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Barriers to the use of low GWP Refrigeratnts in Developing Countries
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Barriers to the use of low GWP Refrigeratnts in Developing Countries

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  • 1. Barriers to the use of low-GWP Refrigerants in Developing Countries Daniel Colbourne [email_address] Consultant for GIZ Proklima, http:// www.gtz.de/proklima PROKLIMA
  • 2. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Introduction
    • Summarise the findings of the recent UNEP report
    • Summarise some projects undertaken by GIZ Proklima that compliment the findings
  • 3. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Introduction
    • The “default” replacement for R22 is HFCs
    • Decision 60/44, ExCom recommends that climate (GWP, energy) be considered when choosing alternatives to HCFCs
      • If R22 is replaced with HFCs, the “average” GWP from the mix is around 3,000 (compared to 1,800 for R22)
      • With ~10% annual growth of HCFC use in Article 5 countries, this could result in significant increase in greenhouse gas emissions
      • For 2009, emissions approx. 400 m tCO2-eq  670 m tCO2-eq if HFC used  1,300 m tCO2-eq in 2020
    • One option to help avoid such emissions is through use of alternative refrigerants with low-GWP
  • 4. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Introduction
    • Whilst low-GWP is attractive, current use is limited
      • Why?
    • As part of the “JumpStart” project, UNEP (in cooperation with the EC), initiated a study to look at barriers to the up-take of certain refrigerants in Article 5 countries
      • Specifically, low-GWP refrigerants as replacements to R22
      • Intended to help accelerate HCFC phase-out
    • Focus is on Article 5 countries (although same barriers may also apply in non-Article 5)
    • Primarily consider low-GWP refrigerants in new equipment
  • 5. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Refrigerants to consider
    • Those under consideration, and their main technical issues
    • R-717 (ammonia)
      • Higher toxicity, low flammability, cannot use copper systems
    • Hydrocarbons – R-290 (propane), R-1270 (propylene)
      • High flammability
    • R-744 (carbon dioxide)
      • High working pressures, complications at higher ambient temperatures
    • Unsaturated HFCs – R1234yf, R1243zf, etc
      • Very new, likely rather costly, not commercialised yet
  • 6. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Study approach
    • Get broad views of individuals involved in refrigeration and air conditioning field in Article 5 countries
      • Survey approach
    • Three main stages
      • Basic analysis/desk study
      • Develop survey form  workshops, email, internet
      • Collate responses, produce assessment report
    • Questionnaires fundamentally based on guiding questions:
      • “ If I wanted to have a low-GWP system tomorrow, what is stopping me?”
      • “ If I am determined to use a low-GWP refrigerant, what would need to be done?”
  • 7. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Desk study
    • Initially identified several types of barriers
      • Technical (refrigeration engineering)
      • Technical (safety engineering)
      • Supply and availability (materials, equipment, components, fluids)
      • Commercial (investment, profit, financial incentives)
      • Market (customer, consumer, competing products)
      • Information resources (know-how, guidance, technical data)
      • Regulatory and quasi-regulatory (legislation, standards)
      • Psychological and sociological aspects
    • Useful to identify where these may occur
      • Within the process enterprises may use to adopt as new refrigerant
      • Amongst the stakeholders involved with application of refrigerants
  • 8. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Desk study
    • Identify where barriers exist in process within enterprises
  • 9. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Desk study
    • Identify stakeholders within the process that can affect use
  • 10. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Survey
    • Two survey forms were developed
      • First, a detailed questionnaire
      • Second, an internet survey
  • 11. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Response to survey
    • Survey had fairly wide distribution
      • Several hundred directly emailed
      • Internet survey “mail-shot” to 5,500
    • Received, approximately
      • 30 completed/partially completed detailed questionnaires
      • 81 internet survey forms
      • Verbal remarks/statements during workshops/meetings
    • In total, received 343 “statements” about barriers
    • [It is also recognised that filling in the survey was hard work!]
  • 12. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Response to survey
    • Distribution of statements by 41 countries
      • Central and South America, East Europe and Central Asia dominant respondents
      • Would have liked more from Africa, Middle East, India and China
  • 13. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Response to survey
    • Distribution of statements by stakeholder
  • 14. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Response to survey
    • Distribution of statements according to refrigerant type
    • Identified barriers are neither “easy” or “impossible” to resolve
    “ All”
  • 15. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Statements about barriers
    • From the entire set of responses, 32 specific barriers were identified
    • Many anticipated points
      • “ no standards”, “no demand”, “fear of safety”, “no systems currently in use”, “peer group pressure”, “too much hassle”, etc
    • Many are “chicken-and-egg” situations
      • As to be expected
    • The significance or relevance of each varies according to considerations
      • Country, region, size and type of equipment, type of refrigerant, perception of person making the statement, etc
  • 16. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Summary of main barriers
    • The most significant barriers are considered to be
      • There are no systems using LGA refrigerants available to buy
      • There is nothing to incentivise enterprises to invest in LGA technology
      • No one is willing to invest in production of systems, parts, components and refrigerant
      • Consultants developing HPMPs are not recommending LGA refrigerants for projects
      • The rules for using LGA refrigerants are too restrictive to allow their use
      • There is a general fear of the safety risks
    • Many of the barriers are “chicken-and-egg”
      • Highlights the importance of developing interventions to help break the cycle
  • 17. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants General recommendations
    • Based on responses, identified set of nine fields where opportunities lie for encouraging uptake of low-GWP alternatives
      • Awareness-raising, training, guidance, technical development, market development, financial incentives, regulatory infrastructure, Montreal Protocol substantive issues, ENGOs
    • For each, extracted general recommendations
    • Important to note that all of the following interventions must be applied together – not in isolation
    • NOTE: The output is consolidation of views of the respondents and not of author, UNEP or European Commission
  • 18. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants General recommendations
    • Awareness-raising
      • Highlight the importance of the (climate) problem and the possibilities of (low-GWP) options available
    • Training
      • Critical to adopt dedicated training – specific to each individual low-GWP alternative and specific to application/end use
    • Guidance
      • High quality guidance of what low-GWP alternative, when, where and how; also targeted to specific stakeholder groups
  • 19. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants General recommendations
    • Technical development
      • Improving efficiency of R744 AC systems for warm climates, reducing refrigerant charge sizes for systems using flammables, safety control mechanisms for system using flammables
    • Market development
      • Stimulate industry involvement with low-GWP alternatives; encourage local manufacturing, develop product directories, etc
    • Financial incentives
      • Subsidies for using low-GWP, tax incentives for low-GWP / tax disincentives for high-GWP
  • 20. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants General recommendations
    • Regulatory infrastructure
      • Impose better control of industry to work safely, modify regulations that inhibit low-GWP alternatives, ensure safety standards are constructive
    • Montreal Protocol substantive issues
      • Decision-making bodies to introduce more incentives, HPMP consultants should be better assisted to embrace low-GWP alternatives
    • ENGOs to more actively lobby on the high/low-GWP issue
  • 21. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants GIZ Proklima activities to help overcome barriers
    • Example: Demonstration project of production of climate-friendly air conditioners (China)
      • Project introduces HCs to the production of room air-conditioning systems using HCs at Gree Electric Appliances Inc.
      • Conversion to HC will reduce emissions from currently used ozone- and climate-damaging HCFCs
      • Enables manufacturer to develop experience of handling production and design of ACs using HCs
  • 22. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants GIZ Proklima activities to help overcome barriers
    • Example: Conversion of large air-conditioning systems in public buildings (Mauritius)
      • Replacing old, inefficient central air-conditioning systems in public buildings
      • With new (R717) ammonia chillers in country with tropical climate
      • Project avoids emissions of high-GWP, ODS refrigerants
      • Meets all safety requirements of European safety standard
  • 23. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants GIZ Proklima activities to help overcome barriers
    • Example: Conversion of supermarket systems (South Africa)
      • Replacing conventional centralised supermarket systems, Pick and Pay
      • With R744 (carbon dioxide) and R744/R717systems in country with hot climate
      • Project avoids emissions of high-GWP, ODS refrigerants
      • Meets all safety requirements of European safety standard
  • 24. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants GIZ Proklima activities to help overcome barriers
    • Example: Demonstration project of production of climate-friendly commercial refrigeration (Swaziland)
      • Project introduces the production of stand-alone commercial refrigeration units HCs at Palfridge
      • Conversion to HC will reduce emissions from previously used ozone- and climate-damaging refrigerants
      • Product range redesigned to meet international safety standards
      • Up to 40% improvement in energy use
  • 25.
    • Example: action plan in China to implement flammable refrigerants in air conditioning sector
      • Development of plan in collaboration with industry for widespread use of low-GWP flammable refrigerants
      • Includes development activities, training, standards and codes of practice
      • Helps smooth the transition from ODS, high-GWP to climate-friendly options
    Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants GIZ Proklima activities to help overcome barriers
  • 26. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants GIZ Proklima activities to help overcome barriers
    • Example: Comprehensive guidance on low-GWP technology
      • Translated/translating into many languages
  • 27.
    • Example: training on the use of HCs in southern Africa region
      • Thorough, dedicated training-the-trainer to use HCs
      • Helps smooth the transition from ODS, high-GWP to climate-friendly options
      • Increases confidence of technicians
      • Safety information does not get “lost”
    Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants GIZ Proklima activities to help overcome barriers
  • 28. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants GIZ Proklima activities to help overcome barriers
    • Example: Pilot installation of HC air conditioners (Maldives)
      • Project introduces a large number of HC air conditioners to the market
      • Builds acceptance and confidence of technicians, suppliers, end users
      • Enthuses market to new technology options
  • 29. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Final remarks
    • Many of the barriers are interlinked
      • The present situation is how it is, because that’s the way it is… the “easiest” state of affairs
      • Therefore, strategic interventions are necessary to transform situation
    • However, enterprises and projects that have already implemented low-GWP alternatives found that many of the barriers were less difficult than anticipated
      • In many cases, requires a lot of determination and effort
    • Lastly, THANK YOU to all those that provided input!
    • [Full report available on UNEP OzonAction internet site]
  • 30. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION …and please visit the GIZ Proklima booth! PROKLIMA