Introduction to Copyright

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Introduction to Copyright

  1. 1. Introduction to CopyrightIntroduction to Copyright  Copyright is a legal concept enacted by most governments, thatCopyright is a legal concept enacted by most governments, that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to its usegrants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to its use and distribution, usually for a limited time, with the intention ofand distribution, usually for a limited time, with the intention of enabling the creator of intellectual wealth (e.g. the photographerenabling the creator of intellectual wealth (e.g. the photographer of a photograph or the author of a book) to receiveof a photograph or the author of a book) to receive compensation for their work and to be able to financially supportcompensation for their work and to be able to financially support themselves.themselves.  Copyright is a form of intellectual property as patents,Copyright is a form of intellectual property as patents, trademarks and trade secrets are applicable to any expressibletrademarks and trade secrets are applicable to any expressible form of an idea or information that is substantive and discrete. Itform of an idea or information that is substantive and discrete. It is often shared, and then percentage holders are commonlyis often shared, and then percentage holders are commonly called right holders legally, contractually and in associatedcalled right holders legally, contractually and in associated “rights”.“rights”.
  2. 2. Copyright gives the owner the legal right to do certain things to the work, e.g. make a copy, publishing, broadcasting or giving a public performance and making adaptations to the work. Anyone else who does any of these things without the permission of the owner infringes copyright and may be sued by the owner for the infringement. Generally, rights holders have the right to copy but also the right to be credited for the work to determine who may adapt the work to the other forms, which may perform the work, which may financially benefit from it and other related rights.
  3. 3. Copyright and InternetCopyright and Internet The internet has made it possible for researchers to surfThe internet has made it possible for researchers to surf through millions of pages of information online in a matterthrough millions of pages of information online in a matter of seconds. People who upload materials online do so becauseof seconds. People who upload materials online do so because they want the massive readership to access their work.they want the massive readership to access their work. However, by the very nature of such distribution, they can alsoHowever, by the very nature of such distribution, they can also expect that their materials are being downloaded, copied andexpect that their materials are being downloaded, copied and used the same way, but information accessed on the internet isused the same way, but information accessed on the internet is subjected to copyright law just as printed sources are.subjected to copyright law just as printed sources are.
  4. 4. Importance of Copyright LawImportance of Copyright Law The importance of copyright is that;The importance of copyright is that;  it promotes the progress of science and useful artsit promotes the progress of science and useful arts  a copyright disallows the copying of another original work, either written ora copyright disallows the copying of another original work, either written or drawndrawn  Copyright law is a legal protection provided to the original author of aCopyright law is a legal protection provided to the original author of a material.material.  Copyright law strives to balance the interests of copyright owner and users. ACopyright law strives to balance the interests of copyright owner and users. A copyright owner has control or exclusive right to prohibit users from using acopyright owner has control or exclusive right to prohibit users from using a work or any specific way without the owner’s permission.work or any specific way without the owner’s permission.  Copyright law helps to make sure that the original work and idea could not beCopyright law helps to make sure that the original work and idea could not be stolen.stolen.  A copyright owner has the exclusive right to control:A copyright owner has the exclusive right to control:  Distribution of his workDistribution of his work  Preproduction of his workPreproduction of his work  Adaptation of his workAdaptation of his work  Public display and public performance of his work.Public display and public performance of his work.
  5. 5. Basic Principles Guiding CopyrightBasic Principles Guiding Copyright MaterialsMaterials  General: this disclaimer and user agreement sets forth the terms andGeneral: this disclaimer and user agreement sets forth the terms and conditions of a license for you to use the global database on the guidingconditions of a license for you to use the global database on the guiding principles of internal displacement, by accusing and/or using the globalprinciples of internal displacement, by accusing and/or using the global database, you agree to comply with all of the terms and conditions of thisdatabase, you agree to comply with all of the terms and conditions of this disclaimer and user agreement. From time to time, these terms anddisclaimer and user agreement. From time to time, these terms and conditions may be modified and subsequent use of the global database willconditions may be modified and subsequent use of the global database will imply consent of those changes as well accordingly.imply consent of those changes as well accordingly.  Nature of the Service: the global database is provided as an informationNature of the Service: the global database is provided as an information service only and does not constitute legal advice. The information hereinservice only and does not constitute legal advice. The information herein may not be entirely up-to-date or complete. This is particularly true withmay not be entirely up-to-date or complete. This is particularly true with regard to the information and documents on national law which thisregard to the information and documents on national law which this database does not comprehensively cover.database does not comprehensively cover.
  6. 6. •Copyright and Proprietary Information: the global database containsCopyright and Proprietary Information: the global database contains copyrighted material and/or other proprietary information that iscopyrighted material and/or other proprietary information that is protected by intellectual property agreements and copyright laws andprotected by intellectual property agreements and copyright laws and regulation worldwide, some of the documents provided herein are ownedregulation worldwide, some of the documents provided herein are owned by persons or entities.by persons or entities. Limited Use License: you are hereby granted a non-transferable license toLimited Use License: you are hereby granted a non-transferable license to use, download and print the materials contained in the global databaseuse, download and print the materials contained in the global database solely for non-commercial purposes in accordance with this disclaimer andsolely for non-commercial purposes in accordance with this disclaimer and user agreement, the database materials may be reproduced for educationaluser agreement, the database materials may be reproduced for educational and legal advocacy purposesand legal advocacy purposes No Implied Endorsement: the designations and search criteria used in theNo Implied Endorsement: the designations and search criteria used in the global database do not imply the expression of any opinion on the part ofglobal database do not imply the expression of any opinion on the part of the material or information in the global database does not necessarilythe material or information in the global database does not necessarily represent the official views or position.represent the official views or position.
  7. 7. Situations that is Tantamount to aSituations that is Tantamount to a Breach of Copyright LawBreach of Copyright Law  A breach of a copyright act means a violation ofA breach of a copyright act means a violation of owner’s right to prevent or control illegal copyingowner’s right to prevent or control illegal copying and exploitation of their works by others.and exploitation of their works by others.  Copyright infringement is a crime punishable by law;Copyright infringement is a crime punishable by law; acts of deliberate breach can lead to hefty fines or jailacts of deliberate breach can lead to hefty fines or jail sentences depending on the jurisdiction.sentences depending on the jurisdiction.  Tantamount to theft and liable to be punished in lawTantamount to theft and liable to be punished in law with fines.with fines.
  8. 8. Various e-resources that is Available forVarious e-resources that is Available for Teaching and LearningTeaching and Learning  E-resources have come to play a central role inE-resources have come to play a central role in education particularly in teaching and learning. Even aseducation particularly in teaching and learning. Even as students and educationist, we have in one way or thestudents and educationist, we have in one way or the other used the e-resources to get our assignments done.other used the e-resources to get our assignments done. Many of us will have considerable experience with theMany of us will have considerable experience with the internet and will in one way or the other make use ofinternet and will in one way or the other make use of the internet for many of our academic work.the internet for many of our academic work.  E-resources are any form of information source thatE-resources are any form of information source that the library provides access to in an electronic format.the library provides access to in an electronic format. Electronic resources are the electronic presentation ofElectronic resources are the electronic presentation of information.information.
  9. 9. They are available in various forms forThey are available in various forms for teaching and learning which include;teaching and learning which include;  E-journals: can be produced in different format such as a cd-rom, which was the first step towards electronicE-journals: can be produced in different format such as a cd-rom, which was the first step towards electronic publishing.publishing.  E-data archives: is an online data archiving solution designed to store documents easy and efficient, all within aE-data archives: is an online data archiving solution designed to store documents easy and efficient, all within a secure environment. It can be used to store and digitalize newspapers archives, company’s legal documents,secure environment. It can be used to store and digitalize newspapers archives, company’s legal documents, universities record and many more. E-archive is accessed through the internet, but managed through a series ofuniversities record and many more. E-archive is accessed through the internet, but managed through a series of authorizations allowing the right person to get to the original electronic document faster and easily.authorizations allowing the right person to get to the original electronic document faster and easily.  E-manuscript: services (E-manuscript: services (www.emanuscript.inwww.emanuscript.in) publishes and assists many offline journals and transforms into) publishes and assists many offline journals and transforms into full pledge online journals of world class. It is committed to meeting the needs of academic and professionalfull pledge online journals of world class. It is committed to meeting the needs of academic and professional communities and to working to define and meet the information need for journal publishing in a full servicecommunities and to working to define and meet the information need for journal publishing in a full service outsourcing publishing vendor including software development, data conversion, XML solutions, copy editing,outsourcing publishing vendor including software development, data conversion, XML solutions, copy editing, typesetting, graphic production and complex e-deliverable.typesetting, graphic production and complex e-deliverable.  E-research: Refers to the use of information technology to support existing and new forms of research. Is alsoE-research: Refers to the use of information technology to support existing and new forms of research. Is also the application of advanced information communication technologies (ICT) to the practices of research. Itthe application of advanced information communication technologies (ICT) to the practices of research. It enhances existing research processes making them more efficient and effective and it enables new kinds ofenhances existing research processes making them more efficient and effective and it enables new kinds of research processes.research processes.  E-bibliographic database:It contains bibliographic records with analytical content. A bibliographic database is aE-bibliographic database:It contains bibliographic records with analytical content. A bibliographic database is a repository of bibliographic or publication records. It provides an index of journal articles from multiplerepository of bibliographic or publication records. It provides an index of journal articles from multiple journals, and includes citations, abstracts and often a link the full text.journals, and includes citations, abstracts and often a link the full text.  E-www: (world wide web): A system of internet services that support specially formatted documents. TheE-www: (world wide web): A system of internet services that support specially formatted documents. The documents are formatted in a markup language called HTML (Hypertext mark language) that supports links todocuments are formatted in a markup language called HTML (Hypertext mark language) that supports links to other documents as well as graphics, audio and files.other documents as well as graphics, audio and files.
  10. 10. E-maps: Is an electronic map for new internet travellers in the same way that oil company road mapE-maps: Is an electronic map for new internet travellers in the same way that oil company road map in the 1920 and 1930 was a highway map for new auto travelers. The goal of E-map is to provide ain the 1920 and 1930 was a highway map for new auto travelers. The goal of E-map is to provide a starting point for entry into places of enlightment, entertainment and education on the internet. It alsostarting point for entry into places of enlightment, entertainment and education on the internet. It also identifies high quality, broad interest world-wide web sites that can teach, illuminate and inspire. Inidentifies high quality, broad interest world-wide web sites that can teach, illuminate and inspire. In essence E-map is meant to serve as a pico portal for users interested in quality internet resources.essence E-map is meant to serve as a pico portal for users interested in quality internet resources. E-books: is an electronic version of a traditional print book that can be read by using a personalE-books: is an electronic version of a traditional print book that can be read by using a personal computer or by using an e-book reader (an e-book reader can be described as a software application forcomputer or by using an e-book reader (an e-book reader can be described as a software application for use on computer, such as Microsoft free reader application, or a book sized computer that is used solelyuse on computer, such as Microsoft free reader application, or a book sized computer that is used solely as a reading device). Users can purchase e-book on diskette or cd, but most popular method of gettingas a reading device). Users can purchase e-book on diskette or cd, but most popular method of getting an e-book is to purchase a downloadable file of the e-book or any other reading material from aan e-book is to purchase a downloadable file of the e-book or any other reading material from a website. An e-book can be downloaded in five minutes or less. Although it is not necessary to use awebsite. An e-book can be downloaded in five minutes or less. Although it is not necessary to use a reader application or device in other to read an e-book, most books can be read as PDF files.reader application or device in other to read an e-book, most books can be read as PDF files. E-magazines: (e zine or e-zine, E-zine) is a new kind of website that contained a stylized mixture ofE-magazines: (e zine or e-zine, E-zine) is a new kind of website that contained a stylized mixture of content (articles, pictures, poetry, fiction and comment) conveyed in a way that exploited and celebratedcontent (articles, pictures, poetry, fiction and comment) conveyed in a way that exploited and celebrated the web as a new information medium.the web as a new information medium. E-thesis:Electronic thesis and dissertation (ETDs) are thesis or dissertations prepared as text-basedE-thesis:Electronic thesis and dissertation (ETDs) are thesis or dissertations prepared as text-based PDF files. ETDs contain non-text elements such as multimedia, sound, video and type text links.PDF files. ETDs contain non-text elements such as multimedia, sound, video and type text links. E-mail: A system of internet services that support specially formatted documents. The documents areE-mail: A system of internet services that support specially formatted documents. The documents are formatted in a markup language called HTML (Hypertext mark language) that supports links to otherformatted in a markup language called HTML (Hypertext mark language) that supports links to other documents as well as graphics, audio and files.documents as well as graphics, audio and files.
  11. 11. CC COPYRIGHT SYMBOL
  12. 12. Plagiarism and how it should be avoidedPlagiarism and how it should be avoided when using e-resourceswhen using e-resources  According to instructional settings, plagiarism is a multifaceted and ethicallyAccording to instructional settings, plagiarism is a multifaceted and ethically complex problem. However, if any definition of plagiarism is to be helpful tocomplex problem. However, if any definition of plagiarism is to be helpful to administrators, faculties and students, it needs to be simple and direct asadministrators, faculties and students, it needs to be simple and direct as possible within the context for which it is intended.possible within the context for which it is intended.  Plagiarism is a form of academic misconduct. It involves both appropriatingPlagiarism is a form of academic misconduct. It involves both appropriating someone else’s work and passing it off as ones own work afterwards.someone else’s work and passing it off as ones own work afterwards. Irrespective of whether plagiarism occur with or without the intent of theIrrespective of whether plagiarism occur with or without the intent of the plagiarize, it remain plagiarism.plagiarize, it remain plagiarism.  Plagiarism is the presentation of someone else’s work, words, images, ideas,Plagiarism is the presentation of someone else’s work, words, images, ideas, opinions, discoveries, art, music, recordings or computer generated workopinions, discoveries, art, music, recordings or computer generated work (circuitry, computer programs or software, website, or any electronic(circuitry, computer programs or software, website, or any electronic resources) whether published or not, as one’s own work, or alternativelyresources) whether published or not, as one’s own work, or alternatively appropriating the work of others, without properly acknowledging the sourceappropriating the work of others, without properly acknowledging the source permission.permission.
  13. 13. In avoiding plagiarism when using e-resources someIn avoiding plagiarism when using e-resources some certain steps can be followed, some of which are;certain steps can be followed, some of which are; 1.1. Assembling and analyzing a set of sources that have beenAssembling and analyzing a set of sources that have been determined that are relevant to the issues to be investigateddetermined that are relevant to the issues to be investigated 2.2. Acknowledging clearly when and how to draw the ideas orAcknowledging clearly when and how to draw the ideas or phrasings of othersphrasings of others 3.3. Learning the conventions for citing documents andLearning the conventions for citing documents and acknowledging sources appropriate to the field of the studyingacknowledging sources appropriate to the field of the studying 4.4. Consulting instructors when unsure about how toConsulting instructors when unsure about how to acknowledge the contributions of others to their thought andacknowledge the contributions of others to their thought and writingwriting 5.5. Avoid the use of recycled or formulaic assignment that mayAvoid the use of recycled or formulaic assignment that may invite stock or plagiarized response.invite stock or plagiarized response.

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