Materials Of Storage

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Lecture for Week 6 of ENGI/HUMA 240: Engineering Design for Art and Artifact Conservation

Lecture for Week 6 of ENGI/HUMA 240: Engineering Design for Art and Artifact Conservation

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Transcript

  • 1. Materials of Storage
    ENGI/HUMA 240
    Matthew Wettergreen, PhD
  • 2. Overview
    Materials – Engineering focus
    Properties of Materials
    Engineering focus
    Conservation & Storage Focus
    Properties of Conservation & Storage Materials
    Desirable properties
    Ideal materials
    Materials to stay away from
  • 3. Engineering Materials
    Engineers are interested in the material properties of objects, how they interact with the environment and how they degrade
    Full characterization of these materials is required because they may be subjected to any number of conditions
    Heat
    Humidity
    Chemical environments
  • 4. Use of Engineering Materials
    No one material will have all the desired properties
    Most materials will have a mix of these properties
    As engineers we can create a matrix of characteristics
    A balancing act is required between what you have and what you need
  • 5. Properties of Materials - Engineering
    When we are researching materials to use for a design project, what are some of the properties that we wish to look at?
    Structure
    Characterization
    Processing possibilities
    Properties
    Performance
  • 6. Standard Engineering Materials Properties
    Electrical properties
    Charge
    Chemical properties
    pH
    Physical or architectural properties
    Open celled vs. close celled
    Transparency
    Mechanical properties
    Strength / Stiffness
    Ductility
  • 7. Conservation Material Properties
    In the world of conservation our materials need not be characterized as fully
    Conservators are not interested in:
    Crystallinity
    Atomic structure
    Thermal expansion
    Density (quantitative)
    Conservators are more interested in more general qualities:
    Physical properties
    Mechanical properties
    Aesthetic properties
  • 8. Materials for Conservation
    Conservators are mainly concerned with the following questions:
    Will the material physically protect the object?
    Will the material affect the object chemically?
    Will the material shield the object?
  • 9. Desirable Properties
    Low weight
    Does not interact with surface of artwork
    Shields against light
    Non-flammable
    Water resistant
    Does not degrade
    Does not support organic growth
    Cushions against shock/vibration
  • 10. The question of pH
    Storage materials are in in direct contact with art objects
    pH neutral is required
    Low pH can discolor objects
    Low pH can accelerate degradation
    Low pH can support organic growth
  • 11. Closed Cell vs. Open Cell
    Closed Cell
    Open Cell
    Advantages
    Higher cushioning
    Disadvantages
    Closed cells may contain undesirable chemicals
    Advantages
    All chemicals leached
    High interconnectivity
    High moisture absorption
    Disadvantages
    Structurally weaker
    Lends to breakdown of material
  • 12. Translucent vs. Transparent
    Translucent
    Advantages
    Protects object from light damage
    Disadvantages
    visibility
    Transparent
    Advantages
    Does not obscure object while in storage
    Disadvantages
    Does not protect object from light damage
  • 13. Types of Materials for Conservation
    Wraps
    Tyvek
    Glassine
    Bubble wrap
    Foams
    Ethafoam
    Volara
    Natural Materials
    Cloth
    Paper
    Rigid Materials
    Wood
  • 14. A Note on Desirable Polymers
    Polyethylene
    Many molecular strengths
    High molecular weight, low, ultra-high
    Several forms
    Sheets, rolls, films
    Very desirable properties
    Smooth, inert, translucent, chemically resistant
  • 15. A Note on Undesirable Polymers
    Polystyrene
    Several forms
    Sheets, rolls, foams
    Foams created with blowing agents
    Residuals may offgass into storage
    Increase the flammability of the styrofoam
    Trace chemicals exist which can damage artwork
    Very undesirable properties
    Carries charge, offgasses, trace chemicals
  • 16. Foams
  • 17. Ethafoam
    Polyethylene foam
    Uses
    Packaging, gaskets, barriers
    Always inert
    Nontranslucent, gray, black
    pH neutral
    Not clear (gray, black)
    Susceptible to UV degradation
    Recyclable
    High strength,
    impervious to mold, rot, bacteria
    lightweight
  • 18. Volara
    Closed Cell PE
    Uses
    Lining for display cases
    Varying densities
    Nontranslucent, white
    Water retention can promote organic growth
    Recyclable
    Nonabrasive, chemical resistance,
    Water absorption qualities
    Advantages
    Disadvantages
  • 19. Wraps
  • 20. Tyvek Soft structure 1443-R
    HDPE
    Uses
    Lining cavities on foam pads
    Dust cover
    Always inert (UV, oxi)
    Translucent, white
    Recyclable
    pH neutral
    Allows transmission of moisture
    Degraded by Freon, pine oil, toluene
    Lightweight, non-abrasive
    Tear resistant
    Water resistant but still vapor permeable as it "breathes"
    Advantages
    Disadvantages
  • 21. Tyvek 1025 - Hard Structure
    HDPE
    Uses
    Wrapping
    support for transport/storage
    Always inert (UV, oxi)
    Translucent, white
    pH neutral
    Allows transmission of moisture
    Not a good barrier to plywood off-gassing
    Mold/mildew resistant
    Lint-free, acid-free
    Allows transmission of moisture
    Recyclable
    Advantages
    Disadvantages
  • 22. Bubble Wrap
    Polyethylene, PVC
    Uses
    Large bubble for sculptures and packing crates
    Antistatic pink double bubble for framed works
    Cushioning, good for corners and general padding use
    Translucent
    Not for use in direct contact with object
    Bubbles deflate over time
    Bubbles leave pattern on object
    Recyclable
    flexible, can be double layered, inexpensive
    tear resistant
  • 23. Organic
  • 24. Cotton
    Natural material
    Uses
    Liner for foam padding
    Cradling delicate surfaces
    Multiple forms
    Straps, sheets, felt
    Multiple strengths
    Non-aligned, aligned fibers
    Translucent, natural color
    Natural materials can support organic growth
    Absorbs liquids and humidity
    Natural materials
    Soft surface will not cut other objects
  • 25. Glassine
    Paper product
    Uses
    interleaving prints, photographs, drawings
    wrapping and packaging
    Translucent, off-white
    pH neutral
    Creases easily
    Unstable
    Not always lignin free
    Tears easily
    Acid free
    Recyclable
    Inexpensive
    Advantages
    Disadvantages
  • 26. Acid Free Tissue Paper
    Archival non-buffered acid free tissue
    High alpha cellulose
    pH neutral
    Uses
    interleaving, wrapping, cushioning
    padding for textiles
    Advantages
    Disadvantages
  • 27. New materials
  • 28. Silicone
    Si based polymers
    Largely inert and easily functionalized
    Uses
    Cushioning objects
    Encasing objects
    Translucent and nontranslucent
    pH neutral
    Degrade over time if not crosslinked fully
    Easy to trap particles inside
    Requires technical training to mold
    Inert
    Chemically easily customizable
    Moldable to custom shape
  • 29. Additional Resources
    Packing Art handling and Crating Information Network (PACIN, http://pacin.org)
    Dow Ethafoam (http://www.qualityfoam.com/ethafoam.asp)