T.  Blankenship,  R.  Golembiewski,  and  B.  McDonald
Oregon  State  University
INTRODUCTION
“Species  effect  on  water  use  of  urban  
landscapes  can  be  a  very  important  variable,  
but  its  ...
1BASED ON THE MOST WIDELY USED CULTIVARS OF EACH SPECIES
Cool  Season
Turfgrass  Species1
Mean  Summer  ET  rate
mm/day
Re...
INTRODUCTION
Limited  information  
regarding  newly  
established  sites
Current  and  pending  laws  
and  regulations
T...
OBJECTIVES
Assess  water  use  of  
newly  established  cool-­‐
season  turfgrass  species  
in  a  field  setting
Evaluat...
MATERIALS &  METHODS
Experimental  Design
Silty  clay  loam
Strip-­‐split  plot  design
3  replications
10  turfgrass  spe...
MATERIALS &  METHODS
Treatments:  
Plots  maintained  at  a  
16  mm  and  51  mm  
height  of  cut  were  
mowed  three  ...
Low  Mow
High  Nitrogen
High  Mow
High  Nitrogen
Low  Mow
Low  Nitrogen
High  Mow
LowNitrogen
3.6  m
3.6  m
0.9  m
0.9  m ...
MATERIALS &  METHODS
Data  Collection:
Water  use  correlated  with  
rating  scale  based  on  
volumetric  water  conten...
2009  RESULTS
Annual
Bluegrass
Strong
CRF
Slender
CRF
Chewings
Fescue
Colonial
Bentgrass
Velvet
Bentgrass
Kentucky
Bluegra...
2009  RESULTS
Annual
Bluegrass
Strong
CRF
Slender
CRF
Chewings
Fescue
Colonial
Bentgrass
Velvet
Bentgrass
Kentucky
Bluegra...
2010  RESULTS
Annual
Bluegrass
Strong
CRF
Slender
CRF
Chewings
Fescue
Colonial
Bentgrass
Velvet
Bentgrass
Kentucky
Bluegra...
SUMMARY OF 2009-­‐2010  COMBINED
Annual
Bluegrass
Strong
CRF
Slender
CRF
Chewings
Fescue
Colonial
Bentgrass
Velvet
Bentgra...
1BASED ON THE MOST WIDELY USED CULTIVARS OF EACH SPECIES
Cool  Season Turfgrass  
Species1
Reported  Mean  
Summer  ET Rat...
SUMMARY
3  categories  of  juvenile  cool  season  turfgrass  water  use:
Lower  Water  Use
Tall  Fescue
Intermediate  Wat...
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CSSA 2010 Presentation

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Tod Blankenship's 2010 CSSA presentation.

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CSSA 2010 Presentation

  1. 1. T.  Blankenship,  R.  Golembiewski,  and  B.  McDonald Oregon  State  University
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION “Species  effect  on  water  use  of  urban   landscapes  can  be  a  very  important  variable,   but  its  impact  will  be  dependent  on  which   species  are  compared  under  what  conditions.     This  is  probably  why  such  contrasting  results   have  been  reported  in  the  literature.”   (Devitt  and  Morris  2008)
  3. 3. 1BASED ON THE MOST WIDELY USED CULTIVARS OF EACH SPECIES Cool  Season Turfgrass  Species1 Mean  Summer  ET  rate mm/day Relative  Ranking Hard  Fescue 7  – 8.5 Medium Chewings  Fescue 7  – 8.5 Red  Fescue 7  – 8.5 Perennial  Ryegrass 6.6  – 11.2 High Tall  Fescue 3.6  – 12.6 Creeping  Bentgrass 5  – 10 Annual  Bluegrass >10 Kentucky  Bluegrass 4  -­‐ >10 Colonial  Bentgrass * Velvet  Bentgrass * REPORTED MEAN RATES OF TURFGRASS EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET)   (KENNA 2006)
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION Limited  information   regarding  newly   established  sites Current  and  pending  laws   and  regulations This  research  unique  in   that  evaluating  nearly  all   cool  season  turfgrass   species  in  a  side  by  side   field  setting  
  5. 5. OBJECTIVES Assess  water  use  of   newly  established  cool-­‐ season  turfgrass  species   in  a  field  setting Evaluate  the  potential  of   new  technology  to   detect  turfgrass  water   stress
  6. 6. MATERIALS &  METHODS Experimental  Design Silty  clay  loam Strip-­‐split  plot  design 3  replications 10  turfgrass  species  as   horizontal  treatments,   two  mowing  heights   (16  mm  and  51  mm)  as   vertical  treatments,   and  two  nitrogen  levels   (49  and  195  kg/ha/yr)   as  subplot  treatments     Species Seeding Rate kg  per  ha   Variety   Kentucky  Bluegrass 146.4Poa  pratensis   Prosperity,  Langara  ,  Touche   Creeping  Bentgrass  (fairway  type)   73.2 Crystal  Blue  Links,  007,  MacKenzieAgrostis  stolonifera   Colonial  Bentgrass 73.2 Alister,  SR7150,  SR7100Agrostis  capillaris   Velvet  Bentgrass 73.2 Greenwich  ,  SR7200,  Vesper  Agrostis  canina   Perennial  Ryegrass 292.8 Silverdollar,  Express  II,  Zoom  Lolium  perenne   Tall  fescue 292.8 Coronado  TDH  ,  SR8650,  Mustang  4Festuca  arundinacea   Slender  Creeping  Red  Fescue 195.1 Seabreeze  GT,  Shoreline  Festuca  rubra   Chewings  Fescue 195.1 Treazure  II,  SR5130,    Windward  Festuca  rubra  ssp.  tryachyphylla   Strong  Creeping  Red  Fescue 195.1 Shademaster  III  (8000),  Garnet  Festuca  tryachyphylla   Annual  Bluegrass Sod   Northwest  Poa  GreensPoa  annua  var.  reptans  
  7. 7. MATERIALS &  METHODS Treatments:   Plots  maintained  at  a   16  mm  and  51  mm   height  of  cut  were   mowed  three  times   and  1  time  per  week   respectively  
  8. 8. Low  Mow High  Nitrogen High  Mow High  Nitrogen Low  Mow Low  Nitrogen High  Mow LowNitrogen 3.6  m 3.6  m 0.9  m 0.9  m 0.45  m MATERIALS &  METHODS Data  Collection: Plots  assessed  on  overall   functionality  (playability)   and  rated  daily  on  a   numerical  scale  (0-­‐2;   0=no  water  stress,   1=some  water  stress,   2=water  stressed) Once  individual  subplot     rated  a  2,  irrigation   applied  at  a  rate  of  7.6   mm  through  a  hose  end   nozzle  attached  to  a   batch  and  flow  meter
  9. 9. MATERIALS &  METHODS Data  Collection: Water  use  correlated  with   rating  scale  based  on   volumetric  water  content   (VWC)  readings  taken  daily  at   3.8  cm  with  a  TDR  soil  moisture   probe Daily  visual  turf  ratings  taken   with  Underhill  Early  Stress   Detection  Glasses Digital  images  taken  weekly  and   evaluated  using  SigmaScan  
  10. 10. 2009  RESULTS Annual Bluegrass Strong CRF Slender CRF Chewings Fescue Colonial Bentgrass Velvet Bentgrass Kentucky Bluegrass Creeping Bentgrass Perennial Ryegrass Tall Fescue Low Mow 203.2 196.85 184.15 144.78 138.43 106.68 105.41 105.41 96.52 93.98 High Mow 189.23 144.78 132.08 128.27 120.65 105.41 100.33 91.44 87.63 81.28 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 Irrigation  Inputs  (mm) Water  Use  of  Cool  Season  Turfgrass  Species
  11. 11. 2009  RESULTS Annual Bluegrass Strong CRF Slender CRF Chewings Fescue Colonial Bentgrass Velvet Bentgrass Kentucky Bluegrass Creeping Bentgrass Perennial Ryegrass Tall Fescue Low Mow 92.06 89.18 83.43 65.59 62.71 47.76 48.33 47.76 43.73 42.58 High Mow 85.73 65.59 59.84 58.11 47.76 54.66 45.46 41.43 39.70 36.82 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percent  of  Reference  ET Percentage  of    2009  Reference  ET  Applied
  12. 12. 2010  RESULTS Annual Bluegrass Strong CRF Slender CRF Chewings Fescue Colonial Bentgrass Velvet Bentgrass Kentucky Bluegrass Creeping Bentgrass Perennial Ryegrass Tall Fescue Low Mow 96.03 98.29 94.89 95.46 68.18 42.62 50.00 62.50 36.36 31.25 High Mow 86.37 70.46 68.75 74.43 51.14 43.75 49.51 39.21 32.39 26.13 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percent  of  Reference  ET Percentage  of    2010  Reference  ET  Applied
  13. 13. SUMMARY OF 2009-­‐2010  COMBINED Annual Bluegrass Strong CRF Slender CRF Chewings Fescue Colonial Bentgrass Velvet Bentgrass Kentucky Bluegrass Creeping Bentgrass Perennial Ryegrass Tall Fescue Low Mow 94.04 93.74 89.16 80.52 65.45 45.19 49.17 55.13 40.05 36.91 High Mow 86.05 68.02 64.29 66.27 49.45 49.21 47.24 40.32 36.04 31.48 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percent  of  Reference  ET Combined  Difference  in  Percent  Reference  ET
  14. 14. 1BASED ON THE MOST WIDELY USED CULTIVARS OF EACH SPECIES Cool  Season Turfgrass   Species1 Reported  Mean   Summer  ET Rate mm/day Mean  Summer  Two   Year  Study  ET  Rate mm/day Relative  Ranking Hard  Fescue 7  – 8.5 * Medium Chewings  Fescue 7  – 8.5 3.4 Red  Fescue 7  – 8.5 3.5 Perennial  Ryegrass 6.6  – 11.2 2.7 High Tall  Fescue 3.6  – 12.6 2.0 Creeping  Bentgrass 5  – 10 2.7 Annual  Bluegrass >10 4.0 Kentucky  Bluegrass 4  -­‐ >10 2.6 Colonial  Bentgrass * 2.7 Velvet  Bentgrass * 2.7 SUMMARY
  15. 15. SUMMARY 3  categories  of  juvenile  cool  season  turfgrass  water  use: Lower  Water  Use Tall  Fescue Intermediate  Water  Use Perennial  Ryegrass,  Colonial  Bentgrass,  Creeping  Bentgrass,   Velvet  Bentgrass,  Kentucky  Bluegrass Higher  Water  Use Annual  Bluegrass,  Strong  CRF,  Slender  CRF,  Chewings   Fescue, Mowing  height  significantly  influenced  water  use No  differences  observed  between  fertility  treatments

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