Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Refrigerant environment and legislative update the future of refrigerants customer presentation

1,002 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Refrigerant environment and legislative update the future of refrigerants customer presentation

  1. 1. Environmental Legislation and the Future of Refrigerants Omair Farooq Presented to : Ministry of Health , Kingdom of Saudi Arabia April 15, 2014
  2. 2. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 Table of Contents 2  Review the environmental impact of refrigerants  Discuss types of global refrigerant regulation  Identify the global indicators for the future of refrigerants  Provide examples of likely alternatives for various sectors  Legislation and Future of Refrigerants in Saudi Arabia
  3. 3. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 Global Warming Ozone Depletion Johnson Controls is Committed to Sustainability  Leading the Industry to eliminate and minimize: 3 ODP GWP
  4. 4. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011  What is The Montreal Protocol?  International treaty - 1989  Mandatory phase out of the production of ozone depleting substances  One of the most successful international treaties  Universally ratified: 196 Signatories! 4 Ozone Depletion- The Montreal Protocol ODP
  5. 5. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011  Accepted science  Step-down approach that has allowed for transition  Different time table for developing countries  Flexibility to accelerate when technology is available  Superior reduction in CO2  It’s working! 5 Why has the Montreal Protocol been successful? UNEP has strong evidence that the ozone hole is shrinking and estimates that levels are expected to return to their 1980 values by 2050 ODP
  6. 6. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 20116 If the Montreal Protocol has been such a success do we still need to be concerned with ODP substances? ODP  Our work is not done:  Destroy stock piles of CFCs and HCFCs  Eliminate the operation of older, less efficient chillers  Eliminate the risk of potential leaks  Accelerate phase out of HCFCs in developing countries AHRI estimated there are 30,000 CFC and HCFC chillers remaining in service, just in the United States CFCs & HCFCs
  7. 7. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 Montreal Protocol Limits: Consumption of HCFCs in Developed & Developing Countries ODP 7 Developed Countries 20302010 2015 20202004 Previous Limit New Limit Percent(%)ofallallowedcap Possible Service Tail 0.5% 0 25 10 35 65 100 Year
  8. 8. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 Montreal Protocol Limits: Consumption of HCFCs in Developed & Developing Countries ODP 8 20302010 2015 20202004 Previous Limit New Limit Possible Service Tail 0.5% 0 25 10 35 65 100 Developed Countries 20302010 2015 20402025 Year 2020 0 32.5 65 100 90Percent(%)ofallallowedcap Previous cap was to be set for 2015 consumption level Possible Service Tail 2.5% Developing Countries New cap set for average 2008-2010 consumption levels
  9. 9. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011  What are the possible future steps?  Rapid economic growth in China, the Middle East, and India has resulted in exponential use of refrigerants  Very limited use of CFCs but not HCFC  Proposed idea to utilize Montreal Protocol structure to phase down HFCs  Developing nations are demanding options to meet accelerated 2015 HCFC phase out requirement 9 What’s Next? ODP Next
  10. 10. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 201110 The Green House Gases (GHG) Total gas emissions – assumes all gases vented to atmosphere (100% leakage) 1% PFCs, SF6, HFC-23 2% HFCs 5% Nitrous Oxide 84% CO2 8% Methane Kyoto Protocol  International Climate Change Treaty  Signed in 1997 by 187 countries  United States of American is not currently a signatory  Significant reduction commitments without a defined verification mechanism  Funding for developing nations to conform  Technology transfer requirements  Carbon Dioxide from automotive and power plant emissions is the leading greenhouse gas  HFCs are only 2% of total GHG production but seen as the most easily addressed GWP
  11. 11. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 GWP Defining Direct and Indirect Effects 11 Direct
  12. 12. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 GWP Defining Direct and Indirect Effects Direct 12 Indirect
  13. 13. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 201113 IndirectDirect Lifetime CO2 Equivalence GWP Focusing Only on GWP Can Result in the Wrong Choices for the Environment
  14. 14. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 201114 Indirect Effect Direct Effect Lifetime CO2 Equivalence 2% 98% GWP Focusing Only on GWP Can Result in the Wrong Choices for the Environment
  15. 15. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 Table of Contents 15  Review the environmental impact of refrigerants  Discuss types of global refrigerant regulation  Identify the global indicators for the future of refrigerants  Provide examples of likely alternatives for various sectors Legislation and Future of Refrigerants in Saudi Arabia
  16. 16. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 201116 Current Legislative and Regulative Approaches to Limiting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Comprehensive Approach Direct Indirect Use Restrictions Containment Regulations Efficiency Standards Market Mechanisms
  17. 17. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 The Comprehensive Approach: Total Environmental Warming Impact 17 Safety Considerations Cost Considerations Direct Indirect Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) Indirect Effects Direct Effects
  18. 18. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 The Critical Role of Technology in Minimizing the Environmental Impact 18 ABCDEFGHIJK Direct Indirect Over the last 25 years: - Average energy efficiency has improved over 35% - Chiller leak rate has decreased well below 2%
  19. 19. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 201119 Minimizing the total Climatic Impact requires a Comprehensive Approach to Refrigerant Choice How do we minimize total carbon emissions? Containment: Refrigerant Leak Detection, Reclaim rates, destruction or reuse Maintenance Practices over Equipment Life Optimum Operation at Actual Load Conditions Direct GWP Effects Indirect GWP Effects Cycle Efficiency and Technology Choice
  20. 20. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 Table of Contents 20  Review the environmental impact of refrigerants  Discuss types of global refrigerant regulation  Identify the global indicators for the future of refrigerants  Provide examples of likely alternatives for various sectors Legislation and Future of Refrigerants in Saudi Arabia
  21. 21. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 Navigating the future of refrigerants can seem daunting. Several indicators can help show us the way: 21 HVAC&R refrigerants are useful gases not a waste by-product Lifetime energy efficiency has a substantial impact Different types of equipment have different refrigerant requirements Safety codes pace industry and government decisions Equipment innovation & refrigerant adaptation is continuous
  22. 22. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 Global Indicators of Refrigerant Direction 22  HVAC&R Refrigerants are considered useful gases  Contained in closed-loop systems  Essential for energy efficiency  A cap and trade scenario with all GHGs would create un-intended price and availability problems  Only a Phase-down has been proposed because alternatives do not exist for all applications In domestic and International legislation HFCs are being considered separately from other green house gases and only the context of a phase-down approach.
  23. 23. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 Separating HFCs from the larger basket of gases and a phase- down approach 23 What’s Johnson Controls Doing: We are actively engaged in shaping international and domestic regulation.Phase Down
  24. 24. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 Global Indicators of Refrigerant Direction 24  Lifetime energy efficiency can have a greater impact than GWP  Refrigerant Evaluation must employ at comprehensive TEWI approach Over 90% of the CO2 emissions are from the power generated to run the equipmentLow GWP refrigerant alternatives must result in HVAC&R equipment that has energy efficiency levels equal to or better than our current equipment Direct Emissions Power Generation
  25. 25. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 A Low GWP Solution Must Maintain High Energy Efficiency 25 Over 90% of the CO2 emissions are from the power generated to run the equipment What’s Johnson Controls doing: Considering our customer’s needs, we advocate for regulation that employees a comprehensive approach. We work with refrigerant manufactures to develop next generation, energy efficient alternatives. Efficiency
  26. 26. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 Global Indicators of Refrigerant Direction  Different types of equipment have different refrigerant requirements based on:  Maintenance practices  Equipment life  Recovery / End of Life  95% of global HFC use is currently between 700 and 4000 GWP  TEAP proposed to classify GWPs by considering “Use Patterns” GWP Classification GWP >30 Ultra-low-GWP GWP > 100 Very low-GWP GWP > 300 Low-GWP GWP > 1000 Moderate-GWP GWP > 3000 High-GWP GWP > 10,000 Very High GWP GWP > 10,000 Ultra-High GWP  Application  Charge size  Leak rate Low and High GWP are relative terms, applications need to be treated differently 26
  27. 27. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 What is Considered Low GWP will Depend on the Application 27 What’s Johnson Controls doing: We are educating regulators that the acceptable level of GWP for a given application is dependant on many factors. GWP limits vary
  28. 28. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 Global Indicators of Refrigerant Direction 28  Safety codes pace industry and government decisions  Safety codes will be developed based on application type  Time will be required to update the safety codes  There will be additional costs to apply the safety codes  For example: Recent EPA ruling allows propane and isobutane in residential refrigerators and freezers  Maximum charge amount  Specific applications  Prescribed safety code compliance Adapting to some solutions will take time, money, and cooperation between the industry and government
  29. 29. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 Safety Codes will Pace Adaption of New Refrigerant Solutions 29 What’s Johnson Controls doing: We are taking a leading role with government regulators and industry organization to set effective safety standards that look out for the well being of our customers in a practical manner. Safety
  30. 30. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 Global Indicators of Refrigerant Direction 30  Equipment innovation and refrigerant adaptation is continuous  Direct refrigerant replacement will only be a temporary solution  Market needs will change, equipment designs will change, and refrigerants will change  For example: “near zero” building designs require more efficient heat- recovery and heat pump designs  The efficiency equation also includes technologies like variable speed drives, permanent magnet motors, controls, etc. - not just refrigerant There is no single long-term solution for every application. HVAC&R equipment will continue to evolve to meet more stringent energy efficiency demands.
  31. 31. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 Refrigerant Solutions will Continue to Evolve 31 What’s Johnson Controls doing: At Johnson Controls we are uniquely positioned to provide HVAC&R solutions for the next generation of high performance buildings Evolve
  32. 32. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 Solutions that Meet our Core Values: The Challenge GWP limits vary Safety Evolve Efficiency Phase Down 32
  33. 33. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 Table of Contents 33  Review the environmental impact of refrigerants  Discuss types of global refrigerant regulation  Identify the global indicators for the future of refrigerants  Provide examples of likely alternatives for various sectors Legislation and Future of Refrigerants in Saudi Arabia
  34. 34. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 201134 Generation of Refrigerants 1850-1930’s NH3, CO2, Hydrocarbons, Ammonia 1930-1990’s CFC’s, HCFC’s 1990-2010’s HFC’s 2010’s – beyond Natural Refrigerants 2010’s – beyond Low GWP HFCs - Produced cooling - but had toxicity, flammability - and poor efficiency - Highly efficient - Safe - Non-flammable - but damaging to the ozone layer - and very high GWP - Highly efficient - Safe - Non-flammable, - Zero ozone depletion - but higher GWP Must be: - Safe - Zero ODP - High Efficiency - Low GWP
  35. 35. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 (NH3, CO2, Hydrocarbons, etc.) Consistent properties and characteristics: • Flammability • Toxicity • High Working Pressure • Low Efficiency Engineer solutions have improved Primarily Applications: Refrigeration and mobile AC HFO-1234yf: • Leading candidate to replace R-134a in mobile applications • Low GWP (4), no Toxicity, slightly flammable • Possible applications: stationary HVAC equipment, will require significant engineering and safety code changes HFO-1234ze: • Ideal application: Foam Blowing, not HVAC HFO/HFC/? Blends: • Better Performance at the cost of higher GWP Significant technical and legislative challenges Natural Refrigerants Next Generation Zero ODP/Low GWP Refrigerants Low GWP Man-Made Refrigerants 35
  36. 36. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 201136 What will the future look like?
  37. 37. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 Practical use is dependant on:  Charge Amount  Relative Level of Flammability  Location of Equipment  Cost of required safety measures HFO 1234yf Propane/Isobutane R-32? When do flammable refrigerants make sense? 37
  38. 38. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 Natural Refrigerants remain excellent solutions in some very specific applications:  Ammonia for refrigeration  C02 cascaded systems for supermarket refrigerators/freezers Energy efficiency of resulting systems must remain at HFC levels or better. System cost and application cost can be a barrier to adoption. Li-Br AbsorptionCO2 When do natural refrigerants make sense? Ammonia 38
  39. 39. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 Because of the requirements of safety, efficiency and cost, chemical refrigerants must remain an option:  HFOs  HFCs  Blends of HFOs & HFCs Equipment Size and application will dictate types used: Most economical solution when higher GWPs can be tolerated When do HFOs and HFCs refrigerants make sense? 39
  40. 40. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 201140 What to do today? R-134a R-400 Series R-123 • Efficient, safe, inexpensive • Will continue to be an option • Easily Available • Only non-flammable alternatives to R-22 currently on the market • Will be available in service quantities for equipment sold today • Will be phased-out • Decision to continue to manufacture is dependant on demand from other sectors .
  41. 41. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 Johnson Controls is experienced in finding you solutions in an uncertain world 1989- First to offer HFC and HCFC options Continue to invest in technology because efficiency is not dependant on refrigerant choice alone 2004-Discontinued R-123 Chiller because of concerns about its availability over the expected life of the chiller Heavily engaged in the development of future of refrigerants and an advocate for responsible regulation Johnson Controls will continue to provide the broadest product offerings including natural refrigerants, hydrocarbons, and HFC solutions that meet the needs of our customers 41 Past Present Future
  42. 42. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 2011 Table of Contents 42  Review the environmental impact of refrigerants  Discuss types of global refrigerant regulation  Identify the global indicators for the future of refrigerants  Provide examples of likely alternatives for various sectors Legislation and Future of Refrigerants in Saudi Arabia
  43. 43. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 201143 Saudi Arabia : The power horse of Middle East  Largest Economy in the Middle East and 19th Largest in the World  Among the top 20 Biggest Consumers of Electricity in the World.  8% Annual Growth in Electricity Demand each year in the last decade 70 percent of electricity consumption in Saudi Arabia goes into air conditioning Around 1165 metric tons of HCFCs imported in 2011 for refrigeration.
  44. 44. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 201144 Legislation and Future of Refrigerants in Saudi Arabia  Ban on importing of refrigeration equipment / appliances operating on R-22 and R123 effective 31 December 2014 by Saudi Meteorology Department.  Around 35% reduction in HCFC Consumption required to meet the minimum requirements of Montreal Protocol till 2020. Manufacturers and Importers advised to move to R-134a, R-410a and R-404 Local Manufacturers to follow International trends in adoption of refrigerants  Johnson Controls will continue to provide product offerings including natural refrigerants, hydrocarbons, and HFC solutions in accordance with local legislation.
  45. 45. © Johnson Controls, Inc. 201145 Questions?

×