Alcooli

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  • 1. Proiect la Chimie Tema: “Alcooli”
  • 2. Cuprins • Definitie • Formula generala • Clasificarea alcoolilor • Nomenclatura si izomerie
  • 3. Dupa numarul de grupari hidroxilice: alcooli monohidroxilici Polihidroxilici dihidroxilici
  • 4. Dupa natura radicalului hidrocarbonat: alcooli alifatici saturati nesaturati aromatici
  • 5. dupa natura atomului de carbon de care este legata grupa -OH Primari CH3OH(metanol) Tertiari (CH3)3COH (tert-butanol) Secundari (CH3)2CHOH (izopropanol)
  • 6. Nomenclatura si izomeria alcoolilor Formula molecula ra Formula de structura Tipul de izomerie Denumirea sistematica Denumirea radico- functionala CH4O CH3-OH - metanol Alcool metilic C2H6O CH3-CH2-OH *CH3-O-CH3 *de functiune cu dimetil-eterul. Etanol dimetil-eter Alcool etilic C3H8O CH3-CH2-CH2-OH CH3-CH-CH3 I OH *CH3-CH2-O-CH3 a)De pozitie a grupei- OH b)* de functiune cu etilmetil- eterul. Propan-1-ol Propan-2-ol Etilmetil- eter Alcool propilic *Alcool izopropilic C4H10O CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-OH CH3-CH2-CH-CH3 I OH CH3-CH-CH2-OH I CH3 CH3 I CH3-C-OH I CH3 a)De pozitie a grupei –OH b)De catena; C)De functiune cu dietil-eterul, metilpropil- eterul si izopropil-metil- eterul butan-1-ol Butan-2-ol 2-metil- propan-1-ol 2-metil- propan-2-ol Alcool butilic Alcool sec- butilic Alcool izobutilic Alcool tert-butilic