Right realism powerpoint def


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Right realism powerpoint def

  1. 1. Right Realism (opposite to Left Realism)
  2. 2. Realist Criminology • The realisation that crime (especially street crime) can be nasty, brutal, damaging and violent • The acknowledgment that the crime problem is a real one for many people in Britain today – it destroys communities, undermines social cohesion and threatens the work ethic
  3. 3. RIGHT REALISM Sought practical crime CONTROL measures – worry less about finding the causes of crime but concentrate on CONTROLLING IT – this is a CONTROL theory: - “GET TOUGH” - Labelling and Critical criminologists are far too sympathetic to criminals and excuse criminal behaviour with reference to police labelling and poverty/inequality/capitalism
  4. 4. RIGHT REALISM – crime does not result from poverty: • James Q. Wilson (1975) – in the 1960s in the US anti- poverty programmes were accompanied by enormous crime increases • Ron Clarke - since the end of World War II (1945) there have been steadily rising incomes in the UK – but this has been accompanied by rising not falling crime rates • If the Marxists are right and crime is caused by poverty why is it that the old tend to be poor yet they have a very low crime rate
  5. 5. THE CAUSES OF CRIME • Although Right Realists say they are not as interested in finding the causes of crime as controlling it they argue that there are THREE FACTORS which cause crime. • We can remember these three by using the acronym memory jogger BUS R • BIOLOGICAL differences • UNDERCLASS/ (faulty) SOCIALISATION • RATIONAL Choice Theory
  6. 6. EACH TABLE WILL DEAL WITH CAUSE OF CRIME Biological Differences Page 93 Wilson & Herrnstein Murray & Herrnstein Rational Choice Theory Page 94 Ron Clarke Wilson (Faulty) Socialisation and the Underclass Page 93 Murray Dilulio & Walters Rational Choice Theory Page 94 Felson
  7. 7. RIGHT REALISM CAUSES OF CRIME 1 BIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES • Herrnstein & Murray (1994) argue that the main cause of crime is low intelligence (this they argue is biologically determined) • Wilson & Herrnstein (1985) use a biosocial theory (crime is caused by a combination of biological and social factors) – some people are innately more strongly predisposed to commit crime – get this from personality traits like extroversion and aggressiveness which makes them risk-takers without self-control who act on impulse
  8. 8. RIGHT REALISM CAUSES OF CRIME 2 SOCIALISATION AND THE UNDERCLASS • Faulty socialisation means that kids do not learn self- control and do not internalise moral values of right and wrong (they remain feral children) • Charles Murray (1994) of New Right – argument that misguided generous welfare benefits have created a ‘new rabble’ or underclass and a mass of single parent families which spawn delinquents. The Underclass live in different world to respectable people, their lifestyles characterised by deplorable and reckless and feckless behaviour.
  9. 9. Underclass Behaviour Effect Illegitimate births rising especially among lower class women. There is no longer a stigma attached to divorce, cohabitation, illegitimacy. Father’s absence means kids ‘run wild’; cohabitation does not provide a stable childrearing environment Rising crime rates among lower class males Destroys communities by creating suspicion/fear. Boys follow the only role models they know (gangsters) and turn to crime Unemployment: many young lower class males are unwilling to take paid work Young fathers cannot support a family so don’t get married – rising illegitimacy. Young barbarians prove themselves through criminality instead of paid work.
  10. 10. Bennett, Dilulio & Walters (1996) Crime is the result of ‘growing up surrounded by deviant, delinquent and criminal adults in a practically perfect criminogenic environment – that is, [one] that seems almost consciously designed to produce vicious, predatory unrepentant street criminals’.
  11. 11. RIGHT REALISM CAUSES OF CRIME 3 RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY • In this idea the criminal is seen as essentially rational • Crime is committed when the chances are highest of getting the maximum reward with the minimum risk • If you can get away with it crime will rise • If crime is more profitable than taking a job then crime will rise • It’s a form of "cost / benefit" analysis i.e. constantly weighing up the costs and benefits of any action
  12. 12. RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY • Right realists argue that the perceived costs crime are low – that is why the crime rate has increased. There is too little chance of being caught, and when they are caught they are treated leniently • Marcus Felson (1998) argues that the presence of ‘capable guardians’ like policemen or neighbours deter crime because they tip the cost-benefit analysis of crime in favour of not offending
  13. 13. Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) English philosopher Utilitarianism:Utilitarian Principle • Humans are concerned with the search for pleasure and the avoidance of pain • The individual constantly takes stock of or reflects on his or her actions, situation and choices • The individual is seen as a calculating being who assesses the sum total of pleasure and pain in every action before acting • If a given action will lead to a surplus of profit or pleasure, then this path will be chosen
  14. 14. Right Realism – TACKLING CRIME Given the view that crime is caused by biological differences, faulty socialisation and rational choice the wisest course of action is thus for society to BOTH: • Lessen the risks of the innocent being victimised i.e. PREVENT • Increase the costs of crime to those who perpetrate it by swift and severe penalties i.e. PUNISH - Certainty, swiftness and severity of punishment of penalty can deter and reduce crime
  15. 15. PREVENT and PUNISH RIGHT REALISM: Practical Solutions 1. Pro-active policing – Regulation/Zero-Tolerance 2. Broken Windows Policy 3. Strong Communities – naming and shaming 4. Target hardening 5. Situation management/Defensible space 6. Crime Deterrence 7. Swift and lengthy imprisonment for those who won’t obey the laws
  16. 16. 1 Pro-active Policing / Zero Tolerance • In this sense, the role of the police is seen to be "pro-active" involving such things as: • Maintaining a strong presence "on the ground / on the beat". • Keeping in close touch / working with "local people" to prevent crime. • Keeping the streets clear of "potential criminals" (youths, drug abusers, beggars, prostitutes and so forth).
  17. 17. Zero Tolerance of this?
  18. 18. 2 ‘Broken Windows’ policy Wilson & Kelling (1982) • Essential to maintain the character of neighbourhoods, so all signs of deterioration must be dealt with immediately • Repair broken windows • Remove graffiti
  19. 19. 3 Strong Communities and ‘Naming and Shaming’ • If the community is strong, involvement in crime should result in disgrace and loss of standing in the community through ‘naming and shaming’ • Based in Etzioni’s theory of Communitarianism which argues that only by their own efforts can communities solve social problems
  20. 20. 4 Target Hardening • Control approach to crime • Attempts to limit the frequency of crime by a policy of target-hardening i.e. moving potential law-breakers on towards harder targets in the hope that the effort involved will deter them altogether
  21. 21. Target Hardening
  22. 22. 5 Situation management • involves the management, design or manipulation of the immediate environment to prevent crime or reduce the opportunity • E.g. more street lighting, blocking off back access to houses, making public spaces visible, CCTV
  23. 23. 6 Crime Deterrence • Highly visible car locks • Burglar alarms on houses • Bars on windows • All these things will deter the rational criminal who will look for a softer target • nothing deters more than the certainty of detection
  24. 24. 7 PUNISHMENT Prison - put criminals out of circulation
  25. 25. Control Theory • New Right Realism is often linked to so-called Control Theory • i.e. its more about controlling and managing crime than actually trying to find the causes or solving it • If we accept that humans are selfish, rational calculating individuals then crime will always be with us and keeping the levels of crime down is perhaps the best we can hope for!