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The Evolution of
Populations
Chapter 23
THE HARDY WEINBERG
        THEOREM:
applies for gene pool of non evolving
population:

  very large population size

  no ...
THE HARDY WEINBERG
           THEOREM

  p 2     + 2pq +                  q2      =1
               frequency of    freque...
CAUSES OF
         MICROEVOLUTION


microevolution: occurance of small scale changes
in alle frequencies in a population, ...
CAUSES OF
         MICROEVOLUTION
Genetic Drift: a change in a small population’s allele
              frequencies due to ...
CAUSES OF
           MICROEVOLUTION
        Natural Selection:
individuals with favorable phenotypes
are more successful i...
NATURAL SELECTION




Relative Fitness: Contribution an organism makes to
the gene pool of the next generation relative to...
Directional Selection: Individuals at one extreme are
favored.

Disruptive Selection: Individuals at both extremes are
fav...
Sexual selection may lead to pronounced secondary
differences between the sexes.
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Chapter 23.Key

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Chapter 23.Key

  1. 1. The Evolution of Populations Chapter 23
  2. 2. THE HARDY WEINBERG THEOREM: applies for gene pool of non evolving population: very large population size no migration no net mutations random mating no natural selection
  3. 3. THE HARDY WEINBERG THEOREM p 2 + 2pq + q2 =1 frequency of frequency frequency of RR genotype Rr plus rR of rr where p is frequency of one allele (R) q is frequency of the other allele (r)
  4. 4. CAUSES OF MICROEVOLUTION microevolution: occurance of small scale changes in alle frequencies in a population, over a few generations
  5. 5. CAUSES OF MICROEVOLUTION Genetic Drift: a change in a small population’s allele frequencies due to change ~ bottleneck effect: drastic reduction in population size because of disaster; the survivors makes up new frequencies of alleles b/c they are unlikely represent original gene pool ~ founder effect: when few individuals colonize new area
  6. 6. CAUSES OF MICROEVOLUTION Natural Selection: individuals with favorable phenotypes are more successful in producing offspring -> favorable genotypes are increased, thus causing microevolution Gene flow: migration or transfer of fametes between populations Mutations: changes in nucleotide sequences
  7. 7. NATURAL SELECTION Relative Fitness: Contribution an organism makes to the gene pool of the next generation relative to other members.
  8. 8. Directional Selection: Individuals at one extreme are favored. Disruptive Selection: Individuals at both extremes are favored. Stabilizing Selection: Acts against both extremes and favors extremediates.
  9. 9. Sexual selection may lead to pronounced secondary differences between the sexes.

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