Barriers to the use of low GWP Refrigeratnts in Developing Countries

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Barriers to the use of low GWP Refrigeratnts in Developing Countries

  1. 1. Barriers to the use of low-GWP Refrigerants in Developing Countries Daniel Colbourne [email_address] Consultant for GIZ Proklima, http:// www.gtz.de/proklima PROKLIMA
  2. 2. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Introduction <ul><li>Summarise the findings of the recent UNEP report </li></ul><ul><li>Summarise some projects undertaken by GIZ Proklima that compliment the findings </li></ul>
  3. 3. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Introduction <ul><li>The “default” replacement for R22 is HFCs </li></ul><ul><li>Decision 60/44, ExCom recommends that climate (GWP, energy) be considered when choosing alternatives to HCFCs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If R22 is replaced with HFCs, the “average” GWP from the mix is around 3,000 (compared to 1,800 for R22) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With ~10% annual growth of HCFC use in Article 5 countries, this could result in significant increase in greenhouse gas emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For 2009, emissions approx. 400 m tCO2-eq  670 m tCO2-eq if HFC used  1,300 m tCO2-eq in 2020 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One option to help avoid such emissions is through use of alternative refrigerants with low-GWP </li></ul>
  4. 4. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Introduction <ul><li>Whilst low-GWP is attractive, current use is limited </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As part of the “JumpStart” project, UNEP (in cooperation with the EC), initiated a study to look at barriers to the up-take of certain refrigerants in Article 5 countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specifically, low-GWP refrigerants as replacements to R22 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intended to help accelerate HCFC phase-out </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus is on Article 5 countries (although same barriers may also apply in non-Article 5) </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily consider low-GWP refrigerants in new equipment </li></ul>
  5. 5. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Refrigerants to consider <ul><li>Those under consideration, and their main technical issues </li></ul><ul><li>R-717 (ammonia) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher toxicity, low flammability, cannot use copper systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbons – R-290 (propane), R-1270 (propylene) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High flammability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>R-744 (carbon dioxide) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High working pressures, complications at higher ambient temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unsaturated HFCs – R1234yf, R1243zf, etc </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very new, likely rather costly, not commercialised yet </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Study approach <ul><li>Get broad views of individuals involved in refrigeration and air conditioning field in Article 5 countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three main stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic analysis/desk study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop survey form  workshops, email, internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collate responses, produce assessment report </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questionnaires fundamentally based on guiding questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ If I wanted to have a low-GWP system tomorrow, what is stopping me?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ If I am determined to use a low-GWP refrigerant, what would need to be done?” </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Desk study <ul><li>Initially identified several types of barriers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical (refrigeration engineering) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical (safety engineering) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply and availability (materials, equipment, components, fluids) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial (investment, profit, financial incentives) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market (customer, consumer, competing products) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information resources (know-how, guidance, technical data) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulatory and quasi-regulatory (legislation, standards) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological and sociological aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Useful to identify where these may occur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within the process enterprises may use to adopt as new refrigerant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amongst the stakeholders involved with application of refrigerants </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Desk study <ul><li>Identify where barriers exist in process within enterprises </li></ul>
  9. 9. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Desk study <ul><li>Identify stakeholders within the process that can affect use </li></ul>
  10. 10. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Survey <ul><li>Two survey forms were developed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First, a detailed questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second, an internet survey </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Response to survey <ul><li>Survey had fairly wide distribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several hundred directly emailed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet survey “mail-shot” to 5,500 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Received, approximately </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30 completed/partially completed detailed questionnaires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>81 internet survey forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal remarks/statements during workshops/meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In total, received 343 “statements” about barriers </li></ul><ul><li>[It is also recognised that filling in the survey was hard work!] </li></ul>
  12. 12. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Response to survey <ul><li>Distribution of statements by 41 countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central and South America, East Europe and Central Asia dominant respondents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would have liked more from Africa, Middle East, India and China </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Response to survey <ul><li>Distribution of statements by stakeholder </li></ul>
  14. 14. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Response to survey <ul><li>Distribution of statements according to refrigerant type </li></ul><ul><li>Identified barriers are neither “easy” or “impossible” to resolve </li></ul>“ All”
  15. 15. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Statements about barriers <ul><li>From the entire set of responses, 32 specific barriers were identified </li></ul><ul><li>Many anticipated points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ no standards”, “no demand”, “fear of safety”, “no systems currently in use”, “peer group pressure”, “too much hassle”, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many are “chicken-and-egg” situations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As to be expected </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The significance or relevance of each varies according to considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Country, region, size and type of equipment, type of refrigerant, perception of person making the statement, etc </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Summary of main barriers <ul><li>The most significant barriers are considered to be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are no systems using LGA refrigerants available to buy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is nothing to incentivise enterprises to invest in LGA technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No one is willing to invest in production of systems, parts, components and refrigerant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultants developing HPMPs are not recommending LGA refrigerants for projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The rules for using LGA refrigerants are too restrictive to allow their use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a general fear of the safety risks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many of the barriers are “chicken-and-egg” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlights the importance of developing interventions to help break the cycle </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants General recommendations <ul><li>Based on responses, identified set of nine fields where opportunities lie for encouraging uptake of low-GWP alternatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness-raising, training, guidance, technical development, market development, financial incentives, regulatory infrastructure, Montreal Protocol substantive issues, ENGOs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For each, extracted general recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Important to note that all of the following interventions must be applied together – not in isolation </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE: The output is consolidation of views of the respondents and not of author, UNEP or European Commission </li></ul>
  18. 18. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants General recommendations <ul><li>Awareness-raising </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight the importance of the (climate) problem and the possibilities of (low-GWP) options available </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical to adopt dedicated training – specific to each individual low-GWP alternative and specific to application/end use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Guidance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High quality guidance of what low-GWP alternative, when, where and how; also targeted to specific stakeholder groups </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants General recommendations <ul><li>Technical development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving efficiency of R744 AC systems for warm climates, reducing refrigerant charge sizes for systems using flammables, safety control mechanisms for system using flammables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Market development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulate industry involvement with low-GWP alternatives; encourage local manufacturing, develop product directories, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Financial incentives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsidies for using low-GWP, tax incentives for low-GWP / tax disincentives for high-GWP </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants General recommendations <ul><li>Regulatory infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impose better control of industry to work safely, modify regulations that inhibit low-GWP alternatives, ensure safety standards are constructive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Montreal Protocol substantive issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision-making bodies to introduce more incentives, HPMP consultants should be better assisted to embrace low-GWP alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ENGOs to more actively lobby on the high/low-GWP issue </li></ul>
  21. 21. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants GIZ Proklima activities to help overcome barriers <ul><li>Example: Demonstration project of production of climate-friendly air conditioners (China) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project introduces HCs to the production of room air-conditioning systems using HCs at Gree Electric Appliances Inc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion to HC will reduce emissions from currently used ozone- and climate-damaging HCFCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables manufacturer to develop experience of handling production and design of ACs using HCs </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants GIZ Proklima activities to help overcome barriers <ul><li>Example: Conversion of large air-conditioning systems in public buildings (Mauritius) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replacing old, inefficient central air-conditioning systems in public buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With new (R717) ammonia chillers in country with tropical climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project avoids emissions of high-GWP, ODS refrigerants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meets all safety requirements of European safety standard </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants GIZ Proklima activities to help overcome barriers <ul><li>Example: Conversion of supermarket systems (South Africa) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replacing conventional centralised supermarket systems, Pick and Pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With R744 (carbon dioxide) and R744/R717systems in country with hot climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project avoids emissions of high-GWP, ODS refrigerants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meets all safety requirements of European safety standard </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants GIZ Proklima activities to help overcome barriers <ul><li>Example: Demonstration project of production of climate-friendly commercial refrigeration (Swaziland) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project introduces the production of stand-alone commercial refrigeration units HCs at Palfridge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion to HC will reduce emissions from previously used ozone- and climate-damaging refrigerants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product range redesigned to meet international safety standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 40% improvement in energy use </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Example: action plan in China to implement flammable refrigerants in air conditioning sector </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of plan in collaboration with industry for widespread use of low-GWP flammable refrigerants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes development activities, training, standards and codes of practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps smooth the transition from ODS, high-GWP to climate-friendly options </li></ul></ul>Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants GIZ Proklima activities to help overcome barriers
  26. 26. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants GIZ Proklima activities to help overcome barriers <ul><li>Example: Comprehensive guidance on low-GWP technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Translated/translating into many languages </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Example: training on the use of HCs in southern Africa region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thorough, dedicated training-the-trainer to use HCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps smooth the transition from ODS, high-GWP to climate-friendly options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases confidence of technicians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety information does not get “lost” </li></ul></ul>Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants GIZ Proklima activities to help overcome barriers
  28. 28. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants GIZ Proklima activities to help overcome barriers <ul><li>Example: Pilot installation of HC air conditioners (Maldives) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project introduces a large number of HC air conditioners to the market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Builds acceptance and confidence of technicians, suppliers, end users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enthuses market to new technology options </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Barriers to low-GWP refrigerants Final remarks <ul><li>Many of the barriers are interlinked </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The present situation is how it is, because that’s the way it is… the “easiest” state of affairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, strategic interventions are necessary to transform situation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However, enterprises and projects that have already implemented low-GWP alternatives found that many of the barriers were less difficult than anticipated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In many cases, requires a lot of determination and effort </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lastly, THANK YOU to all those that provided input! </li></ul><ul><li>[Full report available on UNEP OzonAction internet site] </li></ul>
  30. 30. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION …and please visit the GIZ Proklima booth! PROKLIMA

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