and quantity of teaching, learning, and research in distance education. Therefore, ICT provides opportunities for distance education students, academic and non-academic staff to communicate with one another more effectively during formal and informal teaching and learning (Yusuf, 2005). Distance education serves as alternative in order to provide some relief and can sometimes save students a significant amount of money as opposed to traditional education. With the help of ICT, distance education help to save students a considerable amount financially by removing the cost of transportation and or accommodation.
  • Influence of ICT in distance saves students from the economic burden of high priced course textbooks. Many textbooks are now available as electronic textbooks, known as e-textbook which can offer digital textbooks. ICT in distance education provides equal access regardless of socio- economic status or income, area of residence, gender, race, age or cost per students. It is a flexible medium of instruction adaptable to any educational level. For instance, young students can be taught through this system to acquire a high school certificate requirement for University entry, just as an adult or a school teacher can be trained using the electronic distance learning system to acquire higher qualification.
  • ICT in distance education assist students to promote good learning experiences and thereby, allow students to obtain higher satisfaction with their online learning. For example, students can review their lessons more than manipulate the coursework to fit their learning by focusing more on their weaker topics while breezing through concepts that they already have or can easily grasp. ICT in distance learning opens up educational opportunity to those who because of distance, physical inadequacies, and work commitments cannot make them available for a normal schooling.
  • ICT in distance learning introduced new pedagogy on a large scale primarily because the technical capacity provided by technology that is, conferencing and others to address traditional barriers to education. It is relatively cheaper when compared with normal school system due to the fact that certain hinge overheard outlays are not incurred. For instance, to eliminates building of physical structures to the minimum and also reduces considerably the number of teachers to be employed to adequately cater for students.
  • Therefore, effective manpower training is crucial using ICTs, because ICTs are tools that on the one hand can facilitates human resources development, and on the other hand, helps us to take full advantage of the potential of technology to enhance quality student learning via distance education (UNESCO, 2003).
  • SOME OF THE CHALLENGES OF ICT IN DISTANCE LEARNING According to Yusuf (2006, pp. 22-29), successful distance education cannot be assured without the use of effective communication and technological tools (e-mail, fax, Internet, television, radio, etc.). There is a shortage and high cost of equipment, software and information compared to situations in the industrialized nations. Perhaps, another most serious challenge facing distance education at this level in Nigeria is the need for the integration of new ICT literacy knowledge into academic courses and programmes.
  • Similarly, according to UNESCO (1998), efforts to improve ICT access in Africa have been hampered by a number of factors; these are summarized as follows: • prospective ICT users that have the expertise, competence and equipment to benefit from access to electronic information networks are minute in number. • the shortage and high cost of equipment, software and information compared to situations in industrialized nations. • the lack of reliable and accessible physical telecommunications infrastructure; telecommunications monopoly, associated with overly restrictive regulations and high costs. • lack of interregional networking and cooperation amongst national universities and international institutions.
  • REFERENCES Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004). National policy in education (4th Ed.). Lagos: NERDC Press. Ifinedo, P. (2006). Acceptance and Continuance Intention of Web- Based Learning Technologies (WLT) among University Students in a Baltic Country. The Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, Vol. 23 (6), 1-20. Mac-Ikemenjima, D. (2005). e-Education in Nigeria: Challenges and Prospects. paper presentation at the 8th UN ICT Task Force Meeting April 13-15, 2005 Dublin, Ireland. UNESCO, (2003). “Manual for Pilot Testing the Use of Indicators to Assess Impact of ICT Use in Education.” Retrieved 101/02/2006 from http://www.unescobkk.org/education/ict/resource
  • UNESCO, (2003). “Manual for Pilot Testing the Use of Indicators to Assess Impact of ICT Use in Education.” Retrieved 101/02/2006 from http://www.unescobkk.org/education/ict/resource UNESCO (1998). “Harnessing Information Technology for Development in Africa” Retrieved04/06/2006fromwww.unesco.org/educat ion/educprog/Iwf/doc/IAI.html. Yusuf, M. O. (2005). Information and Communication Technologies and Education: Analyzing the Nigerian National Policy for Information Technology. International Education Journal Vol. 6(3), 316-321. Yusuf, M. O. (2006). Problems and Prospects of Open and Distance Education in Nigeria. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, Vol. 7(1), 22-29.