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The Conclaves:Papal Interregnum & Transition
Conclaves are Relatively New    Only 79 popes elected in conclave.    First conclave in 1241 → Celestine IV (#180).    Las...
Electoral Changes                    Urban VI                    (#203)
The Vacant See   Period           Years   Vacancies   Average Vacancy   „All Time‟       ~1963   ~54 years      ~74 days  ...
Makes April 2005 seem quick!!
Aug. 1241: First Real Conclave    Gregory IX (#179) <> Frederick II (1220-1250).    Cardinals: 14 > 12 > 11 > 10 > 11.    ...
1,006 Day Conclave – in Viterbo    4 elections after 1241 without conclaves.    Continued tussle with ‘German’ court;     ...
Gregory X’s Ubi periculum    Gregory X (#185), Mar. 27, 1272 < 1,214 days.    2nd Council of Lyon, May – July 1274.    Nov...
Celestine V: Godfather of Conclaves    Next 3 conclaves: 1 day, 9 days, 11 days.    Hadrian V (#187), 5 conclaves > 38 day...
Who were the most recent popes before Benedict?John Paul II   John Paul I   Paul VI   John XXIII
To elect a new Pope, there are several stages.1. All of the Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church meet in   Rome (unless ...
This is the votingslip used to elect anew Pope.Each Cardinal willtry to disguisetheir writing whenthey print thename of th...
All votes cast in theelection are secret andmust be destroyedimmediately.They are burnt in thesmall stove (thesfumata) tha...
If the smoke from the                          chimney is white, a newIf the smoke from the     Pope has been elected.chim...
Once the new Pope has been elected, the chiefCardinal will come onto the balcony of St. Peter‟sBasilica and proclaim Annun...
References   Guruge, Anura, The Next Pope, WOWNH, 2010.   Kelly, J.N.D., The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, Oxford University...
On the conclave
On the conclave
On the conclave
On the conclave
On the conclave
On the conclave
On the conclave
On the conclave
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On the conclave

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A brief history of how Popes are elected in the Catholic Church, updated for the March 2013 Conclave held after the retirement of Benedict XVI. Permission for use in religious education / faith formation is granted with the reservation that I'm told who's using it. Thanks and God bless!

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Transcript of "On the conclave"

  1. 1. The Conclaves:Papal Interregnum & Transition
  2. 2. Conclaves are Relatively New Only 79 popes elected in conclave. First conclave in 1241 → Celestine IV (#180). Last 73 popes, in succession, since Dec. 1294 → Boniface VIII (#194). Involving the Sistine Chapel, only since 1484. Since 1484, five away from the Vatican. Sfumata, early 19th century.
  3. 3. Electoral Changes Urban VI (#203)
  4. 4. The Vacant See Period Years Vacancies Average Vacancy „All Time‟ ~1963 ~54 years ~74 days 1st Millennium ~957 ~25 years ~65 days 2nd Millennium 1006 ~29 years ~84 days „11th Century‟ 100 5.7 years 98 days „13th Century‟ 105 9.5 years 193 days „20th Century‟ 102 0.4 years 17 days Last 9 conclaves: average 3.33 days; 2, 3, 2, 3, 4, 2, 5, 4 & 5 Pius VII (#252), on March 14, 1800 – 105 days. Longest: 1,006 days, Nov. 1268 – Sep. 1271.
  5. 5. Makes April 2005 seem quick!!
  6. 6. Aug. 1241: First Real Conclave Gregory IX (#179) <> Frederick II (1220-1250). Cardinals: 14 > 12 > 11 > 10 > 11. Matteo Rosso ‘the Great’ Orsini (1178-1246). 1 month lead-up; Sep. 21 to Oct. 25 (34 days). Celestine IV (#180), just 16 days. Pope & cardinals flee Rome! 592 days before the next pope. Septizodium, Palatine Hill
  7. 7. 1,006 Day Conclave – in Viterbo 4 elections after 1241 without conclaves. Continued tussle with ‘German’ court; > Charles I, Count of Anjou (1226-1285) steps into fray. Clement IV (#184) died 11/29/1268 in Viterbo. Cardinals = 21 > 19; Italian = 12, France = 5. c. 1270 conclave < Gatti … roof comes off … now 16. mid-1271, 6 cardinal committee. Sep. 1, 1271 > Viconti. Palazzo dei Papi, Viterbo
  8. 8. Gregory X’s Ubi periculum Gregory X (#185), Mar. 27, 1272 < 1,214 days. 2nd Council of Lyon, May – July 1274. Nov. 1274 > 2nd Constitution, Part II. ‘When there is danger’ 10 day ‘assembly’ period > 1922. One assistant; no income; only „urgent‟ business. After 3 days > one dish/meal; 9th day > Gregory X papacy 4 years, 4 months.
  9. 9. Celestine V: Godfather of Conclaves Next 3 conclaves: 1 day, 9 days, 11 days. Hadrian V (#187), 5 conclaves > 38 days as pope! John XXI (#188), M.D., suspends U.p. within 10 days. ‘ Next 5 conclaves: 189, 184, 5, 325 & 822 days. Celestine V (#193), a hermit, elected in haste. Within a month, Quia in futurum, U.p. back. Boniface VIII (#194) enshrines U.p. > Canon Law.
  10. 10. Who were the most recent popes before Benedict?John Paul II John Paul I Paul VI John XXIII
  11. 11. To elect a new Pope, there are several stages.1. All of the Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church meet in Rome (unless they are over 80). There can be a maximum of 120 Cardinals involved in the vote.2. The Cardinals all take part in a public mass to ask for guidance from the Holy Spirit.3. The Senior Cardinal issues the order Extra Omnes and all not involved in the election process have to leave.4. The doors are then sealed shut and the CONCLAVE starts.
  12. 12. This is the votingslip used to elect anew Pope.Each Cardinal willtry to disguisetheir writing whenthey print thename of theirchoice.They fold the cardin half making itone inch wide.The words on thetop mean “I electas supremepontiff”.
  13. 13. All votes cast in theelection are secret andmust be destroyedimmediately.They are burnt in thesmall stove (thesfumata) that islocated in theSistine Chapel.The color of the smokethat comes from thechimney is whatpeople watch for.
  14. 14. If the smoke from the chimney is white, a newIf the smoke from the Pope has been elected.chimney is black, The great bells of Saintanother vote is needed. Peter‟s Basilica will ring.
  15. 15. Once the new Pope has been elected, the chiefCardinal will come onto the balcony of St. Peter‟sBasilica and proclaim Annuncio vobis gaudeammagnam: Habemus Papam!
  16. 16. References Guruge, Anura, The Next Pope, WOWNH, 2010. Kelly, J.N.D., The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, Oxford University Press, 2005. Baugmartner, Frederic J., A History of Papal Elections, Palgrave Macmillian, 2003 Walsh, Michael, The Conclave, Sheed & Ward, 2003 Please check ‘Errors in books about popes’ at www.popes-and-papacy.com Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church: www.piu.edu/~mirandas/cardinals
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