E-CYCLEGive e-waste. Get rewarded Faculty guide: Ms. Jhumkee Iyengar Team: Kalpana Funde Pranay Bansal Swapnil Ghodke Tej Kalianda
IndexIntroductionBackgroundRationale and SignificanceMethodologyDesign EvolutionFinal DesignVisual Design and Branding ExplorationsConclusion and Next StepsReferencesAppendix
IntroductionWhat is e-cycle?E-cycle is a service that facilitates collection of e-waste from individuals and takes it to a responsible recycler.E-cycle collects e-waste from the homes of customers who want to dispose off their e-waste and sends thise-waste to recycling agencies. In return, the customers get rewarded for giving away their e-waste.E-cycle is not a stand-alone service but it is based on a public-private partnership model where is partnerswith public bodies such as the local municipalities and public utilities. Consumer Facilitates movement of e-waste Recycler from consumers (customers of e-cycle) to recyclers Consumer Consumer
Background The amount of electronic products discarded globally has skyrocketed recently, with 20-50 million tons generated every year. If such a huge figure is hard to imagine, think of it like this - if the estimated amount of e-waste generated every year would be put into containers on a train it would go once around the world! - GreenpeaceWhat is e-waste?E-Waste for short - or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) - is the term used to describe old,end-of-life or discarded appliances using electricity. It includes computers, consumer electronics, fridges etcwhich have been disposed of by their original users.E-waste is now the fastest growing component of the municipal solid waste stream because people areupgrading their mobile phones, computers, televisions, audio equipment and printers more frequently thanever before. Mobile phones and computers are causing the biggest problem because they are replacedmost often.Where does e-waste go?Many old electronic goods gather dust in storage due to the uncertainty on how to manage these products.While in storage they are waiting to be reused, recycled or thrown away.When thrown away, they end up in landfills or incinerators or in some cases are even dumped in Asiancountries.
Rationale and SigniﬁcanceWhy should you worry about e-waste?In India, most of the e-waste is generated in metros such as Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore etc.Most of the waste ends up with the traditional unorganised sector -- waste pickers, local raddiwallas andkabadiwallas.E-waste, if not properly managed can be extremely hazardous to our health and environment.E-WASTE in LANDFILLSLand filling is one of the most widely used methods of e-waste disposal. When the landfills leach, theleachate often contains heavy metals and other toxic substances that are found in e-waste. These toxicmaterials can contaminate ground and water resources.E-waste account for almost 40% of lead in landfills.E-WASTE and HEALTHLead, cadmium, mercury, beryllium and flame retardants are just some of the toxic materials thatcontaminate the environment. That’s everything from computers to televisions to printers to cell phones.Researchers found that electronic waste can cause inflammation and oxidative stress, which are conditionsthat can later lead to cardiovascular disease, DNA damage and cancer.E-WASTE and the NATURAL ENVIRONMENTThrowing away metal components like copper, gold, silver and palladium leads to needless mining for newmaterials.In India, almost all of the e-waste goes straight into landfills since the concept of segregation atsource is almost absent. In the wake of this situation we found the need to intervene for a bettere-waste management system.
Rationale and SigniﬁcanceE-Waste Policy for IndiaIn the backdrop of resurgent growth of the Indian economy and greater reliance on electronic hardware forhousehold, industrial and office automation, commitment to eco-responsibility was seen as a sine qua nonfor the society, economy and the environment.There was unanimity that electronic waste containing substances like lead, cadmium, mercury, polyvinylchloride (PVC) has immense potential to cause enormous harm to human health and environment, if notdisposed properly since the extant prescriptions for its disposal and safeguard were inadequate. Thus, theimperative need for early formulation of a holistic E-waste legislation which will eventually lead to enablingpolicy.Conscious of the prevalent uncertainties regarding “when, where, and how” to dispose hazardous, harmfulE-waste, the role of informal sector in the process it emphasized on the necessity of introducing acomprehensive framework early
MethodologyUser TypesBased on our understanding of the subject we identified 4 segments of actors in the e-waste chain. Thesefour types would be referred to as our user-types.They are:OwnersOwners of old or unused electronic products.Scrap DealersScrap Dealers are those who collect the scrap locally. Better known as kabbadiwalas in the local context.Collection AgenciesThese are the bodies to whom the e-waste will be sent to by the scrap dealers in some cases directly byowners.RecyclersThese are those who recycle and reuse the received e-waste primarily from collection agencies and scrapdealers and also from owners.From these 4 segments of people we can classify primary, secondary and tertiary actors.Primary: Owners and scrap dealersSecondary: Collection agenciesTertiary: Recyclers Owners Scrap Dealers Collection agencies Recyclers PRIMARY SECONDARY TERTIARY
MethodologyThe next step we followed was conduct informal user interviews with the users we identified who fell underthese 4 categories.We prepared a questionnaire and recorded each of their conversations/ feedback.1. What are the gadgets you use?2. How often do you buy?3. How do you prefer to buy your new ones?4. Do you look for exchange offers?5. Do you buy second-hand gadgets as well?6. How long do you generally use a product?7. Which is the product that you’ve been using for the longest time? How long?8. What makes you buy a new product?9. What happens to the old ones? How do you handle the old products?10. Do you know what is e-waste?11. What is your understanding of e-waste?12. Are you aware of government and other e-waste collection agencies?13. Have you encountered public e-waste collection spaces?14. If you were to donate your e-waste, what would motivate you to do so?14b. Are you expecting in return for your electronic product?15. Have you disposed of e-waste in your domestic garbage bin?16. What do you think happens to your e-waste once you throw it?17. What kind items do you put in your bin?18. Are you aware the hazards caused by e-waste?19. What is your preferred mode of shopping?20. What is it that you buy or do not buy online? Why?
MethodologyPersonas Age Location 28 Bangalore Tech-savvy Occupation Education professional Description Works on a computer all day Gadgets used Laptop, desktop, mobile phone, camera, ipodI have so much stuff lying at home, I wish I knew whom to give it to or what todo with itI dont buy a lot of gadgets but when I buy a new product it is because I find a newer product thatdoes cooler stuff than my existing gadget. Its rarely because the old one has become defunct.So all these old stuff lie around the place and I feel terrible about it. I feel terrible because its lyingaround uselessly an I think about the environmental hazards it causes.Its just there, just occupying space.I have recycled them, given them away in exchange drives where I just get a tiny fraction of what Ipaid for it but it doesnt make me feel bad since it would just be a piece of junk otherwise.I have come across a couple of donation drives and I have dropped my mobile phone into the recep-tacles.I have never come across them much, Ive heard about it from my friends though but the logisticsinvolved with shipping the product just deters me from doing it.I wouldnt call it waste, its just something that is useless to me.Not always I buy the products, they come free with other products. If I find someone to give it to Igive it away but most free products are of inferior quality or design so I cant give it away.It just sits. Im waiting for a systematic way to get rid of it.It has to be online, that is the easiest.
MethodologyPersonas Age Location 27 Bangalore Tech-savvy Occupation IT head, Educational Institute Description Deals with a lot of technology gadgets, hardware Gadgets used 2 Laptops, many desktops, 2 mobile phones, 2 camerasI am very emotional to my things I will not give them away on any cost or Idont know if I might give .Due to my role and nature of the job I have a lot of electronic items which are brand new, but Im aprime user of offers and discounts. I do not buy second hand products because there is a doubt inquality.If the product is fine why anybody would will sell it, I dont want to risk it. I believe in the maximumutilisation of the product butStill I prefer not to sell it, also monetary incentives are not something I amlooking at.I use online mode of purchasing products as well. I am aware of the concept of e-waste any elec-tronic item not been used is e-waste however I am not aware or know how to dispose the e-waste, ifthere is any I will think of using but at this professional level although I never tried finding onebecauseI do not want to donate anything due to the emotional attachment.I used to own a TV but not the conventional one. I own a TV tuner card which was far cheaper than anormal TV and has more dual utilisation of desktop and computer but I am a staunch believer ofsaving everything I owned. I bought my first fridge because the offer said I would get a free toasterbut due to shortage he couldn’t get one however in exchange I got a 5.1 speaker system.
MethodologyTalking to a collection agencyWe find it very difficult to reach to the consumers who want to dispose offtheir e-waste and also awareness amongst the consumers is a hugechallenge.- GreenPsycle (name changed on request) is a collection agency that operates predominantly in SouthBangalore. They collect e-waste from individuals and segregate them before sending it to the recyclers.- They set up collection receptacles in multi-storied apartments where people can drop off their e-waste. These receptacles are emptied every fortnight.- Awareness about our receptacles spreads by word-of-mouth. Sometimes they conduct these collection drivesin public places such as malls and parks.- They find that consumers are not completely sure about their authenticity and are hence hesitant to giveaway larger electronic wastes. Batteries constitute majority of the collected items.- Maintain the infrastructure and logistics poses a serious challenge. The collection receptacles needs to beguarded by a watchman to safeguard against theft. Collecting and transporting the waste is expensive andthere is no significant monetary gain in collecting items such as batteries and wires.
MethodologyTalking to a subject matter expertSME interview guide/questionnaire, what we asked:1. His understanding on E –waste2. Expectation from the business plan he carries/possesses3. His target users/ market he is looking to tap4. How is his journey so far on the Subject5. Overall ground reality vs. the business plan- Awareness among corporates is high but something really needs to be done at the individual level.Corporates just want to get the junk away, they don’t look for incentives. Issues related to the cleaning of thedata from gadgets (laptops) among big corporates.- Much more robust practices and proper guidelines for recycling of e-waste exists in the US and the EU. Butin the India it is largely an unorganised market. A lot of smaller vendors are involved and they have a lack ofbasic knowledge. Need for professional players.- Huge potential for the market to expand at high rate. A more efficient way of collecting the waste is required.- People are not aware of the health hazards of the e-waste, neither are they willing to recycle it.- Dirty down-the-line with locals engaging in the business of recycling or more precisely re-selling the waste.People involved in the reselling and recycling in India generally do not understand the gravity of the situationand their attitude is not encouraging for someone like us.- The recyclers sell the components or the e-waste to the component manufacturers.- Once it reaches the recyclers segregation of the metal does not happen completely. A lot of the waste goesunaccounted for, no one knows its end life.- Segregation and collection of e-waste is a very labour-intensive process.- Refurbishers use the extracted metals from the recyclers and make useful products of high value.
MethodologyCurrent situationAt present there is nothing in place to cater to the problem of E- waste and there are very few options anindividual has.- He can either throw away the e-waste in the dustbin or sell it to the local scrap dealer at throw away prices.The problem is that in both the situations the hazardous E- waste is not reaching on the desired destination toan authorised recycler without any accountability.- There are high chances of this E – waste being dumped in the landfills without proper segregation.Moreover there is a lack of a proper administration to look after the whole process from collection to disposalof E-waste.- Another aspect is that there is a poor awareness among people regarding the entire concept of E- waste andits adverse affect on health of humans and environment.
Design EvolutionInitial concept A web portal through which consumers can send in their e-waste to responsible collection agencies. In turn consumers get rewarded for the products they send in.- Customer lands on portal (E-cycle) and registers- Selects products from a list- Selects the collection agency he wishes to give them to.- Selects reward coupons in exchange for e-waste.- Collection agent goes to customers house to pickup e-waste- Inspector at facility approves the items and then the customer can redeem his reward coupons.
Coupon section wasn’t very clear - how and what to do
“approved” I am donating something, why I need an approval
MethodologyFindings from the User Test- Partnering with recognized names builds trust and credibility in our service.- ‘Mode of shipping’ sounds like an e-commerce site and gives the idea that one is in fact buying something.- Asking the user to go and drop off their articles at once was a turn off for the user who until now thought itwas a simple online-only process.- Coupon selection was not very clear.- Approving their products made the user feels cheated when in fact he was donating somethingHeuristic evaluation of our concept - The portalAdvantages- Can be accessed very easily from anytime and from anywhere.- Consumers get information on the entire flow.Disadvantages:- High investment in manpower and logistics- Network of collection agencies- Inspect personnel- Logistics involved in collecting and shipping- Monitoring “reward coupons”- Large network of communication to be maintainedRather than directly jumping to a portal and adding another portal to the already existing several portals andfinding a solution to the high investment of infrastructure and manpower we looked at ways of integratingwith existing successful systems.
Final DesignRevised concept The revised idea was to evolve a design which is not stand-alone portal but a service that could be narrated through multiple platforms.Integrating with existing systems Looking at the idea of integrating with currently working and successful systems and to make it moreefficient, we looked on the municipal services provided by the BBMP (Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike).Firstly, we started with the analysis of the service flow (municipal) during regular garbage collection in thecity. BBMP has divided their areas into several nodes (divisions) and each node further has been divided intolayouts which are small pockets of housing localities.Secondly, we understand how the collection is done, we understood this directly by the person who performsit “Nanjappa” His daily routine starts at 5: m and he goes to his assigned locality of BEL layout, collects all the .garbage and dumps it into the bigger vehicle which then goes to the landfill.This activity he stops by 11 am.Thirdly, we looked into the aspect of how people “deposit” their electricity and other utility bills, this gave usthe idea of what is the percentage of direct and indirect users of internet; this is to justify that we reach to themasses.
Final designBy looking at the above scenario our focus moved from making only a portal to offering a service.- This service would cater to customers who contribute e-waste, by rewarding them through discounts ontheir electricity bills.- Getting municipal services like BangaloreOne which facilitates services like bill depositing (electricity, phoneetc.) for government and private sector, this particular service taps audiences who are not very well orientedwith the internet and they form a large part of our consumer segment.- The second consumer segment who were internet-savvy and up to some extent are aware of about theproblem of e-waste.The provision of rewards was kept in order to create the aspect of “getting something in return” involvement ,of BBMP was done to generate trust and accountability among contributors, a private player (a vendor) toperform the core ground work of collecting the e-waste.System overviewAwareness campaignsTo have a higher participation of the amongst the consumers.Motivating the consumerEncourage the consumer to facilitate the process of reuse, treatment and recovery through adequatecollection and recycling infrastructure.Facilitating collectionEasier process for consumers to give away their e-waste from their homes.
E - cycleGive E-waste, get rewardedwww.e-cycle.comSystem diagramAn overview of the system and its ﬂow, explaining the course ofE - waste from consumer to recycler the model works on Public Private Partnership model (PPP) Off % Customer sends request to E -cycle E- cycle comes to E - cycle gives customer a Products are taken through bangaloreOne or collect E -waste discount on his BESCOM for recycling to a www.e-cycle.com electricity bill recycler 1 2 3 4 E - cycle takes the 1 waste to BBMP waste segregation facility Request goes to E- cycle sends a trained Agent inspects the BBMP + E - cycle (vendor) collection agent at articles and issues a customers house discount accordingly From here the waste 2 goes to the authorised recyclerBack end process
Starting pointRevenue flow The recycler The recycler relies on the collection*Subjected to change vendors for the raw material to produce products out of E -waste or for reselling Money flow them to component maker, gives a deﬁned amount to vendor as raw material cost $ The providers Money/Volume The Vendor The generators of E- waste - Provides the raw material to households, BBMP rewards them Volume of e waste decides the net recycler his share of proﬁt comes with discount deals on electricity bill proﬁt generated by various players from there with the E waste they provide in the system, a supply chain of various e waste providers BBMP The ADMIN Its money comes from the amount of Money flow E - waste it provides to the the vendor and infrastructure for waste segregation, it identiﬁes the high potential areas from where it can get E-waste,taps the local scrap dealers for bulk making them part of Shows raw material inﬂow the system
Final designBased on our analysis and understanding of the various services running in the city the final design wascreated, this was done on how a customer will raise a request and how he will be responded on the requestin direct (customers who are internet savvy) and indirect ways (those who use BangaloreOne as the means toconnect online).Second level was the paper prototype followed by usability testing and wireframes along with systemdiagram (overview) and a first level business model.Revised portal designCustomer lands on portal (E-cycle)- Registers with E-cycle- Selects items he wishes to give away- Selects convenient date for pickup- Requests for a free door pickup- E-cycle goes to the customers house, collects the items on the specified date and suitably rewards him.Scenario of usageRiya is very fond of new gadgets and buys as and when the new product launches. But then she wants to giveaway her old electronic stuff. So after searching she lands up on the web portal where she gets to know moreinformation about the e-waste like:- Why should we do this?- What benefits can she get?- How easily old stuff can be given?There will be online schedules available from which she chooses her appropriate time and on the specifiedtime a trained executive will take the e-waste, based on the condition of the e-waste the executive offers herspecific discount in her BESCOM electricity bill.
Final designPaper prototypesPost creating the design and wireframes we undertook a detailed usability testing of the paper prototypes bykeeping a script in mind. The testing provided us insights which helped us to make changes in our design. Thefollowing pages have a detailed out description of the usability tests.
Final designScreen-based wireframesKeeping in mind the feedback we got in our user-testing of the paper prototypes, we designed black and whitedigital wireframes and made a quick prototype of the screens.The following pages show screen shots of the portal.
Final designAwareness campaignsAwareness is the most integral and crucial aspect for a successful E waste campaign irrespective of itsplatform.The awareness campaign was created for the promotion of the service that we were offering and what impactit can bring to the society, Based on consumer segments there were two modes to this awareness campaign;online and offline (print and outdoor advertising).- The offline (print) ads were copy based approach showcasing a sense of what we are doing to nature, theseads were designed keeping the focus on VOLVO city buses utilising their door panels the second part of thiswas the indoor ads placed strategically inside the buses for maximum attention, similar treatment is beendone to the online media where it narrates the story of a girl through a character.- The online media can be applied to websites, E waste portal.Scenario of usageVinod is a data accountant and owns few unused electronic items at his disposal, he wants to give away allthe waste but does not know how to do that online, he is a regular user of BangaloreOne outlets which is amunicipal service for paying his various bills. Due to the familiarity with the system at the Bangalore one hewishes if something can be done through this existing service.
“ Us can create “ But this created billions of these ” billions of us ” Act on Save it } www.e-cycle.com Give E-waste, get rewarded }
“ This erased distances “ Forever we created amongst us forever ” distance from it ” Act on Save it } www.e-cycle.com Give E-waste, get rewarded }
“ For years it secures “ Us were secured by moments for us ” it for centuries ” Act on Save it } www.e-cycle.com Give E-waste, get rewarded }
Act on} www.e-cycle.com Give E-waste, get rewarded } Save it e-cycle Give E-waste, get rewarded What you get with this: With E-cycle it’s simple to get rid of your old or unused electronic products. * Register with E-cycle“ If we recycled 100 millioncell phones the amount of You can register with us using your BESCOM account number and your e-mailenergy saved would be address.enough to power 24,000 * Request for a free door pickup.households for one year “ Tell us what electronic items you want us to pickup and when and we’ll collect it from your house for free. * Get rewarded ! Get upto 30% off on your monthly BESCOM bill.
Act on} www.e-cycle.com Give E-waste, get rewarded } Save it e-cycleGive E-waste, get rewarded What you get with this: With E-cycle it’s simple to get rid of your old or unused electronic products. * Register with E-cycle“ In electronics materialslike lead, mercury and You can register with us using your BESCOM account number and your e-mailcadmium, are hazardous address.and release dangerous * Request for a free door pickup.toxins into air and waterwhen burned or deposited Tell us what electronic items you want us toin landfills improperly “ pickup and when and we’ll collect it from your house for free. * Get rewarded ! Get upto 30% off on your monthly BESCOM bill.
Act on} www.e-cycle.com Give E-waste, get rewarded } Save it e-cycleGive E-waste, get rewarded What you get with this: With E-cycle it’s simple to get rid of your old or unused electronic products. * Register with E-cycle“ Throwing away metalcomponents, like copper, You can register with us using your BESCOM account number and your e-mailgold, silver and palladium address.leads to needless mining * Request for a free door pickup.for new metals ” Tell us what electronic items you want us to pickup and when and we’ll collect it from your house for free. * Get rewarded ! Get upto 30% off on your monthly BESCOM bill.
Visual Design and Branding ExplorationsWe started off by thinking of various suitable names for our service.The name would have to reflect certain desirable qualities of our portal such as; credibility, ease, simplicity,trust, motivation, beneficial and eco-friendly.Some names we considered:- E-Bridge- E-Connect- E-Waste connect- Greencycle- E-system- E-cology- E-cycleWe then zeroed in on E-cycle since our focus shifted to efficient recycling. Since E-Cycle rhymes withRe-cycle we chose this as our name.For the tag line we wanted to convey the message of being rewarded and since the word ‘e-waste’ did notfeature in our brand name we decided to include that in our tag line so that our users would know we aretalking about recyling of e-waste.The choice of the colour green was a unanimous one since the colour green is directly associated with theenvironment and nature. E-CYCLE Give e-waste. Get rewarded
Conclusions and next stepsConclusion- In conclusion, integrating with recognizable and reliable bodies immediately build a sense of trust in theusers. Partnering with bodies such as the BBMP and BangaloreOne streamlines and organizes our system.- Building an awareness among people goes hand in hand with creating a successful service.- The biggest challenge would be convincing government authorities and taking them in confidence onreturn on investment.Next steps- We would like to approach BangaloreOne and public utility bodies like BBMP and propose our system.- We would like to utilize the power of the online media to promote E-cycle and there by motivate largemasses to become users of our portal. In similar fashion we would like to conduct offline awareness drivesin public places, public transport etc.
AppendixBBMPThe Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) is the administrative body responsible for the civic andinfrastructural assets of the Greater Bangalore metropolitan area.http://bbmp.gov.in/homeBESCOMBangalore Electricity Supply Companyhttp://www.bescom.co.inBangaloreOneBangaloreOne provides the citizen with a one stop interface with government, citizen interactions withgovernment departments all under a single umbrella.http://www.bangaloreone.gov.in/