Handbuch Grundlagen derSowjetischen Museumskunde(Moskau 1955)Auszüge (Halle 1960)1930: 1. Museumskongress der SU"nicht Dinge sondern Prozesse"1955: Handbuch"Gegenständen als Primärquellen desWissens"
first museum revolution• Professional organisations 1917 Deutscher Museumsbund• Professional journals 1878 Zeitschrift für Museologie und Antiquitätenkunde (Dresden)• Handbooks 1869 Philipp Leopold Martin, Praxis der Naturgeschichte (Weimar)• Codes of ethics 1918 Grundsätze über das Verhalten der Mitglieder des Deutschen Museumbundes gegenüber dem Kunsthandel und dem Publikum
UNESCO Round table, Santiago (Chile) 1972 The development and the role of museums in the contemporary world Integrated museum
Integration• Academic disciplines• Museographic disciplines• Museum - society
second museum revolutionUNESCO Recommendation on participation by thepeople at large in cultural life and their contributionto it (Nairobi 1976)
Georges Henri Rivière(1897 – 1985) ParisMusée de l´HommeInternational Council of MuseumsEcole du Louvre
New Museology• Community museology• Social museology• Popular museology• Active museology• Participative museology• Ecomuseology• Territorial museology
Richard Sandell 2000• Access• Participation• Representation
social inclusion• Inclusive museums• Museums as agents of social regeneration• Museums as vehicles of broad social change
third museum revolution• Social curatorship• Co-curatorship• User generated content
third museum revolution• Museum 2.0/Heritage 2.0• The Museum Professional as Facilitator/Mediator
Convention of Faro 2005 Council of EuropeOn the Value of Cultural Heritage for SocietyHeritage communities a heritage community consists of people who value specific aspects of cultural heritage which they wish, within the framework of public action, to sustain and transmit to future generations
networking museums – archives – libraries ex situ – in situ professional collectors – private collectors professionals – “source communities”
positive neutralnegative loss break-even profit contribution to revenues
after Kersti Krug 1992 Cost Centre Profit Centrepositive I II neutralnegative III IV loss break-even profit contribution to revenues
after Kersti Krug 1992 Cost Centre Profit Centrepositive I education II research exhibitions conservation shop neutral restaurant space rentalnegative III IV loss break-even profit contribution to revenues
after Kersti Krug 1992 Cost Centre Profit Centrepositive I II most vulnerable preferred neutral to be ethical avoided dilemmasnegative III IV loss break-even profit contribution to revenues
contribution tomission contribution to revenue
Stephen Weil 1995[A museum] must be able to demonstrate that[…] it is something more than a “federation ofself-interest” in which curators are contentsimply to curate, conservators to conserve,and registrars to document and managecollections.
Stephen Weil 1995To survive [a museum] must […] be able todefine the positive difference that it can maketo the community from which it solicits itsnecessary support, and it must also be able toshow that community that it is, in actual fact,making such a difference.
Stephen Weil 1995To do so is more than just a managerialimperative; it is also an ethical necessity.
basic responsibilities of the museum professional• responsibility to the maker (and first users) of the object and his or her society;• responsibility to the preservation of the information value (including the aesthetic and emotional values) of the object and its physical and intellectual accessibility;• responsibility to the institute with which the professional is associated, regardless of whether this association is temporary or permanent, paid or unpaid, or whether they are employed by the institute or have volunteered their services;• responsibility to those who made the activities possible by financial support;• responsibility to colleagues inside and outside the institute concerned, including professionals associated with non-museum institutes such as academic researchers;• responsibility to the visitors of permanent and temporary exhibitions and to participants in other activities;• responsibility to the community as a whole, now and in the future.