Is there a European concept of the museum profession
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Is there a European concept of the museum profession

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Lecture by Léontine Meijer-van Mensch for the Museo-ja näyttelytutkimuksen forum, Helsinki (6 May 2011).

Lecture by Léontine Meijer-van Mensch for the Museo-ja näyttelytutkimuksen forum, Helsinki (6 May 2011).

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Is there a European concept of the museum profession Is there a European concept of the museum profession Presentation Transcript

  • Is there a European conceptof the museum professional? Léontine Meijer-van Mensch
  • museumssubject matter disciplines support disciplines
  • museumssubject matter disciplines support disciplines
  • museums museologymuseology as a science
  • Zbyňek Stránský (1926 - ) Brno
  • Handbuch Grundlagen derSowjetischen Museumskunde(Moskau 1955)Auszüge (Halle 1960)1930: 1. Museumskongress der SU"nicht Dinge sondern Prozesse"1955: Handbuch"Gegenständen als Primärquellen desWissens"
  • first museum revolution• Professional organisations 1917 Deutscher Museumsbund• Professional journals 1878 Zeitschrift für Museologie und Antiquitätenkunde (Dresden)• Handbooks 1869 Philipp Leopold Martin, Praxis der Naturgeschichte (Weimar)• Codes of ethics 1918 Grundsätze über das Verhalten der Mitglieder des Deutschen Museumbundes gegenüber dem Kunsthandel und dem Publikum
  • heritagefunctionsinstitutionssociety basic parameters
  • heritagefunctionsinstitutionsociety “old” paradigm
  • heritagefunctionsinstitutionsociety “new” paradigm
  • UNESCO Round table, Santiago (Chile) 1972 The development and the role of museums in the contemporary world Integrated museum
  • Integration• Academic disciplines• Museographic disciplines• Museum - society
  • second museum revolutionUNESCO Recommendation on participation by thepeople at large in cultural life and their contributionto it (Nairobi 1976)
  • Georges Henri Rivière(1897 – 1985) ParisMusée de l´HommeInternational Council of MuseumsEcole du Louvre
  • New Museology• Community museology• Social museology• Popular museology• Active museology• Participative museology• Ecomuseology• Territorial museology
  • Richard Sandell 2000• Access• Participation• Representation
  • social inclusion• Inclusive museums• Museums as agents of social regeneration• Museums as vehicles of broad social change
  • third museum revolution• Social curatorship• Co-curatorship• User generated content
  • third museum revolution• Museum 2.0/Heritage 2.0• The Museum Professional as Facilitator/Mediator
  • Convention of Faro 2005 Council of EuropeOn the Value of Cultural Heritage for SocietyHeritage communities a heritage community consists of people who value specific aspects of cultural heritage which they wish, within the framework of public action, to sustain and transmit to future generations
  • networking museums – archives – libraries ex situ – in situ professional collectors – private collectors professionals – “source communities”
  • Reinwardt Academie1976 Leiden > 1992 Amsterdam
  • Collections based organisation directorCurator 1 Curator 2 Curator 3 Curator 4 etc.
  • director Curator 1 Curator 2 Curator 3 etc EducatorPreservation Preservation Preservation Preservation Research Research Research Research Exhibitions Exhibitions Exhibitions Exhibitions
  • Functions based organisation Chart Title director Collections Communication Preservation Research Exhibitions EducationDocumentation Conservation
  • Chart Title director Collections Communication Preservation Research Exhibitions EducationDocumentation Conservation
  • Amsterdam Museum (simplified diagram) director museum services resources collections research educationmanagement (curators)
  • Rijksmuseum Amsterdam (simplified diagram) director collections presentation resources collections research exhibitions education management (curators)documentation conservation
  • theory professionalismethics practice
  • positive neutralnegative loss break-even profit contribution to revenues
  • after Kersti Krug 1992 Cost Centre Profit Centrepositive I II neutralnegative III IV loss break-even profit contribution to revenues
  • after Kersti Krug 1992 Cost Centre Profit Centrepositive I education II research exhibitions conservation shop neutral restaurant space rentalnegative III IV loss break-even profit contribution to revenues
  • after Kersti Krug 1992 Cost Centre Profit Centrepositive I II most vulnerable preferred neutral to be ethical avoided dilemmasnegative III IV loss break-even profit contribution to revenues
  • contribution tomission contribution to revenue
  • Stephen Weil 1995[A museum] must be able to demonstrate that[…] it is something more than a “federation ofself-interest” in which curators are contentsimply to curate, conservators to conserve,and registrars to document and managecollections.
  • Stephen Weil 1995To survive [a museum] must […] be able todefine the positive difference that it can maketo the community from which it solicits itsnecessary support, and it must also be able toshow that community that it is, in actual fact,making such a difference.
  • Stephen Weil 1995To do so is more than just a managerialimperative; it is also an ethical necessity.
  • basic responsibilities of the museum professional• responsibility to the maker (and first users) of the object and his or her society;• responsibility to the preservation of the information value (including the aesthetic and emotional values) of the object and its physical and intellectual accessibility;• responsibility to the institute with which the professional is associated, regardless of whether this association is temporary or permanent, paid or unpaid, or whether they are employed by the institute or have volunteered their services;• responsibility to those who made the activities possible by financial support;• responsibility to colleagues inside and outside the institute concerned, including professionals associated with non-museum institutes such as academic researchers;• responsibility to the visitors of permanent and temporary exhibitions and to participants in other activities;• responsibility to the community as a whole, now and in the future.