Is there a European conceptof the museum professional?     Léontine Meijer-van Mensch
museumssubject matter disciplines             support disciplines
museumssubject matter disciplines             support disciplines
museums        museologymuseology as a science
Zbyňek Stránský (1926 - ) Brno
Handbuch Grundlagen derSowjetischen Museumskunde(Moskau 1955)Auszüge (Halle 1960)1930: 1. Museumskongress der SU"nicht Din...
first museum revolution• Professional organisations  1917 Deutscher Museumsbund• Professional journals  1878 Zeitschrift f...
heritagefunctionsinstitutionssociety               basic parameters
heritagefunctionsinstitutionsociety              “old” paradigm
heritagefunctionsinstitutionsociety              “new” paradigm
UNESCO Round table, Santiago (Chile) 1972  The development and the role of museums in the               contemporary world...
Integration• Academic disciplines• Museographic disciplines• Museum - society
second museum revolutionUNESCO Recommendation on participation by thepeople at large in cultural life and their contributi...
Georges Henri Rivière(1897 – 1985) ParisMusée de l´HommeInternational Council of MuseumsEcole du Louvre
New Museology•   Community museology•   Social museology•   Popular museology•   Active museology•   Participative museolo...
Richard Sandell 2000• Access• Participation• Representation
social inclusion• Inclusive museums• Museums as agents of social regeneration• Museums as vehicles of broad social change
third museum revolution• Social curatorship• Co-curatorship• User generated content
third museum revolution• Museum 2.0/Heritage 2.0• The Museum Professional as  Facilitator/Mediator
Convention of Faro 2005             Council of EuropeOn the Value of Cultural Heritage for SocietyHeritage communities a h...
networking   museums – archives – libraries   ex situ – in situ   professional collectors – private collectors   profe...
Reinwardt Academie1976 Leiden > 1992 Amsterdam
Collections based organisation                        directorCurator 1   Curator 2   Curator 3   Curator 4   etc.
director Curator 1      Curator 2      Curator 3         etc        EducatorPreservation   Preservation   Preservation   P...
Functions based organisation                                Chart Title                                 director          ...
Chart Title                                 director                  Collections                        Communication    ...
Amsterdam Museum                 (simplified diagram)                      director               museum services         ...
Rijksmuseum Amsterdam                               (simplified diagram)                                        director  ...
theory professionalismethics            practice
positive neutralnegative           loss          break-even      profit                  contribution to revenues
after Kersti Krug 1992                  Cost Centre           Profit Centrepositive              I                        ...
after Kersti Krug 1992                  Cost Centre           Profit Centrepositive              I                        ...
after Kersti Krug 1992                  Cost Centre           Profit Centrepositive              I                        ...
contribution tomission                  contribution to                  revenue
Stephen Weil 1995[A museum] must be able to demonstrate that[…] it is something more than a “federation ofself-interest” i...
Stephen Weil 1995To survive [a museum] must […] be able todefine the positive difference that it can maketo the community ...
Stephen Weil 1995To do so is more than just a managerialimperative; it is also an ethical necessity.
basic responsibilities of the museum professional• responsibility to the maker (and first users) of the object and his or ...
Is there a European concept of the museum profession
Is there a European concept of the museum profession
Is there a European concept of the museum profession
Is there a European concept of the museum profession
Is there a European concept of the museum profession
Is there a European concept of the museum profession
Is there a European concept of the museum profession
Is there a European concept of the museum profession
Is there a European concept of the museum profession
Is there a European concept of the museum profession
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Is there a European concept of the museum profession

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Lecture by Léontine Meijer-van Mensch for the Museo-ja näyttelytutkimuksen forum, Helsinki (6 May 2011).

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Is there a European concept of the museum profession

  1. 1. Is there a European conceptof the museum professional? Léontine Meijer-van Mensch
  2. 2. museumssubject matter disciplines support disciplines
  3. 3. museumssubject matter disciplines support disciplines
  4. 4. museums museologymuseology as a science
  5. 5. Zbyňek Stránský (1926 - ) Brno
  6. 6. Handbuch Grundlagen derSowjetischen Museumskunde(Moskau 1955)Auszüge (Halle 1960)1930: 1. Museumskongress der SU"nicht Dinge sondern Prozesse"1955: Handbuch"Gegenständen als Primärquellen desWissens"
  7. 7. first museum revolution• Professional organisations 1917 Deutscher Museumsbund• Professional journals 1878 Zeitschrift für Museologie und Antiquitätenkunde (Dresden)• Handbooks 1869 Philipp Leopold Martin, Praxis der Naturgeschichte (Weimar)• Codes of ethics 1918 Grundsätze über das Verhalten der Mitglieder des Deutschen Museumbundes gegenüber dem Kunsthandel und dem Publikum
  8. 8. heritagefunctionsinstitutionssociety basic parameters
  9. 9. heritagefunctionsinstitutionsociety “old” paradigm
  10. 10. heritagefunctionsinstitutionsociety “new” paradigm
  11. 11. UNESCO Round table, Santiago (Chile) 1972 The development and the role of museums in the contemporary world Integrated museum
  12. 12. Integration• Academic disciplines• Museographic disciplines• Museum - society
  13. 13. second museum revolutionUNESCO Recommendation on participation by thepeople at large in cultural life and their contributionto it (Nairobi 1976)
  14. 14. Georges Henri Rivière(1897 – 1985) ParisMusée de l´HommeInternational Council of MuseumsEcole du Louvre
  15. 15. New Museology• Community museology• Social museology• Popular museology• Active museology• Participative museology• Ecomuseology• Territorial museology
  16. 16. Richard Sandell 2000• Access• Participation• Representation
  17. 17. social inclusion• Inclusive museums• Museums as agents of social regeneration• Museums as vehicles of broad social change
  18. 18. third museum revolution• Social curatorship• Co-curatorship• User generated content
  19. 19. third museum revolution• Museum 2.0/Heritage 2.0• The Museum Professional as Facilitator/Mediator
  20. 20. Convention of Faro 2005 Council of EuropeOn the Value of Cultural Heritage for SocietyHeritage communities a heritage community consists of people who value specific aspects of cultural heritage which they wish, within the framework of public action, to sustain and transmit to future generations
  21. 21. networking museums – archives – libraries ex situ – in situ professional collectors – private collectors professionals – “source communities”
  22. 22. Reinwardt Academie1976 Leiden > 1992 Amsterdam
  23. 23. Collections based organisation directorCurator 1 Curator 2 Curator 3 Curator 4 etc.
  24. 24. director Curator 1 Curator 2 Curator 3 etc EducatorPreservation Preservation Preservation Preservation Research Research Research Research Exhibitions Exhibitions Exhibitions Exhibitions
  25. 25. Functions based organisation Chart Title director Collections Communication Preservation Research Exhibitions EducationDocumentation Conservation
  26. 26. Chart Title director Collections Communication Preservation Research Exhibitions EducationDocumentation Conservation
  27. 27. Amsterdam Museum (simplified diagram) director museum services resources collections research educationmanagement (curators)
  28. 28. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam (simplified diagram) director collections presentation resources collections research exhibitions education management (curators)documentation conservation
  29. 29. theory professionalismethics practice
  30. 30. positive neutralnegative loss break-even profit contribution to revenues
  31. 31. after Kersti Krug 1992 Cost Centre Profit Centrepositive I II neutralnegative III IV loss break-even profit contribution to revenues
  32. 32. after Kersti Krug 1992 Cost Centre Profit Centrepositive I education II research exhibitions conservation shop neutral restaurant space rentalnegative III IV loss break-even profit contribution to revenues
  33. 33. after Kersti Krug 1992 Cost Centre Profit Centrepositive I II most vulnerable preferred neutral to be ethical avoided dilemmasnegative III IV loss break-even profit contribution to revenues
  34. 34. contribution tomission contribution to revenue
  35. 35. Stephen Weil 1995[A museum] must be able to demonstrate that[…] it is something more than a “federation ofself-interest” in which curators are contentsimply to curate, conservators to conserve,and registrars to document and managecollections.
  36. 36. Stephen Weil 1995To survive [a museum] must […] be able todefine the positive difference that it can maketo the community from which it solicits itsnecessary support, and it must also be able toshow that community that it is, in actual fact,making such a difference.
  37. 37. Stephen Weil 1995To do so is more than just a managerialimperative; it is also an ethical necessity.
  38. 38. basic responsibilities of the museum professional• responsibility to the maker (and first users) of the object and his or her society;• responsibility to the preservation of the information value (including the aesthetic and emotional values) of the object and its physical and intellectual accessibility;• responsibility to the institute with which the professional is associated, regardless of whether this association is temporary or permanent, paid or unpaid, or whether they are employed by the institute or have volunteered their services;• responsibility to those who made the activities possible by financial support;• responsibility to colleagues inside and outside the institute concerned, including professionals associated with non-museum institutes such as academic researchers;• responsibility to the visitors of permanent and temporary exhibitions and to participants in other activities;• responsibility to the community as a whole, now and in the future.

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