Public Health Microbiology
Tribhuvan University, Nepal
OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION
Treatment and Control
EPIDEMIOLOGY : WORLD
HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, “acquired
immunodeficiency syndrome” has become one of the
world’s most serious health and development
challenges. The first cases were reported in 1981.
According to the latest estimates from UNAIDS:
There were 35.3 million people living with HIV in
2012, up from 29.4 million in 2001, the result of
continuing new infections, people living longer with
HIV, and general population growth.
The global prevalence rate (the percent of people ages
15-49 who are infected) has leveled since 2001 and
was 0.8% in 2012.
1.6 million people died of AIDS in 2012, a 30%
decrease since 2005. Deaths have declined due in
part to antiretroviral treatment (ART) scale-up.
HIV is a leading cause of death worldwide and
the number one cause of death in Africa.
New HIV infections overall have declined by 33%
since 2001 and, in 26 low- and middle-income
countries, new infections have declined by 50% or
more. Still, there were about 2.3 million new
infections in 2012 or more than 6,300 new HIV
infections per day.
Most new infections are transmitted heterosexually,
although risk factors vary. In some countries, men who
have sex with men, injecting drug users, and sex
workers are at significant risk.
Although HIV testing capacity has increased over time,
enabling more people to learn their HIV status, the
majority of people with HIV are still unaware they are
HIV has led to a resurgence of tuberculosis (TB),
particularly in Africa, and TB is a leading cause of
death for people with HIV worldwide. In 2012,
approximately 13% of new TB cases occurred in people
living with HIV. However, between 2004 and 2012 TB
deaths in people living with HIV declined by 36%,
largely due to the scale up of joint HIV/TB services.
Women represent about half (52%) of all people living with
HIV worldwide. HIV is the leading cause of death among
women of reproductive age. Gender inequalities, differential
access to services, and sexual violence increase women’s
vulnerability to HIV, and women, especially younger women,
are biologically more susceptible to HIV.
Young people, ages 15–24, account for approximately 39% of
new HIV infections (among those 15 and over).Globally, young
women twice as likely to become infected with HIV than their
male counterparts. In some areas, young women are more
heavily impacted than young men.
Globally, there were 3.3 million children living with HIV in
2012, 260,000 new infections among children, 210,000 AIDS
deaths, and in 2011, approximately 17.3 million AIDS orphans
(children who have lost one or both parents to HIV), most of
whom live in sub-Saharan Africa (88%).
Sub-Saharan Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa, the hardest hit
region, is home to 71% of people living with HIV but only about
12% of the world’s population. Most children with HIV live in
this region (88%).Almost all of the region’s nations have
generalized HIV epidemics—that is, their national HIV
prevalence rate is greater than 1%.
Latin America & The Caribbean. About 1.6 million people
are estimated to be living with HIV in Latin America and the
Caribbean combined, including 98,000 newly infected in 2012.
The Caribbean itself, with an adult HIV prevalence rate of 1%,
is the second hardest hit region in the world after sub-Saharan
Eastern Europe & Central Asia. An estimated
1.3 million people are living with HIV in this
region, including 130,000 newly infected in 2012.
The epidemic is driven primarily by injecting
drug use, although heterosexual transmission
also plays an important role..
Asia. An estimated 4.8 million people are living
with HIV across South/South-East Asia and East
Asia. The region is also home to the two most
populous nations in the world – China and India
– and even relatively low prevalence rates
translate into large numbers of people.
In Nepal, the first-ever AIDS case was reported in 1988.
Ever since, the nature of the HIV epidemic in the country
has gradually evolved from being a “low-prevalence” to
“concentrated” epidemic. Over 80 per cent of the HIV
infections are transmitted through heterosexual
Prevalence is 0.30 per cent among adult aged 15–49
years in 2011. There are approximately 50,200 people
estimated to be living with HIV.
The prevalence of HIV infection among adult (15–49
years) males (58%) and females belonging to the
reproductive age group (28%) was the highest, where
as children aged under 15 years accounted for
approximately 8 per cent of the total infected population in
The majority of the HIV infections among children in
this age group were owing to mother-to-child
People who inject drugs (PWIDs), men who have sex
with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSWs) are
the key populations who are at a higher risk of acquiring
Male labor migrants (who particularly migrate to high HIV
prevalence areas in India, where they often visit FSWs)
and clients of sex workers in Nepal are playing the role of
bridging populations that are transmitting infections to
low-risk general populations.
The rate of occurring new HIV infections throughout Nepal
has reduced significantly during the last five years
essentially owing to the targeted prevention
interventions among key population groups.
HIV primarily attach to specific receptors on
host cells containing CD4 using a glycoprotein
Secondary attachment occurs due to co receptor
molecules ( CCR5 or CXCR4).
Co receptor facilitate the tight binding of the
virus to the cell membrane and induce
conformational change in the viral envelope
Mostly helper Tcells ( TH cells) and sometimes
monocytes,macrophages ,Nk cells , certain B cells
and glial cells are target for HIV.
During infection , the virus infects TH cells
within local mucosal surfaces infecting local
The virus quickly disseminates systemically
infecting remote lymphoid tissues as well as the
glial cells . Then the virus quickly appears in
Within weeks of initial infection , virus specific
cytotoxic T cells appear in the peripheral blood
and lymphoid tissues.
After short period , neutralizing antibodies may
be detected in the plasma and virus replication
process is initiated in this process.
Hosts develop an adequate immune response to
the virus . However reverse transcriptase makes
very high replication error ( 1 in 10000 bases
So that HIV progeny virus mutates in each
replication cycle ,thus HIV infected cells persists
in lymph nodes.
Infected cells can be killed directly by virus
replication or indirectly by virus specific effector
After several months of infection , a balance is
established among virus replication , immune
effector mechanisms and cells available for virus
replication , and the infection enters its chronic
phase during which the patient is generally
Rapid viral replication is accompanied by a
marked drop in the number of circulating CD4+
99 % virus replication occurs in CD4+ T cells in
lymphoid organs and 1% virus replication occurs
in monocytes and resting CD4+ T cells.
When CD4+ T cells decline below 200 cells/µl
,infections with variety of opportunistic microbes
The risk of opportunistic infections ( OIs) and
malignancies are high when CD4 T cells is below
50 cells/µl .
The rate of immunologic and clinical progression
is directly related to the extent of virus
replication and varies considerably from
individual to individual.
PREVENTION AND TREATMENT
Numerous prevention interventions exist to combat
HIV, and new tools, such as vaccines, are currently
Effective prevention strategies include behavior
change programs, condoms, HIV testing, blood supply
safety, harm reduction efforts for injecting drug users,
and male circumcision.
Additionally, recent research has shown that
providing HIV treatment to people with HIV
significantly reduces the risk of transmission to their
negative partners and the use of antiretroviral-based
microbicide gel has been found to reduce the risk of
HIV infection in women.
Pre-exposure antiretroviral prophylaxis (PrEP) has
also been shown to be an effective HIV prevention
strategy in individuals at high risk for HIV infection.
HIV treatment includes the use of combination
antiretroviral therapy to attack the virus itself,
and medications to prevent and treat the many
opportunistic infections that can occur when the
immune system is compromised by HIV.
Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor
(NRTIs) – block virus replication . E.g. :
Protease inhibitors .E.g. Amprenavir, Indinavir
HAART ( Highly Active Antiretroviral