Gangs
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Gangs Presentation Transcript

  • 1. GangsGangs Gangs are not a new phenomenon in the US. ForGangs are not a new phenomenon in the US. For example:example:  Philadelphia was trying to devise a way to deal with roaming youthPhiladelphia was trying to devise a way to deal with roaming youth disrupting the city in 1791.disrupting the city in 1791.  New York City acknowledged gang problems as early as 1825.New York City acknowledged gang problems as early as 1825.  Ethnicities, among others, associated with gangs in US History:Ethnicities, among others, associated with gangs in US History: IrishIrish Jewish Italian African-AmericanJewish Italian African-American Chinese RussianChinese Russian Mexican-American Puerto Ricans Vietnamese HaitianMexican-American Puerto Ricans Vietnamese Haitian  There appears to have been anThere appears to have been an increase in gang involvement in theincrease in gang involvement in the 1980s, and a subsequent decline in the 1990s1980s, and a subsequent decline in the 1990s..
  • 2. Current Events AssignmentCurrent Events Assignment  You are to complete the following task inYou are to complete the following task in paragraph form, using proper Socialparagraph form, using proper Social Studies format (look behind you!):Studies format (look behind you!):  Identify the crime (ex. Murder, assault,Identify the crime (ex. Murder, assault, shoplifting, etc)shoplifting, etc)  Categorize the crime (violent, property, felony,Categorize the crime (violent, property, felony, etc)etc)  Explain the possible cause of the crime usingExplain the possible cause of the crime using our information on one of the following:our information on one of the following: classical, biological, psychological, orclassical, biological, psychological, or sociological.sociological.
  • 3. It is generally agreed that gang activity and membershipIt is generally agreed that gang activity and membership increased through much of the late ‘80s and early ‘90s.increased through much of the late ‘80s and early ‘90s. However, numbers started declining in the late ‘90sHowever, numbers started declining in the late ‘90s  20022002 21,500 gangs and 731,500 gang members21,500 gangs and 731,500 gang members  19981998 28,700 gangs and 780,000 gang members28,700 gangs and 780,000 gang members  19961996 31,000 gangs and 846,000 gang members31,000 gangs and 846,000 gang members There are still methodological concerns about how weThere are still methodological concerns about how we count.count. GangsGangs
  • 4. GangsGangs Structural Changes in the 1980sStructural Changes in the 1980s may have fostered increases inmay have fostered increases in gangs:gangs: 1.1. Kids are most impoverishedKids are most impoverished group, and poverty had risengroup, and poverty had risen againagain.. 2.2. Economic restructuring occurred.Economic restructuring occurred.  Increases in low-wage, low-Increases in low-wage, low- benefits jobsbenefits jobs  More women with kidsMore women with kids entering labor forceentering labor force  Cuts in assistance to the poorCuts in assistance to the poor  Disinvestment in larger citiesDisinvestment in larger cities 3.3. Racism and denial of inclusion inRacism and denial of inclusion in the economic systemthe economic system continued incontinued in poor urban neighborhoods, whilepoor urban neighborhoods, while upwardly mobile minorities leftupwardly mobile minorities left minority neighborhoodsminority neighborhoods 3.3. Higher rates of single-parentHigher rates of single-parent familiesfamilies—less supervision and—less supervision and attachment.attachment. 4.4. Smaller families. Lone childrenSmaller families. Lone children seek friendsseek friends. More protection with. More protection with peers. More gang involvement.peers. More gang involvement. 5.5. Volatile drug marketsVolatile drug markets createdcreated economic opportunities for youthseconomic opportunities for youths and gangs.and gangs. 6.6. Crackdowns on youth behaviors.Crackdowns on youth behaviors. We tend to tighten our bonds inWe tend to tighten our bonds in times of trouble. Hatfields vs.times of trouble. Hatfields vs. McCoysMcCoys 7.7. Normalization of gangsNormalization of gangs in youthin youth culture.culture.
  • 5. GangsGangs  NormalizationNormalization
  • 6. GangsGangs Social Structure of Gangs:Social Structure of Gangs: 1.1. Members are typically young teenage males of similar ethnic orMembers are typically young teenage males of similar ethnic or racial backgroundsracial backgrounds (usually from “broken homes” in the inner-(usually from “broken homes” in the inner- cities).cities). 2.2. LoyaltyLoyalty and adherenceand adherence to a strict gang codeto a strict gang code (i.e., the gang is(i.e., the gang is more important than anything, don’t squeal) is expected.more important than anything, don’t squeal) is expected. 3.3. Cohesiveness among members is typically loose, but increasesCohesiveness among members is typically loose, but increases as recognition from society increases.as recognition from society increases. 4.4. Loyalty and camaraderie are solidified by participation in groupLoyalty and camaraderie are solidified by participation in group activities that are often antisocial, illegal, violent, and criminal.activities that are often antisocial, illegal, violent, and criminal. 5.5. Goals, roles, and responsibilities are loose, but some have theseGoals, roles, and responsibilities are loose, but some have these unspoken, but understood.unspoken, but understood. 6.6. There is an established hierarchyThere is an established hierarchy.. 7.7. Identification with a local territory (often referred to as turf)Identification with a local territory (often referred to as turf) isis commonplace in the neighborhood as well as on schoolcommonplace in the neighborhood as well as on school campuses.campuses. 8.8. Recruitment is an ongoing process, especially at schoolsRecruitment is an ongoing process, especially at schools..
  • 7. GangsGangs How were gangs transformed in the late 1980s?How were gangs transformed in the late 1980s? 1.1. Younger active members (some as young as eight- or nine-years-Younger active members (some as young as eight- or nine-years- old)old) 2.2. Evidence of ethnic and racial crossover in multiethnicEvidence of ethnic and racial crossover in multiethnic neighborhoodsneighborhoods 3.3. Growth in female gangsGrowth in female gangs 4.4. Established cliques or sets in smaller cities and suburbanEstablished cliques or sets in smaller cities and suburban communitiescommunities 5.5. Acquisition of large sums of money from illegal drug markets andAcquisition of large sums of money from illegal drug markets and prostitution for some gangsprostitution for some gangs 6.6. Frequent use of drugs and alcoholFrequent use of drugs and alcohol 7.7. More violenceMore violence 8.8. Use of sophisticated communications devices and automaticUse of sophisticated communications devices and automatic weaponsweapons 9.9. Employment of guerrilla warfare-like tacticsEmployment of guerrilla warfare-like tactics
  • 8. GangsGangs But let’s face it . . . Gangs are not the leading cause of violence in theBut let’s face it . . . Gangs are not the leading cause of violence in the US.US.
  • 9. Reasons to Join GangsReasons to Join Gangs According to Research,According to Research, Reasons for GangReasons for Gang Involvement are:Involvement are: 1.1. A search for loveA search for love, structure, structure and disciplineand discipline 2.2. A sense of belongingA sense of belonging,, commitment, acceptancecommitment, acceptance 3.3. The need for recognition andThe need for recognition and power,power, self-worth and statusself-worth and status 4.4. Training,Training, excitement andexcitement and activitiesactivities 5.5. ToTo make moneymake money 6.6. The need forThe need for physical Safetyphysical Safety and protectionand protection 7.7. A family/neighborhoodA family/neighborhood traditiontradition
  • 10. GangsGangs According to Research,According to Research, Reasons for GangReasons for Gang Involvement are:Involvement are: To sum it up, people are gregarious and join groups for psychologicalTo sum it up, people are gregarious and join groups for psychological security, resource security and for emotionally satisfying bonds.security, resource security and for emotionally satisfying bonds. These reasons for joining gangs sound like reasons people join anyThese reasons for joining gangs sound like reasons people join any other organization.other organization.
  • 11. GangsGangs Gangs are like:Gangs are like:  Fraternities & SororitiesFraternities & Sororities  LodgesLodges How?How?  Sports OrganizationsSports Organizations  Political GroupsPolitical Groups Gangs are not “Abnormal”Gangs are not “Abnormal”
  • 12. GangsGangs  Colors or LogosColors or Logos
  • 13. GangsGangs  InitiationInitiation
  • 14. GangsGangs  Secret SocietiesSecret Societies Independent Order of Oddfellows, Order of Rebekah
  • 15. GangsGangs  ConformityConformity
  • 16. GangsGangs  HomogeneityHomogeneity
  • 17. GangsGangs  HierarchyHierarchy
  • 18. GangsGangs  Marking TurfMarking Turf
  • 19. GangsGangs  CompetitionCompetition
  • 20. GangsGangs  RecruitmentRecruitment
  • 21. GangsGangs Gangs are like:Gangs are like:  Fraternities &Fraternities & SororitiesSororities  LodgesLodges  Sports OrganizationsSports Organizations  Political GroupsPolitical Groups How?How?  Colors or logosColors or logos  InitiationsInitiations  Secret SocietySecret Society  Demand for Conformity andDemand for Conformity and LoyaltyLoyalty  Homogeneity of MembershipHomogeneity of Membership  HierarchyHierarchy  Marking Territory with SymbolsMarking Territory with Symbols or Objectsor Objects  Competition with otherCompetition with other organizationsorganizations  RecruitmentRecruitment Gangs are not “Abnormal”Gangs are not “Abnormal”
  • 22. GangsGangs Gang Prevention Strategies:Gang Prevention Strategies: 1.1. More satisfying families and communitiesMore satisfying families and communities. If the family. If the family or significant others are the source of love, guidance,or significant others are the source of love, guidance, and protection that youths seek, they are not forced toand protection that youths seek, they are not forced to search for these basic needs from a gang.search for these basic needs from a gang.
  • 23. GangsGangs Gang Prevention Strategies:Gang Prevention Strategies: 1.1. More satisfying families and communitiesMore satisfying families and communities. If the family. If the family or significant others are the source of love, guidance,or significant others are the source of love, guidance, and protection that youths seek, they are not forced toand protection that youths seek, they are not forced to search for these basic needs from a gang.search for these basic needs from a gang. 2.2. Educational attachmentEducational attachment. Young people who. Young people who successfully participate in and complete educationsuccessfully participate in and complete education have greater opportunities to participate as rewardedhave greater opportunities to participate as rewarded and contributing adults.and contributing adults.
  • 24. GangsGangs Gang Prevention Strategies:Gang Prevention Strategies: 2.2. Educational attachmentEducational attachment. Young people who. Young people who successfully participate in and complete educationsuccessfully participate in and complete education have greater opportunities to participate as rewardedhave greater opportunities to participate as rewarded and contributing adults.and contributing adults. 3.3. Graffiti removalGraffiti removal. Removal reduces the chance that. Removal reduces the chance that crimes will be committed. Since gangs use graffiti tocrimes will be committed. Since gangs use graffiti to mark their turf, advertise themselves, and claim creditmark their turf, advertise themselves, and claim credit for a crime, quick removal is essential.for a crime, quick removal is essential.
  • 25. GangsGangs Gang Prevention Strategies:Gang Prevention Strategies: 3.3. Graffiti removalGraffiti removal. Removal reduces the chance that. Removal reduces the chance that crimes will be committed. Since gangs use graffiti tocrimes will be committed. Since gangs use graffiti to mark their turf, advertise themselves, and claim creditmark their turf, advertise themselves, and claim credit for a crime, quick removal is essential.for a crime, quick removal is essential. 4.4. Recreational programsRecreational programs. Can get youths involved in. Can get youths involved in activities and belonging that would serve the sameactivities and belonging that would serve the same kind of function that gangs serve.kind of function that gangs serve.
  • 26. GangsGangs Gang Prevention Strategies:Gang Prevention Strategies: 4.4. Recreational programsRecreational programs. Can get youths involved in. Can get youths involved in activities and belonging that would serve the sameactivities and belonging that would serve the same kind of function that gangs serve.kind of function that gangs serve. 5.5. Conflict resolution programsConflict resolution programs. Can teach potential. Can teach potential gangsters how to better deal with conflicts and helpgangsters how to better deal with conflicts and help reduce gang intimidation tactics.reduce gang intimidation tactics.
  • 27. GangsGangs Gang Prevention Strategies:Gang Prevention Strategies: 5.5. Conflict resolution programsConflict resolution programs. Can teach potential. Can teach potential gangsters how to better deal with conflicts and helpgangsters how to better deal with conflicts and help reduce gang intimidation tactics.reduce gang intimidation tactics. 6.6. Fight high-density poverty and hopelessness.Fight high-density poverty and hopelessness. Combating conditions of urban slums removes theCombating conditions of urban slums removes the structural conditions conducive to gangs.structural conditions conducive to gangs. ““TThe chief problem in any community cursed with crime ishe chief problem in any community cursed with crime is not the punishment of the criminals, but the preventingnot the punishment of the criminals, but the preventing of the young from being trained to crime.” — WEBof the young from being trained to crime.” — WEB DuboisDubois
  • 28. GangsGangs